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HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


X 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE 

( 7  ^  BY 

CHARLES  NUTT,  A.  B. 


Former  Editor  and  Publisher  of  The  Worcester  Spy; 
Author  of  "The  Puffer  Genealogy";  "History  of  the 
First  Regiment  of  Heavy  Artillery,  Massachusetts  Vol- 
unteers"; "  History  of  the  Crompton  cS:  Knowles  Loom 
Works";  and  various  Biographical  and  Historical  Works 


ILLUSTRATED 


VOLUME  II. 


r\\ 


LEWIS  HISTORICAL  PUBLISHING  COMPANY 

NEW  YORK  CITY 

1919 


THE  NEW  VOKK 
PUBLIC  LIBRARY 

667200  A 

ASTOR,  LENOX  AND 

TILDEN  FOUNDATIONS 

R  1933  L 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


CHAPTER  XXXIII 

Threatened  War  With  France— War  of  1812— Mexican  War— Orr  Riot 

When  war  with  France  was  imminent  in  1?98,  and  the  President  was 
authorized  to  raise  troops  for  the  emergency,  a  company  of  sixty  men 
under  Capt.  Thomas  Chandler,  called  the  Worcester  Volunteer  Cadet 
Infantry,  was  formed.  A  flag  was  made  by  the  ladies  of  the  city  and 
presented  with  much  ceremony  to  the  company.  The  company,  with 
the  Worcester  artillery  company,  joined  the  forces  known  later  as  the 
"Oxford  Army."  Other  Worcester  men  enlisted  in  the  14th  Regiment 
under  Lt.  Col.  Rice  and  went  into  camp.  Except  for  the  encounters  on 
the  sea,  the  war  was  entirely  on  paper,  and  the  soldiers  were  not  in  actual 
service. 

War  of  1812. — A  convention  of  delegates  from  forty-one  towns  was 
held  here,  Aug.  12  and  13,  1812,  to  protest  against  the  continuance  of 
the  war  with  Great  Britain.  Worcester  was  represented  by  Hon.  Ben- 
jamin Heywood,  Hon.  Francis  Blake  and  Elijah  Burbank.  Mr.  Hey- 
wood  presided.  A  committee  was  appointed  to  "consider  and  report 
what  measures  the  Convention  ought  to  adopt,  in  the  present  perilous 
situation  of  our  Country,  to  mitigate  the  calamities  of  the  present  War 
with  Great  Britain,  to  avert  the  further  evils-  with  which  we  are  threat- 
ened, to  accomplish  a  speedy  and  honorable  peace  and  to  arrest  the 
course  of  that  disastrous  policy  which,  if  persisted  in,  cannot  fail  to  ter- 
minate in  the  destruction  of  the  rights  and  liberties  of  the  people." 

The  committee  consisted  of  Andrew  Peters,  Hon.  Francis  Blake, 
Rev.  John  Crane,  Hon.  Solomon  Strong,  Aaron  Tufts,  Benjamin  Adams, 
Gen.  James  Humphrey,  Rev.  Jonathan  Osgood,  Nathaniel  Chandler, 
John  W.  Stiles  and  Col.  Seth  Benister.  The  committee  reported  on  the 
13th,  dealing  at  great  length  with  the  causes  of  the  war  and  its  continu- 
ance. The  report  as  adopted  urged  the  shortening  of  the  present  most 
impolitic  and  destructive  war,  exhorting  the  friends  of  peace  for  that 
purpose  to  withdraw  from  the  government  all  voluntary  aid,  and  to  ren- 
der no  other  assistance  than  is  required  of  them  by  the  laws  and  the 
Constitution.  "We  do  not,  like  some  men,  now  in  high  authority,  advise 
our  constituents  to  refuse  payment  of  them  (double  or  direct  taxes)  and 
to  rise  in  opposition  to  the  authority  by  which  they  are  imposed.  But 
if  our  rulers,  afraid  to  hazard  their  popularity  by  the  imposition  of  taxes, 
request  of  the  citizens  to  enable  them  to  prosecute  this  unrighteous  war 
by  loaning  money  to  replenishing  the  Treasury,  we  entreat  them,  as 
they  value  the  Peace  and  welfare  of  their  Country,  to  remember  that  we 
have  as  yet  no  French  emperor  among  us  to  force  a  loan  at  the  point  of 
W.-I-37. 


578 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


the  bayonet  and  to  refuse  the  smallest  contribution  for  this  unwarranta- 
ble purpose."  The  resolution  represented  the  sentiments  of  the  majority 
of  the  people  of  the  town  and  State. 

There  passed  through  this  town  Aug.  20,  1812,  a  detachment  of  400 
recruits  from  Forts  Independence  and  Warren,  Boston,  on  their  way  to 
join  the  army  at  Albany.  It  was  composed  of  infantry  and  thirty  pieces 
of  artillery,  with  caissons,  traveling  forges,  tent  equipage  and  baggage 
wagons,  the  whole  drawn  by  190  horses.  Just  after  morning  service 
they  encamped  on  the  Common  near  the  Old  South  Church. 

Early  in  the  w^ar,  recruiting  officers  were  stationed  here,  and  some 
of  the  citizens  entered  the  regular  army  and  navy.  The  records  at 
Washington  are  not  open  to  inspection  and,  if  they  were,  it  would  be 
practically  impossible  to  make  a  list  of  the  Worcester  men  enlisting  here 
or  elsewhere  in  this  war.  The  town  offered  a  bounty  of  ten  dollars  to 
each  man  enlisting,  voted  Nov.  9,  1812. 

The  Worcester  jail  became  historic  by  quartering  several  paroled 
British  officers  in  the  summer  of  1813.  Some  American  prisoners  who 
were  born  on  British  soil  but  had  come  to  this  country  and  had  been  nat- 
uralized before  the  war,  were  accused  of  treason  and  sent  to  England  for 
trial.  To  protect  them,  the  American  government  ordered  an  equal 
number  of  British  prisoners  into  confinement  to  endure  the  same  fate 
that  should  befall  the  Americans  in  England.  England  placed  two 
American  officers  in  prison  for  every  British  soldier  confined  here,  to  suf- 
fer death  if  the  British  were  executed.  Ten  of  the  British  wlio  resided 
here  were  committed  to  the  Worcester  jail.  They  were:  Lt.  Col. 
William  Grant,  of  the  Beauharnais  militia;  Maj.  Charles  Villette,  Capt. 
Francis  Decenta.  Lt.  David  Duvall,  Lt.  Albert  Manuel,  of  the  Water- 
ville  regiment;  Lt.  William  A.  Steel,  adjutant;  Lt.  Joseph  I*",  (ireen. 
commissary,  89th  Regt. ;  Lt.  Arthur  Carter,  of  the  Royal  Artillery  ;  Lt. 
Charles  Morris,  of  the  Halifax  Volunteers.  Nine  of  these  men  escaped 
January  12,  overpowering  the  attendant  who  had  entered  the  room  in 
which  they  lived,  about  ten  o'clock  at  night,  but  he  was  tied  so  liastily 
that  he  freed  himself  in  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  and  gave  the  alarm.  Bells 
were  rung,  cannon  fired,  and  the  whole  town  turned  out  to  search  for  the 
refugees.  Houses  were  searched  without  warrants.  At  two  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  one  of  the  men  was  captured  at  Holden;  four  more  in  the 
evening  at  Barre.  The  other  four  eluded  their  ])ursuers  and  rin:d]y 
reached  Quebec.  Afterward  the  jirisoners  were  removed  from  the  jail 
and  soon  released  again  on  parole,  the  controversy  of  the  naturalized 
prisoners  l)eing  at  an  encl,  the  sense  of  justice  in  England  lacing  too 
strong  to  permit  their  conviction  of  treason  and  ])unishment  by  (lerit]i. 

In  the  summer  of  1814.  two  Worcester  com])anies  served  in  the  forts 
defending  Boston.  Their  rosters  are  given  at  the  end  of  this  ciinpter 
The  Worcester  Light  Infantry  under  Capt.  Lincoln  and  the  Worcester 
Artillery  under  Capt.  Samuel  Graves  were  called  out  by  Gov.  Strong. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  579 

Sept.  6,  1814,  marched  on  Sunday,  Sept.  14,  and  were  stationed  at  South 
Boston,  where  they  served  to  the  end  of  October.  On  the  Sunday  fol- 
lowing their  return,  both  companies  attended  divine  service  here  in 
uniform. 

During  the  war  the  town  voted  to  procure  camp  equipage  for  the 
militia;  to  provide  for  the  famiHes  of  soldiers  when  assistance  was 
needed ;  and  to  furnish  arms  and  equipments  to  soldiers  who  lacked  the 
means  to  buy  them  for  themselves.  The  ratification  of  the  treaty  of  peace 
was  celebrated  here  with  much  festivity  and  rejoicing.  [Ref. :  See 
town  records  ;    Lincoln's  Hist.,  p.  135.     State  records.  | 

Roster  of  Capt.  J.  W.  Lincoln's  company  in  Lieut.  Col.  Samuel 
Towne's  regt. ;  Sept.  11  to  Oct.  30,  1814;  raised  at  Worcester  and  vicin- 
ity. Capt.  John  W.  Lincoln,  Lt.  Sewall  Hamilton,  Ensign  John  Coo- 
lidge,  Sergt.  Levi  Wellington,  Sergt.  Luther  Johnson,  Sergt.  Edward  D. 
Bangs,  Sergt.  Samuel  Green,  Corp.  Jeremiah  Healy,  Corp.  Lincoln  Fen- 
ring,  Corp.  Charles  Bridge,  Corp.  James  Thompson,  Musician  Jason 
Mann,  Musician  Oliver  Cajer,  Musician  Rufus  Paine,  William  T.  Alex- 
ander, Phinehas  Ball,  Abijah  Butler,  Dexter  Carle,  Aaron  Curtis,  Joseph 
Deland,  Joseph  Drury,  Jason  Duncan,  Joseph  Fenno,  Asa  Flagg,  Eleazer 
Fletcher,  Gardner  Johnson,  Arnold  Mann,  Wales  Paine,  Jonah  Perry, 
Luke  Perry,  Peter  Rice,  Timothy  R.  Rice,  Austin  R.  Putnam,  Levi  Smith, 
Samuel  Stowell,  William  Tracy,  Isaac  Tucker,  Walter  Tufts,  Charles 
W.  Warren,  Daniel  Webb,  William  D.  Wheeler,  Benjamin  White,  Na- 
hum  Wilder,  Archibald  Witt. 

Roster  of  Capt.  Samuel  Graves's  co.  of  artillery,  Lt.  Col.  W.  Ed- 
wards's regt.;  Sept.  8  to  Nov.  5,  1814;  raised  at  Worcester;  service  at 
Boston.  Capt.  Samuel  Graves;  Lt.  Simon  Hastings,  Lt.  Joshua  Hale; 
Sergt.  Abel  Flagg,  Sergt.  William  Eaton ;  Sergt.  Andrew  Slater,  Sergt. 
Joshua  Gates,  Corp.  Ebenezer  Hastings,  Corp.  Moses  Clements,  Corp. 
Joel  Gleason,  Corp.  Charles  Putnam;  Musician  Sew-all  Goodridge,  Mu- 
sician Benjamin  Pierce;  Musician  Caleb  P.  Stock,  Musician  Edward 
Curtis. 

Mexican  War. — Worcester,  in  common  with  the  rest  of  New  Eng- 
land, was  opposed  to  the  war  with  Mexico,  and  took  no  part  in  it,  except 
for  the  service  of  a  few  men.  The  Light  Infantry  offered  its  services,  but 
was  not  needed. 

Captain  George  Lincoln,  son  of  Governor  Levi,  was  in  the  army  and 
met  his  death  in  action  at  the  battle  of  Buena  Vista.  He  was  shot  in  the 
back  of  the  head  "when  facing  a  regiment,  riding  in  front,  and  encourag- 
ing them  on  at  a  critical  moment  when  they  were  faltering  under  a 
severe  fire.  His  situation  was  a  most  exposed  one,  a  situation  which  it 
would  have  been  mere  foolhardiness  to  take  except  under  the  circum- 
stances of  the  battle,  where  our  troops  were  chiefly  volunteers  and  all 
depended  on  the  officers.  Lincoln  was  acting  as  adjutant-general,  and 
had  no  command  of  the  regiment,  but  seeing  them  falter,  he  rode   in 


58o  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

front  and  cheered  them  on  by  example  as  well  as  by  word."      (Memorial 
by  E.  Cutler). 

A  search  of  the  records  at  the  State  House  revealed  Imt  two  soldiers 
in  this  war,  residents  of  this  town,  viz :  George  Gleason,  teamster,  28  y. 
of  Worcester,  enlisted  in  Co.  D,  1st  Regt.  Mass.  Infantry.  Edward  T. 
Dudley,  clerk,  19  y.,  enlisted  at  Boston  in  Co.  K,  of  the  same  regt.,  May 
28,  1847;   deserted. 

The  Orr  Riot. — It  became  necessary  to  read  the  riot  act  and  call 
out  the  militia  in  1854  to  disperse  a  mob.  A  fanatic  named  John  S.  Orr, 
calling  himself  the  "Angel  Gabriel,"  appeared  on  the  streets  blowing  his 
brass  trumpet,  haranguing  the  crowds  in  incoherent  speeches,  predicting 
dire  calamities.  As  he  passed  along  the  sidewalks  he  decorated  them 
with  the  word  "Gabriel"  in  big  chalk  letters.  He  was  arrested  for  dis- 
turbing the  peace,  but  was  allowed  to  depart  on  promising  to  stay  away. 
In  a  week,  however,  he  had  returned  and  resumed  his  tooting  and  talk- 
ing; was  arrested  again.  Somehow  he  had  won  the  sympathy  or  sup- 
port of  a  rough  crowd  that  gathered  about  the  station  house,  demanding 
his  release.  The  Mayor,  Hon.  J.  S.  C.  Knowlton,  addressed  the  mob, 
asking  it  to  disperse,  but  his  words  were  without  effect.  The  mob  stoned 
the  station  house  and  broke  windows.  The  mayor  then  read  the  riot 
act;  the  sheriff  also  tried  to  bring  the  crowd  to  reason,  and  he  was 
injured  by  paving  stone  thrown  by  a  rioter.  Capt.  Ward  was  ordered 
to  turn  out  with  the  City  Guards,  and  the  loaded  muskets  of  the  militia 
had  an  immediate  effect  on  the  mob.  The  Guards  stayed  that  night  in 
the  armory.  The  mob  made  no  further  attempt,  and  the  Guards  fired 
their  loaded  muskets  at  a  target  on  the  old  Jo  Bill  road.  What  became 
of  "the  Angel"  himself  is  of  no  importance.  The  remarkable  fact  about 
the  riot  was,  how  it  could  have  happened  in  a  city  like  Worcester. 


CHAPTER  XXXIV 
The  Civil  War 

No  sooner  had  the  roar  of  the  assaulting  guns  at  Fort  Sumter  died 
away,  than  the  War  for  the  Union  began.  That  was  on  Friday,  April 
12,  1861.  The  news  was  received  on  Sunday,  and  on  Monday  evening 
the  militia  companies  of  this  city  met  in  their  armories  and  prepared 
to  go  to  the  front,  filling  their  ranks  and  electing  officers. 

The  City  Hall  was  crowded  at  a  public  meeting  on  Tuesday  and 
patriotic  speeches  by  Hon.  Rejoice  Newton,  Hon.  Isaac  Davis,  Hon.  J. 
S.  C.  Knowlton,  Col.  Putnam  W.  Taft,  M.  J.  McCarrerty,  Rev.  Dr. 
Hill,  Hon.  A.  H.  Bullock  and  Maj.  Charles  Devens.  Dr.  Merrick 
Bemis,  D.  Waldo  Lincoln,  Col.  E.  B.  Stoddard,  Rev.  T.  W.  Higginson 
stirred  the  emotions  of  the  people  and  fixed  their  determination  to  work 
and  fight  for  the  preservation  of  the  Union. 

WAR  HAS  BEGPK  YY 

CIVIL  WAR! 

THE  WORST  OF  ALL  WARS. 


OUR  FLAG  HAS  BEEN  FIRED  UPON  AND  OUR  TORTS  CAPTURED. 


ODR  Umm  CAPITAL 

THBEATENED  IITH  WmiU 


The  people  of  Massachusetts  are  iusoltod  with  the  threat  that  they  shall 

smell  the  pondrr  uod  Terl  Ibr  sleri  »f  Ibe  Nrrr«Mlonl»l«;  that 

Ihe  flag  of  Rebellion  thaU  te  hoUled  orer  the  Cradle  of  Vtberl})! 

PATRXO^T 

I!  Tn  &nMf;i 


Enrol  and  I>rlll  Your  Men. 

Be  True   to    the    Spirit   and    Blood    of  yoar    Aormlors  I 

RESPOND  WITH  PROMPTNESS  to  THE  CALL  OF  YODK  COUNTBY 

REDUCED  COPY  OF  HANDBILL. 

The  Light  Infantry. — The  Light  Infantry  was  the  first  company  to 
receive  orders  to  proceed  to  Washington.  On  Wednesday,  the  follow- 
ing morning  the  17th,  after  a  short  parade,  the  company  was  addressed 
by  Col.  W.  S.  Lincoln;  Hon.  Ichabod  Washburn,  who  presented  each 
soldier  with  a  pocket  Bible  ;    and  Dr.  Rufus  Woodward,  who  promised 


582  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

to  give  professional  care  to  the  families  of  absent  soldiers  free  of  charge. 
At  the  railroad  station  a  great  gathering  cheered  the  departing  troops. 
Capt.  Harrison  W.  Pratt  was  in  command.  In  the  evening  the  boys  left 
Boston  with  the  Sixth  Mass.  Regt.,  to  which  they  were  assigned,  and 
again  they  were  given  a  rousing  reception  when  they  reached  this  city. 
In  passing  through  Baltimore,  the  Worcester  men  were  in  the  first 
division,  which  was  not  attacked.  Throughout  the  trip  to  the  capital 
the  troops  were  given  one  continuous  ovation  by  the  people  of  the  towns 
and  cities  through  which- their  train  passed.  They  were  quartered  in 
the  Senate  chamber,  April  20,  and  slept  in  their  blankets  on  the  floor. 
The  regiment  was  reviewed  by  President  Lincoln  and  Gen.  Scott.  From 
the  first,  Clara  Barton  and  Mrs.  B.  B.  Vassall,  of  this  city,  were  active 
in  supplying  the  needs  of  the  soldiers. 

Worcester  claims  part  of  the  credit  given  to  the  Sixth  Regiment  for 
his  prompt  response  in  the  hour  of  greatest  need,  saving  the  capital  from 
capture  by  the  rebels.  Early  in  May  the  company  went  with  the  com- 
mand into  Maryland  and  encamped  at  Elk  Ridge.  On  June  26  they  went 
to  Baltimore,  returning  July  2  to  the  Relay  Camp.  The  regiment 
had  enlisted  for  three  months,  the  time  expiring  July  21,  but  the  news 
of  the  disaster  at  Bull  Run  came  the  next  day,  and  the  regiment  was 
ordered  to  be  in  readiness  for  action.  Gen.  Banks  made  an  address  to 
the  regiment  July  23,  appealing  for  its  service  to  defend  the  capital 
again.  The  regiment  voted  to  stay  in  the  service  as  long  as  needed,  but 
on  the  26th,  preparations  began  for  the  return  home  ;  the  start  was  made 
on  the  29th,  and  the  Worcester  company  reached  this  city  August  1,  at 
ten  a.  m.,  and  after  a  hearty  welcome  continued  with  the  regiment  to 
Boston,  being  mustered  out  on  the  Common  next  day.  The  company 
went  to  Lowell,  however,  before  coming  home,  and  received  a  wonderful 
reception  in  that  city.  Returning  in  a  special  train,  they  arrived  here 
at  midnight.  On  Aug.  2  the  company  was  entertained  in  Horticultural 
Hall,  Capt.  D.  Waldo  Lincoln  presiding.  In  replying  to  Mr.  Lincoln's 
address,  Capt.  Pratt  said :  "We  have  had  101  men  in  our  ranks ;  four 
have  been  sent  home  sick  (now  well,  however)  ;  and  97  returned  in  the 
ranks  to-day.  But  four  have  received  punishment — if  you  are  not  as 
proud  of  them  as  I  am,  it  is  because  you  know  them  less."  Mayor 
Davis  and  LL  Parker  also  spoke.  On  the  Common,  Governor  Lincoln 
and  the  mayor  reviewed  the  company. 

Third  Battalion  of  Rifles. — The  Third  Battalion  was  ready  as  soon 
as  the  Light  Infantry,  but  it  was  held  for  the  Fifth  Regiment.  It  was 
composed  of  the  Worcester  City  Guards,  the  Emmet  Guards  and  the 
Holden  Rifles,  all  well  organized,  drilled  and  equipped,  Major  Charles 
Devens  commanding.  On  April  18  the  battalion  marched  to  Mechanics 
Hall,  where  Hon.  Isaac  Davis  and  Rev.  Dr.  Hill  were  the  speakers.  Ma- 
jor Devens  also  spoke  of  the  duties  of  the  hour. 

An  elegant  sword   and  belt  was  presented   to   Adjutant  John   M. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  5^3 


Goodhue  at  the  armory  of  the  City  Guards.  Hon.  George  F.  Hoar  mak- 
ing the  speech  of  presentation,  in  behalf  of  Hon.  Timothy  W.  Welling- 
ton, saying:  "A  band  of  traitors  and  conspirators  whose  fields  and  plan- 
tations, as  has  been  well  said,  our  fathers  scoured  and  cleared  from  a 
foreign  invader  in  the  Revolution,  have  dared  to  undertake  to  subvert 
our  government,  to  take  possession  of  our  capital,  and  destroy  our  lib- 
erties. We  have  not  provoked  this  contest.  Our  patience  has  been 
met  with  sgorn.  We  have  been  smitten  on  one  cheek.  We  have  turned 
to  show  the  other,  and  have  been  smitten  on  that  too.  We  have  held 
forth  the  olive  branch;  it  has  been  converted  into  a  rod.  The  charity 
which  suffereth  long,  which  hopeth,  beareth,  believeth  and  endureth  all 
things,  has  at  last  been  exhausted;  and  now  nothing  remains  but  the 
sword— and  never  was  it  drawn  in  a  cause  more  righteous." 

Capt.  McConville  returned  thanks  for  a  gift  of  nearly  $1,000  to  the 
Emmet  Guards.  This  company  was  addressed  in  the  evening  by  Fathers 
Boyce  and  O'Reilly. 

The  battalion  left  the  city  about  midnight,  Saturday,  April  20, 
cheered  by  thousands  of  friends,  less  than  a  week  after  the  news  of  the 
firing  on  Fort  Sumter  reached  the  city.  In  New  York  it  was  posted  in 
the  armory  of  the  Seventh  Regiment  where  it  was  visited  by  Senator 
Sumner  and  other  distinguished  men,  embarking  on  Sunday  morning  on 
the  steamship  Ariel.  Major  Devens  and  Capt.  Sprague  were  extremely 
popular;  both  were  competent  officers  and  courtly  gentlemen,  kindly, 
considerate  and  thoughtful. 

The  Ariel  proceeded  to  Annapolis,  arriving  April  24,  and  the  Wor- 
cester men  were  quartered  in  the  Naval  School.  On  May  2  the  battalion 
started  for  Fort  McHenry,  arriving  at  six  the  following  morning.  The 
battalion  was  on  duty  May  14  guarding  arms  that  had  been  seized.  The 
arrest  of  William  Starr  for  giving  his  opinion  of  Marshal  Kane,  brought 
forth,  after  Capt.  Sprague  had  secured  his  release,  an  address  from  the 
captain  that  brought  tears  to  the  eyes  of  his  men.  A  soldier  wrote: 
"We  like  him  as  a  child  does  his  parents,  and  we  shall  forever  follow 
where  he  leads."  The  battalion  shared  in  the  work  of  liberating  Mary- 
land. A  squad  of  18  men  was  sent  to  Ft.  Carroll.  Capt.  Sprague  and  a 
detachment  made  an  examination  of  the  bridges  between  Baltimore 
and  Havre  de  Grace.  On  June  26  the  detested  Marshal  Kane  and  the 
Baltimore  police  commissioners  were  brought  to  the  fort. 

Adj.  John  M.  Goodhue  left  to  take  commission  in  the  regular  army; 
Lt.  Harkness  became  quartermaster;  Lt.  McCafferty  w^as  made  acting 
adjutant;  and  on  July  3,  Maj.  Devens  w^ent  to  Washington,  leaving 
Capt.  Sprague  in  command  of  the  battalion.  Soon  afterward  Major 
Devens  left  to  become  colonel  of  the  Fifteenth  Mass.  From  time  to  time 
detachments  made  excursions.  Capt.  McConville  and  Lt.  Pickett  with 
40  men  were  sent  on  a  cruise  in  a  steamer  Chester  after  two  suspected 
craft  that  turned  out  to  be  fishing  vessels.     Similar  cruises  w^ere  made 


584  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

on  the  12th,  16th  and  ITth  of  July.  One  of  these  detachments  took  pos- 
session of  a  deserted  schooner  at  the  mouth  of  Chester  river  and 
brought  it  to  Ft.  McHenry. 

Twenty  of  the  battalion  were  sent  home  July  24,  their  term  of 
enlistment  having  expired  on  the  19th.  Gen.  Dix  addressed  the  com- 
mand on  the  26th,  and  asked  the  soldiers  to  remain  in  the  service  for  a 
time  on  account  of  the  defeat  at  Bull  Run.  Every  man  in  the  City 
Guards  and  Emmet  Guards  voted  to  stay.  But  on  July  29  thp  companies 
were  ordered  home,  reaching  New  York,  August  1  and  taking  the  steamer 
City  of  Boston  that  afternoon  for  New  London.  The  welcome  of  Wor- 
cester to  the  returned  soldiers  next  day  was  very  hearty  and  pleasing. 
There  was  feasting,  a  parade,  music  and  cheering.  Mayor  Davis  spoke  a 
warm  welcome  on  the  Common,  and  Capt.  Sprague  replied  feelingly, 
reading  a  letter  from  Col.  Devens  in  which  he  expressed  his  thanks  to  the 
officers  and  men  of  the  battalion.  "You  were  of  those,"  he  wrote,  "who 
saved  the  capital  of  the  nation  from  plunder  at  the  opening  of  this  con- 
flict. I  can  say  to  you  most  truly  that  you  have  been  to  me  all  that  an 
officer  could  ask  of  soldiers." 

Muster-out  was  held  next  day.  Forty  of  the  City  Guards  imme- 
diately re-enlisted ;  nineteen  became  w^arrant  officers ;  two  musicians, 
and  others  re-enlisted  later.  Two  of  the  battalion  had  died  of  typhoid. 
The  Spy  said  at  the  time : 

It  does  not  lessen  either  the  bravery  of  our  men,  or  the  greatness  of  the  service 
they  rendered,  that  they  did  not  participate  in  any  regular  battle.  They  v^on  the. ex- 
pected battle  by  their  promptness  and  energy,  without  fighting  it.  Washington  was 
saved,  the  secession  rising  in  Maryland  was  prevented,  the  Baltimore  conspirators  were 
baffled,  a  new  route  to  Washington  was  opened  and  held  open,  and  the  war  of  treason 
was  not  allowed  to  come  across  the  Potomac.  The  troops  that  secured  such  results,  de- 
serve the  honor  and  thanks  of  the  whole  country,  and  foremost  among  them  were  our 
Sixth  and  Eighth  Regiments,  and  the  Worcester  Rifle  Battalion.  No  better  troops  than 
these  went  to  the  rescue  of  the  government,  none  have  served  with  a  better  spirit  or 
to  a  better  purpose,  and  let  them  have  the  credit  which  is  their  due. 

The  Fifteenth  Regiment. — The  Fifteenth  Regiment  of  Infantry  was 
raised  largely  in  this  city.  Major  Devens  came  from  the  Sixth  Regt. 
to  command  it;  and  the  other  officers  were  Lt.  Col.  George  H.  Ward  of 
this  city,  and  Maj.  John  W.  Kimball  of  Fitchburg.  It  encamped  on  the 
Brooks  farm  at  South  Worcester,  June  28,  1861.  The  camp  was  named 
for  Gen.  Scott.  The  men  were  mustered  into  service  by  Gov.  Andrew 
and  Capt.  Marshall  of  the  regular  army.  The  battle  of  Bull  Run  short- 
ened the  period  of  preparation  and  drill.  A  flag  was  presented  to  the 
regiment  by  the  ladies  of  the  city  Aug.  7,  the  address  being  made  by 
Hon.  George  F.  Hoar  in  the  City  Hall,  in  the  presence  of  the  officers 
and  band.  In  his  speech  accepting  the  flag,  Col.  Devens  said :  "There 
is  indeed  a  remarkable  coincidence,  as  you  have  so  well  said,  in  the  name 
of  the  regiment  which  I  have  the  honor  to  command,  being  numbered 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  585 

the  same  as  that  commanded  during  the  Revokitionary  War  by  Col. 
Timothy  Bigelow,  over  whose  remains  yonder  proud  monument  was, 
three  months  ago,  erected  with  such  inspiring  ceremonies.  It  is  indeed  a 
most  fortunate  omen.  I  trust  that  some  of  the  spirit  which  animated  our 
ancestors  has  descended  upon  the  present  sons  of  Worcester  county, 
and  that  they  will  be  able  to  render  an  equally  good  account  of  their 
labors." 

The  next  day  the  regiment,  numbering  1,046  officers  and  privates, 
left  the  city  at  6  p.  m.  by  the  train  for  Norwich,  amid  vociferous  cheers 
of  the  people,  reaching  New  York  on  Aug.  9  at  11  a.  m.,  and  Washing- 
ton next  day.  On  the  11th,  quarters  were  occupied  on  Meridian  Hill, 
near  the  residence  Kalorama,  under  the  command  of  Gen.  Rufus  King. 
Aug.  25  the  regiment  was  sent  into  camp  at  Poolsville,  Md.,  35  miles 
from  Washington.  The  camp  was  named  for  Dwight  Foster,  then 
attorney  general  of  Massachuetts.  The  first  duty  was  to  guard  the  line 
from  Conrad's  ferry  to  the  lower  end  of  Harrison's  Island,  a  distance  of 
three  miles.  The  Rebel  pickets  on  the /other  side  of  the  river  became 
friendly  after  a  few  shots  had  been  exchanged,  talked  with  our  pickets, 
and  surreptitiously  exchanged  various  articles.  The  camp  was  visited 
by  Nathaniel  Paine,  who  made  a  report  of  his  trip  in  one  of  the  city 
papers,  praising  the  drill  and  discipline,  the  band,  and  the  condition 
of  the  camp.  Hon.  John  D.  Baldwin,  editor  of  the  Spy,  wrote,  after  a 
visit,  "that  the  signs  of  harmony  and  good  discipline  are  abundant  and 
unmistakable.  .  .  .  Col.  Devens  deserves  the  warmest  praise  of 
every  friend  of  the  regiment  at  home  for  his  earnest  and  untiring  care  of 
the  men."  He  commended  the  system  by  which  Col.  Devens  induced 
many  of  the  men  to  send  money  to  their  families. 

Ball's  Bluff. — The  first  baptism  of  blood  was  at  Ball's  Bluff,  Oct. 
21.  Capt.  Philbrick  of  Co.  H  and  twenty  men  had  crossed  the  river  the 
day  before  on  a  scouting  expedition  in  the  direction  of  Leesburg,  and 
had  found  what  appeared  to  be  only  a  small  force  of  the  enemy,  where- 
upon Col.  Devens  crossed  with  Cos.  A,  C,  G,  H  and  I,  and  pushed  for- 
ward with  a  small  detachment  to  the  camp  found  by  Capt.  Philbrick. 
About  sunrise  the  enemy's  pickets  were  driven  in,  and  the  Rebels  were 
driven  from  their  rifle  pits.  But  after  a  short  time  the  Union  force 
proved  too  small  to  hold  the  captured  line  and,  when  the  rebel  reserves 
came  up,  the  men  of  the  Fifteenth  with  other  troops  that  had  accom- 
panied them  fell  back.  At  eleven  the  enemy  made  an  advance,  and  the 
Fifteenth  retreated  to  the  position  held  by  the  reserves,  about  1,200 
troops  were  sent  across  the  river  and  Gen.  Baker  took  over  the  com- 
mand from  Col.  Devens.  At  half  past  three  the  Rebels  advanced,  4,000 
strong,  and  had  the  advantage  of  superior  position.  After  some  three 
hours  of  battle,  the  Union  force  was  compelled  to  give  way.  Many 
officers  had  been  lost  through  Rebel  sharpshooting.  Gen.  Baker  was 
heard  to  say:     "If  I  had  two  more  such  regiments  as  the  Mass.   Fif- 


586  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

teenth  I  would  cut  my  way  to  Leesburg."  Soon  afterward  he  was  killed, 
and  Col.  Cogswell  took  command.  An  attempt  was  made  about  five 
o'clock  to  cut  the  way  to  Edward's  Ferry.  When  the  movement  failed 
and  Gen.  Cogswell  ordered  a  retreat,  Col.  Devens  was  opposed  to  the 
movement  and  said:  "Sir,  I  do  not  wish  to  retreat.  Do  you  issue  it  as 
an  order?"  "Yes,  sir"  was  the  reply.  "I  would  like  to  have  you  repeat 
it  in  the  presence  of  my  major,  then."  "I  order  you  to  retreat,"  was  the 
response. 

The  column  retreated,  nearly  all  in  good  order,  though  some  com- 
panies broke  ranks  and  ran.  The  Fifteenth  kept  their  ranks  until  their 
colonel  ordered  them  to  save  themselves  as  best  they  could.  He  was 
determined  to  cross  the  river  and  not  surrender.  The  scow  in  which 
the  troops  had  crossed  was  overcrowded  and  upset  in  midstream.  Some 
swam  ashore ;  others  were  carried  away  by  the  swift  current  and 
drowned.  Those  who  had  remained  on  the  Virginia  shore,  hard  pressed 
by  the  Rebels,  took  to  the  water  and  attempted  to  swim  the  river.  Col. 
Devens  and  some  near  him  had  the  good  fortune  to  seize  a  floating  log 
that  aided  them  in  crossing.  Many  were  shot  in  the  water;  many  were 
drowned.  Col.  Ward  was  wounded  in  the  leg  and  taken  to  Harrison's 
Island,  where  he  had  his  leg  amputated  that  night.  Lt.  Everts  Greene 
of  No.  Brookfield,  later  editor  of  the  Spy,  did  not  retreat,  remaining  on 
the  edge  of  the  bluff  covering  the  retreat  with  a  small  detachment  from 
his  company  and  the  Tammany  and  California  regiments.  Lieut.  Greene 
w^as  captured.  (See  biography).  Col.  Devens  was  struck  by  a  bullet, 
but  not  injured.  Capt.  W^atson  of  Co.  E,  who  remaining  on  the  bank 
of  the  river,  being  unable  to  swim,  escaped  wounds  and  capture,  and  with 
eight  other  men  reached  Edward's  Ferry  under  cover  of  darkness. 

Though  the  movement  was  disastrous,  the  regiment  was  highly  praised 
for  its  coolness,  discipline  and  courage.  Col.  Devens  said:  "Every 
man  did  his  duty;  there  was  no  flinching,  no  disobedience,  no  cowardice, 
and  they  fought  to  the  very  last  with  great  cheerfulness."  A  private 
wrote  of  the  officers :  "Without  exception  they  stood  up  resolutely  from 
the  first  hour  of  the  day  to  the  last."  Another  wrote :  "We  cannot  say 
too  much  in  praise  of  the  cool  courage  and  considerate  movements  of 
Colonel  Devens.  He  is  in  my  opinion  unsurpassed  for  cool  bravery, 
being  in  the  thickest  of  the  fight  with  his  men,  encouraging  them  with 
hopes  of  success  as  long  as  a  shadow  of  hope  lasted."  Gen.  McClellan 
said  of  this  engagement :  "Nothing  had  occurred  in  the  war  yet  equal  to 
the  heroic  conduct  of  the  Fifteenth  Mass."  He  told  Col.  Devens  he  wanted 
him  to  take  part  in  the  next  battle. 

A  sketch  of  Lieut.  Grout,  who  lost  his  life  at  Ball's  Bluff,  is  given 
elsewhere  in  this  work. 

Of  621  men  w^ho  went  into  battle,  but  311  survived  fit  for  duty.  The 
killed,  wounded  and  missing  numbered  310.  For  further  details  see  the 
roster  of  the  regiment. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  5^7 


Recruits  were  needed  to  fill  the  gaps;  aid  for  the  wounded  came 
promptly  from  home.  A  meeting  was  held  in  the  City  Hall,  Dec.  3, 
and  Rev.  Mr.  Scandlin,  the  regimental  chaplain,  spoke  for  an  hour, 
appealing  for  recruits  to  fill  the  ranks.  Hon.  Isaac  Davis  and  Judge 
Henry  Chapin  also  spoke.  Hon.  Edward  Everett  spoke  at  a  meeting  in 
Mechanics  Hall,  Dec.  12,  and  Hon.  Daniel  S.  Dickinson  of  New  York 
at  another  meeting,  Dec.  16. 

The  regiment  remained  at  Poolsville  until  Feb.  36,  1863,  and  was 
recruited  to  903  men.  Marching  to  Adamstown  and  taking  the  train  to 
Harper's  Ferry,  the  regiment  was  quartered  there  until  March  2,  when, 
excepting  one  company,  it  marched  to  Bolivar  Heights  and  on  March 
7th  to  Charlestown;  on  the  10th  to  Berryville,  where  traces  of  the 
enemy  were  discovered.  On  the  15th  the  regiment  returned  to  Bolivar 
Heights  and  remained  a  week,  leaving  Harper's  Ferry  on  the  22d  for 
Washington,  'it  was  quartered  near  the  capitol.  Two  days  later  it  was 
in  Alexandria,  and  five  days  afterward  sailed  for  Hampton,  Va.,  where 
it  was  in  camp  three  days.  On  the  -Ith  the  march  up  the  Peninsula 
began,  the  first  halt  being  at  Big  Bethel,  the  second  at  "Camp  Misery." 
Afterward  the  progress  was  slow,  as  the  enemy  was  strongly  entrenched 
and  the  soldiers  had  to  build  roads  as  they  advanced.  On  the  11th  a 
permanent  camp,  named  for  Gen.  Scott,  was  established  within  a  mile 
of  the  enemy's  works.  Col.  Devens  left  the  regiment  here  to  accept  his 
commission  as  brigadier  general,  and  Lt.  Col.  Kimball  took  command. 

The  fifteenth  was  one  of  the  first  regiments  to  enter  Yorktown  after 
the  evacuation.  May  4.  Two  days  later  it  embarked  for  West  Point,  and 
arrived  early  next  morning  in  time  to  reinforce  Gen.  Franklin,  but  it  took 
no  part  in  the  fighting.  On  the  9th  it  occupied  Camp  Eltham.  On  the 
15th  it  marched  to  Austin's  Church  towards  Richmond ;  on  the  18th  it 
moved  three  miles  towards  the  Chickahominy  River.  It  was  near  Bot- 
tom's Ridge,  May  21. 

The  battle  of  May  31  was  reported  by  Col.  Kimball,  as  follows : 

Early  in  the  afternoon  of  May  31,  rapid  and  heavy  firing  was  heard,  distinctly 
heard,  from  across  the  river.  The  troops  under  General  Sumner,  including  the  Fif- 
teenth Regiment,  were  immediately  under  arms,  and  marched  to  the  assistance  of  Gen- 
eral Casey.  Crossing  the  river  on  a  bridge  of  logs,  called  Sumner's  Grapevine  Bridge, 
the  column  advanced  about  two  miles,  and  formed  near  Fair  Oaks  Station,  in  anticipa- 
tion of  an  attack.  The  regiment  had  barely  time  to  load  before  the  battle,  which  raged 
fiercely  until  after  dark,  began.  The  first  position  taken  by  the  Fifteenth  Regiment 
was  in  support  of  a  battery  of  light  artillery,  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Kirby  of  the 
regular  service,  which  was  playing  with  great  effect  on  the  concealed  enemy.  This  po- 
sition was  trying  to  the  men,  in  the  extreme  ;  as  but  a  small  portion  were  engaged,  the 
balance  could  only  stand  firmly  before  the  storm  of  bullets,  to  resist  the  charge,  should 
one  be  attempted.  Three  times  did  the  foe,  flushed  with  the  victory  of  the  morning, 
and  confident  of  success,  rush  upon  the  battery  almost  to  the  cannon's  mouth,  but  each 
time  were  driven  back  in  disorder,  leaving  many  brave  men  within  a  few  yards  of  our 
bayonets.     Before  they  could  rally  from  this  terrible  fire  of  canister  and  musketry,  a 


588  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

charge  upon  them  was  ordered.  With  wild  shouts  and  cheers,  the  unwavering  line  ad- 
vanced into  the  almost  impenetrable  thicket,  but  the  enemy  had  fled ;  their  dead  and 
wounded  alone  were  left,  the  evidences  of  a  glorious  victory.  That  night  the  troops 
rested  upon  their  arms,  on  the  battle-field,  the  horrors  of  which  were  made  doubly  re- 
volting by  the  unceasing  groans  of  the  wounded. 

In  the  battle  of  Fair  Oaks,  May  31,  the  regiment  lost  five  killed  and 
17  wounded.  The  duty  during  June  was  severe,  waiting  on  the  battle 
field  for  the  expected  attack,  fortifying,  skirmishing. 

The  Fifteenth  was  in  the  engagement  at  Savage  Station  June  29,  and 
soon  afterward  in  White  Oak  Swamp  and  at  Nelson's  Farm.  Reaching 
Harrison's  Landing  July  2,  worn  out  by  the  campaign  since  Fair  Oaks, 
in  which  eleven  were  wounded  and  26  missing,  the  regiment  rested  in 
July.  In  August  it  marched  to  Newport  News,  whence  it  went  by  water 
to  Chain  Bridge,  in  the  defenses  of  Washington.  The  call  was  urgent, 
and  the  regiment  was  despatched  at  once  to  Centreville.  Several  days 
were  spent  in  marching  and  countermarching.  Sept.  14  it  marched  from 
Frederick  to  South  Mountain  Pass.  Col.  Kimball  describes  thus  the 
part  taken  in  the  battle  of  Antietam : 

A  section  of  the  enemy's  artillery  was  planted  immediately  in  front  and  not  more 
than  six  hundred  yards  distant  from  my  right  wing.  This  was  twice  silenced  and 
driven  back  by  the  fire  of  my  right  concentrated  upon  it.  The  engagement  lasted  be- 
tween twenty  and  thirty  minutes,  my  line  remaining  unbroken,  the  left  wing  advancing 
some  ten  yards  under  a  most  terrific  fire  of  infantry.  [At  this  time  occurred  one  of 
those  blunders  not  uncommon  in  battle,  by  which  the  regiment  was  exposed  to  a  mur- 
derous fire  from  a  New  York  regiment.  This  was  remedied  by  General  Sumner  after 
our  men  had  suffered  severely.]  The  enemy  soon  appeared  in  heavy  columns  advanc- 
ing on  my  left  and  rear,  pouring  in  a  deadly  fire  on  my  left  wing.  We  retired  slowly 
and  in  good  order,  bringing  off  our  colors  and  a  battle-flag  captured  from  the  enemy, 
re-forming  by  the  order  of  General  Gorman  in  a  piece  of  woods  some  five  hundred 
yards  to  the  rear,  and  under  cover  of  our  artillery.  This  position  was  held  until  I 
was  ordered  to  support  a  battery,  planted  upon  the  brow  of  a  hill  immediately  in  our 
rear,  the  enemy  having  opened  again  with  artillery.  This  fire  being  silenced,  the  posi- 
tion was  held  throughout  the  day. 

Col.  Ward  returned  to  the  service  and  took  command  of  the  regi- 
ment Feb.  5,  1863,  and  was  soon  afterward  made  acting  brigadier-gen- 
eral, leaving  Lt.  Col.  Joslin  in  command.  May  2  the  regiment  crossed 
the  Rappahannock  river  at  Fredericksburg  on  pontoon  bridges : 

The  Fifteenth  was  soon  after  directed  to  take  a  position  on  the  extreme  right  of 
the  First  Brigade,  and  commenced  moving  to  a  point  on  the  right  of  the  city;  and  at 
the  same  moment,  the  enemy's  batteries  opened  from  three  different  points  with  solid 
shot  and  shell,  which  they  kept  up  while  the  regiment  was  going  the  distance  of  half  a 
mile.  At  the  same  time  this  movement  was  going  on,  the  enemy  were  hurrying  up 
their  infantry  at  double-quick  and  filling  the  rifle-pits  on  the  crest  of  the  hill  in  our 
fronts,  almost  in  rifle  range.  It  was  our  good  fortune  to  have  a  slight  embankment  for 
a  cover,  where  we  remained  for  two  hours,  until  the  position  known  as  'Marye's  Heights,' 
in  rear  of  the  famous  bank-wall  rifle-pit, — where  so  many  brave  men  laid  down  their 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  589 

lives  at  the  first  battle  of  Fredericksburg, — was  flanked  by  General  Sedgwick's  Sixth 
Corps,  and  the  enemy  in  our  front  began  to  fall  back.  A  canal,  some  thirty  feet  wide,  and 
too  deep  to  ford,  prevented  our  advancing  directly  in  front,  and  we  were  obliged  to  return 
to  the  city  before  doing  so.  During  the  time  we  had  remained  there,  the  enemy  had 
placed  two  guns  in  such  a  position  on  the  bluflf,  on  the  south  side  of  the  river,  that 
they  had  an  enfilading  fire  on  our  line  while  returning  to  the  city ;  but  either  through 
their  great  haste  to  join  their  fleeing  comrades,  or  bad  practice,  they  did  us  little  harm; 
but  two  were  slightly  wounded  during  the  whole  shelling.  After  following  up  the  ene- 
my two  miles,  the  second  division  was  ordered  back  to  the  city;  the  Fifteenth  to  the 
north  bank  of  the  river,  supporting  Battery  A,  First  Rhode  Island  Artillery,  which 
covered  the  pontoon  bridge,  where  we  remained  until  the  following  day  about  dusk, 
when  companies  A,  B,  E,  and  G,  moved  into  the  rifle-pits,  above  and  below  the  bridge, 
to  cover  its  removal. 

In  June  the  regiment  started  on  his  way  to  Gettysburg.  On  July 
1  the  sound  of  cannon  was  heard,  and  that  night  the  regiment  bivou- 
acked three  miles  south  of  Gettysburg.  The  regiment  took  part  in  the 
second  and  third  days'  fighting.  The  following  report  tells  of  the  work 
of  the  third  day : 

The  rebels  opened  on  our  lines  with  over  a  hundred  pieces  of  artillery  at  about  one 
P.  M.  This  terrible  fire  was  continued  for  over  two  hours ;  but  though  the  air  seemed 
full  of  the  fragments  of  bursting  shells,  but  comparatively  little  damage  was  done.  At 
three,  P.  M.,  the  rebel  infantry  moved  to  the  assault.  Our  men  sprang  promptly  to 
meet  them,  glad  at  a  prospect  of  work,  relieving  them  from  their  painful  recumbent 
position,  which  a  broiling  sun  rendered  the  more  intolerable.  This  contest  lasted  an 
hour  or  two ;  during  which  both  armies  showed  a  determination  to  hold  the  ground, 
regardless  of  the  results.  A  slight  wavering  of  the  rebel  line  was  detected,  and  at  sug- 
gestion of  Colonel  Hall,  commanding  the  Third  Brigade,  the  colors  of  the  Fifteenth 
were  ordered  to  advance  by  Colonel  Joslin,  when  the  remnant  of  the  regiment,  led  by 
the  colonel,  rallied  promptly  around  them,  and  the  whole  line,  as  if  moved  by  one  im- 
pulse, rushed  forward  and  carried  the  position. 

The  regiment  was  skirmishing  on  the  fourth  of  July.  During  the 
Battle  of  Gettysburg  the  Fifteenth  lost  three  officers  killed  and  eight 
wounded ;  nineteen  enlisted  men  killed,  and  85  wounded.  Col.  Ward 
of  Worcester  was  one  of  the  killed.  (See  biography).  Until  the  14th, 
the  regiment  was  engaged  in  the  pursuit  of  the  Rebels.  On  the  16th 
Harper's  Ferry  was  passed  on  the  way  to  Loudon  Valley.  On  Aug.  15, 
179  drafted  recruits  were  added  to  the  regiment.  On  Aug.  31  the  march 
to  Bank's  Ford  from  Morrisville;  on  the  thirteenth  the  Rappahannock 
was  crossed.  Through  the  months  of  September,  October  and  Novem- 
ber the  regiment  was  marching,  picketing,  skirmishing,  expecting  battle 
daily.  In  the  action  of  Mine  Run,  Nov.  27,  the  regiment  lost  18  men. 
The  regiment  went  into  winter  quarters  at  Stevensburg,  having  been  on 
duty  of  the  most  arduous  and  dangerous  kind  from  the  beginning  of  the 
year,  and  taking  part  in  many  engagements  and  battles.  In  the  spring 
more  recruits  came,  but  May  1,  the  total  strength  of  the  Fifteenth  was 
only  about  300.     These  went  into  the  Wilderness,  where  half  of  them 


390  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


were  lost,  and  the  remnant  served  in  the  siege  of  Petersburg.  But  five 
officers  and  seventy  men  were  on  duty  at  Jerusalem  Plank  Road,  June 
22d,  and  almost  all  of  them  were  taken  prisoners  at  that  time.  Lt.  Col. 
Hooper  and  five  men  escaped.  The  term  of  enlistment  of  the  regiment 
had  expired,  excepting  that  of  one  company  which  had  to  serve  until 
Aug.  0.  Those  who  were  able  to  travel,  only  85  ofiicers  and  men,  arrived 
home  July  21,  and  were  welcomed  by  Gov.  Andrew  and  his  staflf,  Mayor 
Lincoln,  and  a  great  gathering  of  people. 

The  Twenty-first  Regiment.— The  Twenty-first  Regiment  of  Infan- 
try was  organized  mainly  in  Worcester  county,  and  was  commanded 
first  by  Col.  Augustus  Morse.  Six  companies  encamped  on  the  Agri- 
cultural Fair  Grounds,  July  19.  1861,  and  the  camp  was  named  for  ex- 
Gov.  Lincoln.     In  appreciation  of  the  honor,  Mr.   Lincoln  wrote: 

Worcester,  July  22,  1861. 

General:— I  cannot  fail  to  receive  with  the  deepest  and  most  grateful  emotions, 
your  communication  of  the  honor  conferred  upon  me  in  the  designation  of  the  encamp- 
ment of  the  Twenty-first  Regiment  of  Massachusetts  Volunteers,  under  your  command, 
by  expressly  associating  the  remembrance  of  me  with  the  historical  position  of  the  name 
which  it  is  my  privilege  to  bear,  and  with  his  who  at  the  head  of  the  nation  in  this 
most  perilous  crisis  of  its  destiny,  by  his  consummate  wisdom,  heroic  firmness  and 
constancy,  and  devoted  patriotism  in  purpose  and  action,  has  made  that  name  eminently 
and  forever  illustrious. 

With  no  personal  pretensions  to  this  most  flattering  notice,  I  yet  may  be  permitted, 
I  trust,  without  indelicacy,  to  claim  that  my  family  has  not  been  without  its  representa- 
tive servant  in  all  the  most  eventful  periods  of  our  country's  history. 

Two  brothers  of  my  father  were  in  the  army  of  the  Revolution.  A  brother  of  my 
own  was  in  the  service  of  the  state,  in  command  of  a  company,  in  the  war  of  1812  with 
Great  Britain.  A  son  fell  in  the  battle  of  Buena  Vista,  in  Mexico.  A  grandson  is  at 
this  time  enrolled  with  the  rank  and  file  of  the  noble  Sixth  Massachusetts  Volunteers  of 
Baltimore  celebrity.  Thus  the  blood  of  four  successive  generations  binds  me  in  sym- 
pathy with  the  brave  defenders  of  the  republic;  and  the  earnest,  fervent  prayer  of  my 
last  declining  years  is,  that  those  on  whom  will  devolve  the  great  duty  of  upholding  the 
integrity  of  the  Union,  and  of  preserving  and  transmitting  the  institutions  of  free  con- 
stitutional government,  with  all  the  countless  and  inappreciably  precious  blessings  of 
liberty  protection,  and  social  order,  which  only  such  a  government  can  secure,  may  be 
faithful  and  competent  to  their  high  responsibility,  and  gloriously  triumphant  in  this 
mortal  struggle  for  national  existence. 

The  ladies  of  Worcester  gave  to  this  command  a  beautiful  flag, 
which  was  presented  at  formal  exercises  by  Hon.  Alexander  H.  Bullock 
in  an  eloquent  address. 

The  regiment  started  for  the  front  Aug.  23,  1861,  and  on  its  arrival 
in  Baltimore  camped  in  Paterson  Park,  proceeding  on  the  29th  to  An- 
napolis, excepting  four  companies  left  at  Annapolis  Junction  to  guard 
the  railroad  and  prevent  contraband  goods  from  passing  into  \^irginia. 
The  entire  regiment  under  Lt.  Col.  Maggi,  937  men,  embarked  on  the 
steamship  Northerner,  Jan.  6,  1862,  to  take  part  in  the  Burnside  expedi- 
tion, landing  Feb.  7  on  Roanoke  Island,  and  taking  part  in  the  capture. 
The  following  report  by  Maj.  Theodore  S.  Foster  tells  the  story: 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  59 1 


To  the  Twenty-first  was  assigned  the  honor  of  doing  picket  duty  for  the  division 
that  night ;  this  dangerous  duty  was  well  performed,  with  the  loss  of  one  man,  severely 
wounded  by  the  enemy.  The  regiment  was  remarkably  cool  in  the  battle  of  the  next 
day.  The  action  commenced  early  in  the  morning,  by  an  attack  upon  a  rebel  battery, 
strongly  supported,  and  well  covered  by  the  enemy's  skirmishers.  The  Twenty-first, 
gallantly  and  skillfully  led  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Maggi,  worked  their  way,  under  the 
enemy's  fire,  through  a  deep  swamp  full  of  dense  underbrush  and  briers,  which  pro- 
tected the  right  flank  of  the  battery,  and  was  considered  by  the  enemy  as  impassable. 
Having  flanked  the  position,  the  regiment  made  a  brave,  steady  charge  with  the  bayo- 
net, driving  the  enemy  from  their  works,  and  capturing  the  rebel  flag  which  was  on 
their  battery,  they  planted  in  its  place  their  regimental  state  flag,  which  was  the  first 
Union  flag  in  the  battery.  The  loss  of  the  regiment  was,  commissioned  officers,  two 
wounded.  Captain  T.  S.  Foster,  and  Lieutenant  Frazer  A.  Stearns ;  enlisted  men,  five 
killed,  and  fifty  wounded,  eight  of  them  mortally,  who  died  soon  after.  Total,  fifty- 
seven. 

The  regiment  went  into  camp,  named  after  Gen.  Burnside,  and  soon 
afterward  Maj.  W.  S.  Clark  became  lieutenant-colonel,  succeeding  Lt. 
Col.  Maggi,  resigned,  and  took  command.  Col.  Morse  had  been  left  in 
command  of  the  fort  in  Maryland.  On  the  11th  the  regiment  sailed  in 
the  Northerner  for  Newbern,  and  took  part  in  the  battle  on  the  14th. 
The  first  gun  taken  in  that  battle  was  given  to  this  regiment  by  Gen. 
Burnside  as  a  monument  to  Frazer  A.  Stearns,  who  was  killed  Two 
other  officers  were  wounded,  19  enlisted  men  killed,  thirty-five  wounded, 
of  whom  four  died  soon  afterward;   total  loss,  5T. 

After  a  month  in  Camp  Andrew,  the  regiment  went  aboard  the 
Northerner  at  Newbern,  April  ITth,  landing  on  the  21st,  made  a  forced 
march  of  nearly  20  miles  and  participated  in  the  battle  of  Camden, 
having  one  man  killed  and  14  wounded,  three  mortally.  The  last  service 
in  North  Carolina  was  a  forced  march  May  17  to  PoUockville,  to  the 
relief  of  a  Maryland  regiment.  On  July  6  the  regiment  embarked  on  the 
Scout  and  Farrington,  and  proceeded  to  Camp  Lincoln,  near  Newport 
News.  A  few  weeks  later  it  boarded  steamers  Nantasket  and  High- 
land Light,  Aug.  2,  landing  at  Acquia  Creek,  Va.,  on  the  4th.  On  the 
12th,  leaving  tents  and  baggage,  it  started  afoot  for  the  Rapidan  and  suf- 
fered extremely  in  Pope's  retreat.  In  the  second  battle  of  Bull  Run, 
Aug.  30,  the  regiment  earned  great  praise  and  distinction.  "When  every- 
thing on  the  left  seemed  lost,  they  under  the  guidance  of  the  brave  and 
skillful  Reno,  stopped  the  enemy  in  the  moment  of  victory  and  prevented 
them  from  realizing  its  fruits."  Their  own  loss  was  small ;  the  wounded 
and  missing  numbered  nine..  The  regiment  fought  in  the  battle  of 
Chantilly,  Sept.  1,  losing  heavily: 

Ordered  into  action  just  as  night  was  coming  on,  in  a  severe  thunder-storm,  to 
fight  an  enemy  of  whose  numbers  and  position  no  one  seemed  to  be  aware,  they  fell 
into  an  ambuscade  of  the  rebel  regiments.  Though  somewhat  thrown  into  confusion  by 
the  fearful  slaughter  inflicted  upon  them  by  the  first  volley  from  their  concealed  foes, 
the  regiment  held  its  ground.     The  rain  soon  made  most  of  the  guns  on  both  sides  un- 


592  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

serviceable,  but  the  Twenty-first  were  not  afraid  to  rely  on  the  bayonet,  which  in  many 
instances,  was  used  by  both  parties,  till  by  the  timely  arrival  of  reinforcements,  the 
enemy  was  driven  from  the  field,  with  the  loss  of  many  killed,  wounded  and  prisoners. 
About  midnight  after  the  battle,  the  baggage  trains  being  in  safety,  the  Union  forces 
were  drawn  back  to  Fairfax  Court  House,  and  we  were  compelled  to  leave  most  of  our 
seriously  wounded  to  be  taken  prisoners  by  the  enemy,  as  well  as  several  men  who  were 
engaged  in  bringing  them  from  the  field,  and  assisting  the.  surgeons.  The  losses  in 
this  battle  were,  commissioned  officers,  three  killed,  viz.,  Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  P.  Rice ; 
First  Lieutenant  F.  A.  Bemis,  and  Second  Lieutenant  W.  B.  Hill;  mortally  wounded 
and  died  soon  after  the  action,  three,  viz.,  Captains  J.  D.  Frazer  and  L  J.  Kelton,  and 
First  Lieutenant  H.  A.  Beckwith ;  wounded  and  prisoners,  two,  viz.,  First  Lieutenant 
W.  H.  Clark,  and  second  Lieutenant  S.  McCabe ;  prisoners.  Captain  George  P.  Hawkes, 
Acting  Major,  Adjutant  W.  Willard,  and  Second  Lieutenant  G.  C.  Parker.  Total  of- 
ficers eleven.  Enlisted  men  killed,  twenty-two;  mortally  wounded  and  died  soon  after, 
eight;  wounded  and  prisoners,  twenty-four;  wounded,  forty-five;  prisoners,  thirty- 
four.  Total  killed  and  wounded  in  the  action,  one  hundred  and  seven ;  prisoners,  not 
wounded,  thirty-seven.    Aggregate,  one  hundred  and  forty-four. 

The  regiment  marched  afterward  through  Alexandria  and  Washing- 
ton into  Maryland,  and  took  part  in  the  battle  of  South  Mountain,  in 
which  five  men  were  wounded.  Then  came  the  bloody  battle  of  Antie- 
tam,  in  which  the  regiment  did  its  full  share,  entering  with  150  men,  two 
companies  being  absent.  One  officer  was  killed,  two  wounded ;  six 
enlisted  men  were  killed,  34  wounded,  three  mortally.  The  regiment 
had  lost  at  this  time  363  men.  In  Maryland  and  Virginia  the  regiment 
continued  in  active  service  during  October  and  November,  and  fought  in 
the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  Dec.  13.  Out  of  284  engaged,  69  were  lost. 
On  the  14th  they  were  engaged  again,  but  being  well  sheltered  lost  only 
one  man.  At  the  end  of  1862  the  regiment  was  in  the  old  cainp  near 
Falmouth.  On  Feb.  9  it  broke  camp  and  marched  to  Newport  News; 
thence  westward  to  Paris,  Ky.,  where  it  encamped  April  1  on  the  fair 
grounds.  Four  days  later  it  marched  to  Mt.  Sterling,  where  it  remained 
for  three  months.  On  July  6,  it  marched  to  Lexington,  Ky.,  thence  to 
Camp  Nelson,  where  it  remained  until  Sept.  12,  when  the  march  of  185 
miles  to  Knoxville  began.  From  this  time  to  the  end  of  the  year  there 
was  incessant  marching,  starving  and  fighting.  Lt.  Col.  Hawkes  was 
then  in  command.  Col.  Clark  receiving  his  discharge  in  April. 

The  regiment  took  part  in  the  action  at  Blue  Springs,  Oct.  11. 
Through  the  siege  of  Knoxville  it  was  on  duty  continually,  one  night 
on  picket,  the  next  in  the  rifle-pits.  It  made  one  of  the  most  brilliant 
charges  of  the  siege,  Nov,  24,  when  with  another  crack  regiment  it  drove 
the  enemy  sharpshooters  from  the  houses  and  fences  of  Knoxville. 
Dwight  Ripley  was  shot  and  killed  Nov.  25.  The  siege  ended  Dec.  5,  and 
the  Twenty-first  joined  in  the  pursuit  of  the  retreating  Rebels.  Not- 
withstanding the  hardships  of  this  campaign,  the  half-rations,  lack  of 
clothing,  all  but  24  of  the  regiment  re-enlisted  in  the  woods  of  East 
Tennessee  in  the  space  of  36  hours. 

After  a  furlough  the  regiment  went  to  Annapolis.     On  April  3,  after 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  593 


a  review  by  President  Lincoln  in  Washington,  it  marched  to  Bristow's 
Station  on  the  Rapidan ;  crossed  the  river  May  5  at  Germania  Ford,  and 
engaged  in  the  battle  of  the  Wilderness.  The  Twenty-first  was  one  of 
the  two  regiments  that  "prevented  the  Rebels  reaping  any  fruits  from 
their  temporary  success."  The  loss  was  fifteen.  On  the  21st  it  was 
in  another  engagement,  and  made  a  charge  in  which  ten  were  lost. 
Skirmishes  followed  for  two  days,  during  which  27  more  were  lost. 
There  was  another  skirmish  the  night  of  the  19th ;  another  on  the  24th 
at  North  Anna  river,  after  which  the  regiment  marched  to  Shady  Grove 
road,  where,  formed  in  line  of  battle,  it  lay  several  days  and  nights  in 
sight  of  the  enemy.  On  May  31  and  June  1  there  were  lively  picket 
fights,  and  three  were  killed  and  three  wounded.  On  the  21st,  the  regi- 
ment again  won  distinction : 

The  Twenty-first  fell  back  as  slowly  as  possible,  and  engaged  them  fiercely.  Soon 
however  the  whole  rebel  line  advanced,  and  almost  surrounded  the  Twenty-first,  which 
fell  back  and  joined  the  division,  when  the  whole  corps  soon  became  a:ctively  engaged, 
and  soon  the  whole  army.  In  this  terrible  trial,  the  Twenty-first,  under  command  of 
the  brave  and  now  regretted  Captain  Sampson,  did  nobly;  otherwise  the  whole  rebel 
line  would  have  been  upon  our  army's  rear  before  prepared  for  it.  As  it  was,  with  due 
notice  by  the  brisk  firing  of  the  picket,  they  were  alarmed,  formed  in  line  of  battle, 
and  resisted  the  impetuous  charge  of  the  rebels  with  terrible  slaughter." 

In  this  action  seven  were  killed,  26  wounded,  13  missing;  total  46. 
Next  day  the  regiment  was  again  engaged,  repelling  an  attack  of  the 
enemy.  Then  came  a  few  days  of  rest,  interrupted  by  occasional  skirm- 
ishes, after  which  the  march  to  the  James  river  began.  Crossing  the 
river,  the  regiment  arrived  at  a  position  near  Petersburg,  June  16,  and 
took  part  in  the  fighting  of  that  day.  In  the  trenches  the  regiment  was 
exposed  to  great  hardship  through  the  month  of  July,  during  which 
three  were  killed  and  ten  wounded.  The  day  of  the  explosion  of  the 
Mine  was  one  of  great  disaster.  The  loss  was  two  killed,  15  wounded, 
seven  missing. 

It  was  decided  Aug.  18  that  the  21st  was  not  a  veteran  regiment, 
because  56  of  the  reenlisted  men  had  been  rejected,  and  the  regiment 
was  ordered  to  be  broken  up.  On  that  very  day,  how^ever,  the  remnants 
of  the  regiment  were  engaged.  The  re-enlisted  men  were  organized  as 
the  Thirty-sixth  Regt.  after  the  others  had  left  for  home.  The  returning 
veterans  came  from  City  Point  to  Washington,  Aug.  19,  arriving  in  Bos- 
ton, Aug.  22.  They  assembled  again  in  Worcester  on  Aug.  30  and  were 
mustered  out.  The  losses  during  service  were :  11  commissioned 
officers  and  120  men  killed ;  24  officers  and  383  men  wounded ;  78  miss- 
ing.    The  regiment  took  part  in  23  battles,  besides  various  skirmishes. 

Twenty-fifth  Mass.  Volunteers. — The  Worcester  County  Regiment 
(25th  Mass.)  was  organized  at  Camp  Lincoln  in  September  and  Octo- 

W.— 1-38. 


594  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

ber,  1861,  and  left  for  the  front  Oct.  31.  The  enlistments  were  stimu- 
lated by  a  war  meeting  in  Mechanics  Hall,  Sept.  14,  D.  Waldo  Lincoln 
presiding,  and  Hon.  Henry  Wilson  and  Hon.  A.  H.  Bullock  delivering 
stirring  addresses.  Lieut.  McCafferty  also  made  an  appeal  to  the  young 
men  to  enlist.  Lt.  Col.  Sprague  was  given  a  sword  and  belt  by  members 
of  Co.  A,  lately  under  his  command,  and  the  various  other  officers 
received  similar  gifts.  A  horse  was  presented  by  his  friends  to  Maj.  Mc- 
Cafferty, and  a  sword  and  other  accoutrements  by  members  of  the  bar. 
A  horse  was  also  presented  to  Col.  Sprague.  A  flag  was  given  by  the 
ladies.  The  presentation  of  the  many  gifts  to  the  officers  of  the  regiment 
gave  occasion  for  some  speeches  of  historic  value  and  fiery  eloquence. 
Gov.  Andrew  reviewed  the  new  regiment  Oct.  30,  and  he  praised  the 
appearance  of  the  men.  At  the  time  of  its  departure  the  Spy  commented 
thus : 

It  is  of  the  same  good  stock  as  the  Fifteenth,  of  whose  achievements  we  are  all  so 
justly  proud.  It  was  too  plain  for  concealment,  and  is  no  reflection  upon  any  other 
regiment,  that  the  heart  of  our  city  was  more  deeply  touched  by  its  departure  than  by 
that  of  any  previous  one.  Our  whole  community  watched  its  gathering  and  its  organ- 
ization with  the  deepest  interest,  and  it  was  present  in  unprecedented  numbers  to  cheer 
it  oflf.  But  we  do  not  forget  there  were  other  experiences  ;  that  there  were  afflictive 
separations,  and  groans  and  tears.  .  .  .  We  have  good  reason  for  believing  that 
there  is  not  a  man  in  the  Twenty-fifth  who  does  not  know  how  warmly  his  regiment  is 
cherished  here ;  and  we  know  there  is  not  a  class,  or  sect,  or  party,  or  nationality, 
which  have  not  representatives  in  it,  of  which  each  can  say,  "By  them  we  will  be 
judged."  As  a  living  power  in  defence  of  a  good  cause,  this  regiment  will  be  known 
widely  hereafter.  May  the  God  of  justice  be  its  helper!  for  with  Him  is  victory,  and 
out  of  victory  must  come  peace,  its  blessed  fruit. 

The  regiment  arrived  in  New  York,  Nov.  1,  via  New  London.  The 
officers  breakfasted  at  the  Astor  House,  and  speeches  were  delivered  by 
Col.  Howe,  Samuel  Hathaway,  Lt.  Col.  Sprague,  Gen.  Burnside,  Nathan 
Jackson,  a  veteran  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  Parke  Godwin,  editor 
of  the  New  York  Evening  Post,  Richard  Busteed  and  Rev.  Horace 
James,  chaplain.  Arriving  on  Nov.  3  at  Annapolis,  the  regiment  en- 
camped at  Camp  Hicks,  where  it  remained  until  Jan.  7,  1862,  embarking 
then  on  the  New  York  Zouave  and  Skirmisher,  and  sailing  on  the  tenth. 
The  Zouave  foundered  on  the  way  south,  but  no  lives  were  lost.  On  the 
7th  a  landing  was  made  on  Roanoke  Island.  The  battle  followed  and  the 
regiment  lost  six  killed  and  42  wounded.     Col.  Upton  reported  : 

I  would  express  my  great  satisfaction  with  the  conduct  of  the  regiment,  both  offi- 
cers and  men.  It  was,  throughout  the  engagement,  of  the  bravest  kind,  standing  as 
they  did  for  hours,  in  the  water  to  their  knees,  exposed  to  an  incessant  fire  of  mus- 
ketry, grape  and  shell,  with  no  disposition  on  the  part  of  any  man  to  waver.  The 
skirmishing  of  company  A,  Captain  Pickett,  was  performed  in  a  manner  that  would 
have  done  credit  to  regulars.  I  can  but  express  my  particular  satisfaction  with  the 
manner  in  which  Lieutenant-Colonel  Sprague,  Major  McCafferty  and  Adjutant  Hark- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  595 

ness  performed  the  duties  devolving  upon  them,  and  the  support  rendered  me  by  them 
throughout  the  engagement. 

The  regiment  embarked  Mar.  7  and  sailed  for  Newbern,  landing  on 
the  11th  at  Slocum's  creek,  and  taking  part  in  the  battle  of  Newbern, 
which  was  described  by  Col.  Upton  in  a  letter  to  the  Fitchburg  Sentinel 
as  follows : 

We  built  camp-fires,  sent  out  our  pickets,  partook  of  a  lunch  from  our  haversacks, 
and  after  making  a  reconnoissance  down  the  river,  prepared  to  spend  the  night  on  the 
ground  already  very  wet,  and  rain  still  falling  in  torrents.  Some  of  our  men  lying 
down  and  some  standing  up,  we  generally  passed  a  sleepless  night.  We  had  our  lunch 
early,  and  were  ready  to  move  at  seven  o'clock.  We  passed  along  nearly  a  mile,  and 
discovered  an  earthwork  thrown  up  with  the  enemy  in  position,  and  batteries  com- 
manding the  road.  We  flanked  ofi  to  the  right,  and  had  hardly  cleared  the  road  be- 
fore they  opened  their  batteries,  throwing  their  shot  and  shell  in  a  very  careless  man- 
ner. .  .  .  We  sent  out  scouts  to  ascertain  their  exact  position,  and  found  a  long 
line  of  breastworks,  some  two  miles,  we  sent  out  the  two  flank  companies  as  skirmishers 
into  the  woods,  to  see  what  was  there,  as  the  balls  were  flying  all  around  us.  They  ad- 
vanced some  little  distance,  discovered  a  portion  of  the  enemy,  and  opened  fire  upon 
them  as  did  also  the  regiment.  They  soon  surrendered  to  the  number  of  about  one 
hundred  and  fifty  men,  and  were  placed  in  charge  of  Co.  H,  Captain  Moulton.  Their 
colonel,  who  delivered  his  pistol  to  me,  showed  a  bullet  hole  through  his  cap,  which 
just  cleared  his  head,  and  said  he  would  rather  it  had  gone  through  his  head  than  to 
have  surrendered.    He  was  in  the  fight  at  Big  Bethel,  and  is  a  tough  customer. 

The  25th  was  the  first  to  reach  the  city  of  Newbern.  The  loss  was 
small,  four  killed  and  16  wounded.  The  regiment  did  provost  duty  in 
the  city  until  May  9.  Lt.  Col.  Sprague  left  with  his  regiment  July  24 
and  marched  with  other  regiments  to  Trenton,  but  found  no  enemy 
opposing  and  returned  five  days  later. 

During  the  summer  Lt.  Col.  Sprague  left  to  accept  a  commission  as 
colonel  of  the  51st  and  Col.  Upton  resigned,  Major  Pickett  succeeding  to 
the  command.  In  October  the  regiment  moved  and  on  Nov.  2  took  part 
in  a  sharp  fight  at  Rawles's  Mills,  routing  the  enemy.  Hamilton  was 
reached  on  the  fourth  and  abandoned  on  the  sixth,  the  enemy  being  too 
strongly  entrenched.  On  Dec.  11,  the  regiment  took  part  in  the  march 
to  Kinston,  Whitehall  and  Goldsboro  and  shared  in  some  hard  fighting. 

In  the  spring  of  1863,  the  rebels  boasted  that  they  would  drive  the 
Union  troops  from  North  Carolina,  and  re-possess  Newbern  on  the  four- 
teenth of  March,  the  anniversary  of  its  capture,  one  year  before,  by 
General  Burnside.  The  first  demonstration  was  made  on  the  afternoon 
of  the  thirteenth  of  March  on  the  outpost  at  Deep  Gully,  with  a  large 
force  of  infantry,  cavalry  and  artillery. 

On  this  day,  Colonel  Pickett,  with  six  companies,  started  at  half- 
past  five  p.  m.,  for  Deep  Gully,  where  the  other  four  companies  were  sta- 
tioned, that  place  being  attacked  by  the  enemy,  who  were  in  strong 
force  in  front.     Guarding  and  skirmishing  followed  till  morning,  when  a 


596  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


company  was  moved  forward  which  attacked  the  enemy's  line.  Musk- 
etry firing  was  kept  up  for  nearly  three  hours.  The  colonel's  report  con- 
tinues : 

The  city  being  attacked  in  our  rear,  the  regiments  supporting  me  were  withdrawn 
for  its  defence,  and  I  was  left  with  my  regiment  and  two  pieces  of  artillery,  to  take  care 
of  the  enemy  as  best  I  could.  Having  special  orders  from  General  Palmer  not  to  ex- 
pose the  pieces,  I  blockaded  the  road  and  fell  back  to  a  better  position  at  the  Jackson 
House,  and  awaited  their  advance.  They  soon  began  to  shell  the  woods  around,  and 
kept  it  up  at  intervals  during  the  day,  but  did  not  advance.  .  .  .  Captain  Harring- 
ton, with  one  company,  was  sent  out  to  observe  the  movements  and  position  of  the 
enemy  if  possible.  He  went  as  far  as  Deep  Gully,  and  found  them  falling  back,  and 
exchanged  shots  with  them  at  that  place. 

In  this  expedition  one  man  was  wounded,  and  one  was  missing. 
Nothing  of  special  importance  took  place,  in  the  military  line,  for  about 
two  months,  although  it  must  be  remembered,  that  our  forces  by  merely 
holding  their  position,  were  doing  an  important  service. 

The  regiment,  however,  was  actively  employed,  although  no  decisive 
results  were  obtained.  The  enemy  failing  in  their  attempts  on  Newbern, 
next  turned  their  attention  to  Washington  and  Plymouth.  To  resist 
and  foil  their  designs.  Colonel  Pickett  was  sent  on  the  eighteenth  of 
March,  to  the  important  post  of  Plymouth.  He  did  not  reach  the  place 
a  moment  too  soon,  as  the  rebels  were  already  threatening  an  attack. 
The  river  side  of  the  town  was  protected  by  our  gun-boats,  and  the 
whole  land  force,  under  command  of  Colonel  Pickett,  began  immediately 
to  perfect  the  fortifications  of  the  post.  On  the  thirtieth.  General  Hill, 
while  threatening  Plymouth,  made  a  determined  attack  on  Washington. 
While  he  was  wasting  his  strength  vainly  there,  our  troops  at  Plymouth 
completed  the  work  of  fortifying  the  post;  and  General  Hill,  with  his 
rebel  forces,  dejected  and  discouraged,  withdrew.  While  in  "Camp  Flus- 
ser,"  at  Plymouth,  the  Twenty-fifth,  under  command  of  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Moulton,  performed  much  laborious  service,  always  cherfully 
undergoing  the  most  fatiguing  duties  to  ensure  the  safety  of  the  place. 
On  the  seventh  of  May,  the  regiment  being  relieved  by  troops  from  Gen- 
eral Wessell's  brigade,  was  ordered  back  to  Newbern,  and  re-occupied 
its  old  camp  near  the  city. 

On  the  twenty-first  of  May,  the  regiment  started  at  half  an  hour 
after  midnight,  on  an  expedition  to  Gum  Creek.  After  a  long  march, 
and  a  ride  on  a  train  of  cars  about  eight  miles,  the  regiment  reached 
Cove  Creek  at  half-past  eleven  p.  m.  In  half  an  hour  it  took  up  its  line 
of  march  for  Gum  Creek,  Captain  Denny  at  the  head  of  Company  K, 
acting  as  advance-guard.  "We  moved  on  quickly,"  writes  Colonel 
Pickett,  "meeting  no  opposition  from,  or  seeing  any  signs  of  the  enemy, 
till  about  four  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  twenty-second  ;  then  our 
advance-guard  met  the  enemy's  pickets,  exchanged  shots  with  them  aixi 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  597 

drove  them  in.  Advancing  cautiously,  we  were  soon  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  the  enemy's  camp.  By  order  of  Colonel  Lee,  I  filed  my  regi- 
ment into  the  field  to  the  right  of  the  road,  and  took  position  on  the  left 
flank  of  the  enemy,  forming  line  of  battle."  Captains  Denny  and  O'Neil, 
with  their  companies,  were  sent  forward  as  skirmishers,  and  to  discover 
and  report  the  position  of  the  enemy.  They  soon  sent  word  that  they 
"were  in  sight  of  a  long  line  of  earthworks,  and  had  exchanged  shots  with 
the  enemy.  I  instructed  them  to  engage  him  closely,  so  as  to  draw,  if 
possible,  his  attention  from  his  flanks  and  rear.  This  they  succeeded  in 
doing  admirably.  Our  skirmishers  exchanged  their  first  shots  with  the 
enemy  at  his  earthworks,  at  about  half-past  six  a.  m.  At  ten,  we  heard 
firing  in  the  rear  of  the  enemy,  which  indicated  the  approach  of  Colonel 
Jones  in  that  direction.  I  immediately  strengthened  my  line  of  skirm- 
ishers by  throwing  forward  Company  A,  Captain.  Goodwin,  and  moved 
foward  my  regiment  in  line  of  battle.  Company  A  was  soon  over  the 
earthworks.  The  enemy,  outflanked  and  attacked  in  the  rear,  had  fled 
precipitately  to  the  woods  and  swamps,  and  I  had  the  pleasure,  in  a  few 
moments,  of  seeing  my  regimental  colours  planted  upon  their  entrench- 
ments. At  five  p.  m.,  the  enemy, — no  doubt,  reinforced  from  Kinston, — 
moved  down  the  railroad  and  commenced  shelling  the  woods.  The 
object  of  the  expedition  having  been  accomplished,  we  took  up  our  line 
of  march  for  Cove  Creek." 

On  the  return,  while  acting  as  a  rear-guard  on  the  twenty-third, 
the  enemy's  advance-guard  fired  on  our  regiment  from  the  opposite  side 
of  the  creek.  Soon  word  came  that  three  regiments  of  the  enemy  were 
moving  down  with  the  very  "evident  intention  of  striking  our  left 
flank  and  rear"  before  the  regiment  could  reach  the  cars.  By  good  man- 
agement, this  design  of  the  enemy  was  foiled,  and  our  troops  retired 
safely  to  Newbern,  where  they  arrived  about  four  p.  m.  on  the  twenty- 
third,  which  was  Saturday.  Three  privates  were  wounded,  and  one 
was  missing. 

On  the  third  of  July,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Moulton,  with  companies 
B,  C,  F,  I  and  K,  was  ordered  to  Washington,  North  Carolina,  to  rein- 
force the  garrison.  Three  companies,  B,  C  and  F,  under  command  of 
Captain  Foss,  garrisoned  the  defences  at  Hill's  Point.  Company  I,  Cap- 
tain Parkhurst,  was  stationed  at  Rodman's  Quarter,  and  Company  K  was 
retained  in  the  city  as  provost-guard.  Captain  Denny  had  been  trans- 
ferred from  Newbern,  where  he  had  served  as  provost-marshal,  to  the 
same  position  at  Washington.  The  five  companies  remaining  at  or  near 
Newbern,  under  command  of  Colonel  Pickett,  marched  on  the  seven- 
teenth of  July,  to  Swift  Creek,  supporting  the  cavalry  column  in  the 
Rocky  Mount  raid.  There  was  slight  skirmishing  with  the  enemy.  Thev 
returned  on  the  twentieth. 

The  next  expedition  took  place  in  the  latter  part  of  July,  and 
extended  to  Winton.     Four  companies  of  the  regiment  left  Newbern  on 


598  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


the  twenty-fifth,  on  board  the  steamer  "Colonel  Rucker,"  at  six  o'clock 
in  the  morning.  They  reached  Winton  on  the  twenty-sixth,  where  they 
disembarked,  "and  went  into  bivouac  on  the  Chowan  River.  On  the 
twenty-eighth,  two  companies  under  command  of  Captain  T.  O'Neil, 
went  to  Colerain,  twenty  miles  distant  from  Winton.  The  next  day 
they  returned,  bringing  with  them  thirty-three  horses  and  mules,  a  num- 
ber of  carriages,  &c."  Detachments  of  companies  G  and  II,  under  com- 
mand of  Captain  Harrington,  were  sent  out  ten  miles  on  the  Colerain 
road,  to  bring  in  cotton.  They  returned,  next  day.  with  twelve  bales 
of  cotton,  and  twenty  horses  and  mules,  and  a  number  of  carriages,  har- 
ness, &c.  No  commissary  stores  were  met  with,  as  the  enemy  had 
removed  or  concealed  everything  of  the  kind.  On  the  last  day  of  July 
the  troops  embarked  on  the  steamer  Utica,  having  in  charge  sixty-six 
prisoners,  including  three  commissioned  officers. 

At  this  time  the  force  under  command  of  Colonel  Pickett  numbered 
two  hundred  and  eighteen  enlisted  men ;  nine  line  officers ;  three  field 
and  stafif  officers ;    total,  two  hundred  and  thirty. 

The  month  of  August  was  passed  by  the  companies  at  Newbern  in 
the  work  of  entrenching  and  strengthening  the  defences. 

Colonel  Pickett  was  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  sub-dis.rict  of 
Pamplico,  head-quarters  at  Washington,  on  the  sixth  of  September  The 
district  embraced  all  the  line  of  fortifications  in  and  about  Washington; 
and  also  all  the  defensible  works  on  the  Tar  Riv.er  and  vicinity.  At  the 
same  time  companies  A,  E,  G  and  H,  were  ordered  to  the  Red  ,  ■ 'Use, 
on  outpost  duty,  under  command  of  Major  Atwood.     Company  L'ap- 

tain  Foster,  garrisoned  Fort  Stevenson,  on  the  Neuse  River.  i  the 

twenty-second  of  October,  Surgeon  Rice, with  his  orderly,  was  taken  pris- 
oner, outside  the  lines,  by  a  scouting  party  of  rebels,  near  our  o  m  ^t  at 
Red  House.     He  was  exchanged  after  a  brief  stay  at  the  "LiV 

In  this  scattered  condition  the  regiment  did  valuable  service  until 
October  23,  when  orders  were  received  for  the  Twenty-fifth  to  Miicen- 
trate  at  Newbern,  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Moulton,  and  im;  tcliately 
proceed  to  Fortress  Monroe,  with  a  view  to  joining  in  a  projected  move- 
ment on  Weldon  Bridge,  North  Carolina;  but  in  the  meantime.  >  weral 
Foster  being  ordered  to  Tennessee,  and  General  Butler  assum  •_:  ^om- 
mand,  the  expedition  w^as  abandoned,  and  the  regiment  went  i  imp 

at  Newport  News.     On  the  fifth  of  December,  Colonel   Pic  '  ving 

been  relieved  from  the  command  at  Washington,  Norlli  Carob  med 

the  regiment  with  the  adjutant,  Lieutenant  McConville.  and  lant 

Drennan,  both  of  whom  had  been  serving  on  stafT  duty  at  W  ^ton 

with  him. 

On  the  fourteenth  of  December,  the  regiment  was  statio;  imp 

Upton,  Newport  News,  where  it  remained  until  the  fourtii  the 

succeeding  February.     While  there  four  hundred  and  l'  '  the 

men  were  re-enlisted  under  the  provisions  of  General   (  *r  191, 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  599 

C.  S.,  1863,  War  Department,  and  were  allowed  to  proceed  to  Massachu- 
setts on  furlough  as  a  veteran  regiment. 

After  a  month's  furlough  during  which  the  reenlisted  veterans  were 
given  a  warm  reception  at  home  and  in  Boston,  the  25th,  under  Col. 
Pickett  went  to  the  front  again,  leaving  March  25,  1863,  by  rail,  to  Bal- 
timore, thence  by  sea  to  Fortress  Monroe.  Just  before  leaving  a  beau- 
tiful flag  was  presented  to  the  regiment  by  Miss  Frances  M.  Lincoln  in 
behalf  of  the  ladies  of  the  city.  The  first  flag  had  been  worn  out  in  the 
service. 

On  the these  men  left  the  fortress  and  proceeded  to  Getty's 

station  where  they  were  joined  by  those  of  the  regiment  who  had  not 
reenlisted,  and  were  stationed  at  Camp  Wellington.  They  took  part 
in  a  skirmish  during  an  expedition  to  Smithfield  Apr.  13. 

Orders  were  received  Apr.  22  to  embark  for  Plymouth,  N.  C,  but 
when  the  regiment  reached  Albermarle  Sound,  it  was  ordered  back  to 
Getty's  station.  In  the  meantime  two  companies  that  had  been  on  an 
expedition  to  Suffolk,  Va.,  returned  to  camp. 

From  April  26  to  May  4  the  regiment  was  at  Yorktown,  leaving 
then  for  Bermuda  Hundred,  arriving  on  the  fifth,  and  marching  next 
morning  to  Cobb's  Hill,  whic^  was  occupied  at  11  a.  m.  At  five  p.  m.  the 
brigade  attacked  the  enemy  at  Walthall  Station  to  get  possession  of  the 
Richmond  &  Petersburg  Railroad,  but  failed,  losing  three  killed  and  14 
wounded.     Another  attack  next  day  succeeded. 

An  advance  was  made  on  the  Richmond  Turnpike  May  9  and  the 
enemy  driven  into  works  on  Swift  Creek.  The  regiment  repelled  a  furi- 
ous charge  of  the  25th  S.  Carolina.  This  action  was  known  as  the  battle 
of  Arrowfield  Church  and  cost  an  officer  and  11  men  killed,  two  officers 
and  47  men  wounded.  There  was  skirmishing  May  11  when  the  regi- 
ment marched  on  the  turnpike  toward  Richmond,  and  again  the  next 
day,  continuing  until  the  16th,  when  the  enemy  made  a  desperate  assault. 
The  25th  fought  splendidly,  holding  their  ground  with  the  utmost  ten- 
acity, inflicting  on  the  charging  columns  of  the  enemy  the  most  terrible 
slaughter,  until  surrounded,  and  with  ammunition  exhausted,  they  were 
ordered  to  face  by  the  rear  rank  and  charge  the  Rebel  line.  Thus  the 
regiment  extricated  itself,  reformed  its  lines  in  the  rear,  and  checked  the 
further  advance  of  the  enemy.  Eleven  were  killed,  52  wounded  and  73 
missing  in  this  regiment. 

The  regiment  went  to  White  House  on  the  30th,  and  marched  next 
day  toward  Richmond,  bivouacking  at  Church  Tavern,  within  twelve 
miles  of  the  city.  June  1  they  reached  Cold  Harbor.  Following  is  the 
official  report: 

We  were  ordered  to  assault  the  enemy's  works.  The  regiment  charged  gallantly 
some  distance  through  a  most  galling  fire,  until  within  a  few  yards  of  their  intrench- 
ments ;  [the  enemy's]  they  were  met  by  a  storm  of  bullets,  shot  and  shell,  that  no  hu- 


667200A 


6oo  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


mail  power  could  withstand.  Checked  in  their  attempt  to  break  the  rebel  line,  and 
with  two-thirds  of  their  number  killed  or  disabled,  the  regiment  still  determinedly  held 
the  position  gained,  protecting  themselves  as  best  they  could,  by  the  nature  of  the 
ground,  until  dark,  when  with  their  hands  and  tin  cups,  rifle-pits  were  constructed, 
thus  rendering  the  position  tenable.  In  this  desperate  assault  the  regiment  displayed 
the   most  heroic  bravery. 

On  the  12th  it  marched  to  White  House.  The  regiment  lost  at  Cold 
Harbor  four  officers  and  23  men  killed  ;  11  officers  and  128  men  wounded  ; 
two  officers  and  4T  men  missing.  In  two  weeks  it  had  lost  two-thirds  of 
its  number.  The  remnants  were  at  Point  of  Rocks  on  the  Appomattox, 
June  14,  and  at  2  a.  m.  next  day  started  for  Petersburg.  During  the 
action  on  the  15th,  Co.  A  under  Sergt.  Samuel  Putnam  captured  three 
12-lb.  Napoleon  guns.  Capt.  V.  P.  Parkhurst  succeeded  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  regiment. 

During  a  charge  on  the  18th,  the  regiment  lost  an  officer  and  12  men 
wounded.  During  the  next  five  weeks  it  was  in  the  trenches  in  front 
of  Petersburg  and  lost  six  men  killed,  an  officer  and  24  men  wounded. 
From  Aug.  25  to  Sept.  4  it  was  on  the  left  of  Butler's  line  of  works. 
Thence  it  went  again  to  Newbern,  X.  C.  On  Oct.  15  those  whose  term 
had  expired  were  ordered  home  under  Capt.  Denny,  and  were  mustered 
out  Oct.  20.  They  received  a  most  cordial  welcome.  The  remainder 
of  the  regiment  was  assigned  with  their  officers  in  four  companies  in  a 
battalion  under  Capt.  James  Tucker,  to  quarters  near  Ft.  Spinola.  The 
total  loss  of  the  regiment  was  21  officers  and  383  men. 

During  the  last  months  of  1864  and  two  months  in  18G5  the  remain- 
ing battalion  of  the  regiment  was  engaged  in  picket  duty  near  Newbern, 
and  was  in  action  March  10,  having  an  officer  and  four  men  wounded. 
On  March  22  it  marched  for  Goldsboro,  and  joined  Sherman's  army. 
From  May  12  to  July  13  it  was  in  the  vicinity  of  Charlotte.  Return- 
ing homeward,  it  reached  Readville,  July  21,  and  a  week  later  was  mus- 
tered out. 

The  Thirty-sixth  Regiment. — The  3()th  Regiment,  recruited  in  this 
city,  was  ready  for  the  field  Sept.  3,  1861,  in  command  of  Col.  Henry 
Bowman.  Colors  were  given  by  Mayor  Aldrich,  and  the  regiment 
proceeded  to  Boston,  where  it  emliarked  on  the  steamer  Merriniac,  and 
arrived  in  Washington  on  Sept.  11.  It  was  stationed  af  Leesboro,  leav- 
ing on  the  15th  to  join  Burnside's  army.  On  Sept.  20  it  arrived  at  Antie- 
tam  Iron  Works,  and  on  Oct.  7  at  Pleasant  Valley.  After  a  march  to 
Frederick  and  Point  of  Rocks  it  returned  on  the  15th  to  Pleasant  Val- 
ley. It  crossed  the  Potomac  on  a  pontoon  bridge  at  Berlin,  Oct.  2,  and 
reached  Lovettsville,  Va.,  the  same  day.  On  Dec.  12  it  took  part  in  the 
battle  of  Fredericksburg.  It  remained  at  Falmouth  the  rest  of  the  year. 
In  February  and  March  it  was  at  Newport  News,  leaving  late  in  March 
for  Lexington,  Ky.,  where  it  encamped  March  29.  It  was  sent  to  Cin- 
cinnati to  do  riot  duty.     It  marched  to  Camp  Dick  Robinson,  arriving 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  6oi 

April  9 ;  thence  three  weeks  later  to  Middleburg,  afterward  being  busy 
in  chasing  Morgan's  guerillas.  It  started  for  Vicksburg,  June  7,  embark- 
ing on  the  Meteor  at  Cairo,  and  was  stationed  six  miles  in  the  rear  of 
Vicksburg.  It  took  part  in  the  pursuit  of  Johnston.  The  regiment 
returned  in  August  and  went  into  barracks  at  Covington,  Ky.  On  Sept. 
10  the  regiment  was  reduced  to  189,  out  of  nearly  800  enlisted.  The 
southern  climate  and  hard  marching  disabled  man}^  and  caused  many 
deaths.  On  Sept.  '22  the  remnant  of  the  regiment  reached  Morristown, 
Tenn.  It  was  kept  busy  to  the  end  of  the  campaign  defending  East 
Tennessee.  From  Sept.  27  to  Oct.  3  it  was  in  camp  at  Knoxville,  then 
ordered  out  to  meet  a  Rebel  force  under  Gen.  Jones,  defeating  them  at  Blue 
Springs,  where  Lt.  Col.  Goddell  was  wounded  and  five  others.  The 
next  day  the  enemy  was  pursued  for  20  miles  and  many  prisoners  taken. 
The  regiment  rested  at  Knoxville  from  the  loth  to  the  20th,  and  was 
very  active  until  Oct.  4,  when  the  men  began  to  build  winter  quarters. 
After  working  at  this  job  a  fortnight,  the  heaviest  fighting  of  all  took 
place.  The  regiment  was  sent  out  to  check  Longstreet's  advance,  and 
was  attacked  near  Campbell's  Station,  where  an  officer  and  14  privates 
were  wounded  and  four  missing.  On  the  17th  and  18th  there  was  skirm- 
ishing; on  the  19th  the  regiment  built  rifle  pits  and  occupied  Ft.  Saun- 
ders. There  was  a  fierce  attack  on  the  29th.  The  enemy  finally  retreated 
early  in  December.  During  the  siege,  only  quarter-rations  were  received ; 
blankets  and  shoes  were  lacking;  the  men  suffered  from  hunger,  cold 
and  lack  of  sleep.     The  official  report  says : 

The  regiment  has  marched  an  aggregate  distance  of  one  thousand  and  thirteen 
miles,  and  has  been  transported  an  aggregate  distance  of  four  thousand  three  hundred 
and  twenty-eight  miles.  We  have  now  eighteen  officers,  and  one  hundred  and  ninety- 
two  enlisted  men  present  for  duty.  Since  we  left  the  state,  [in  September  1862,]  one 
officer  and  seven  men  have  been  killed  or  died  of  wounds,  three  officers  and  seventy- 
nine  men  have  died  of  disease,  twelve  officers  and  one  hundred  and  thirty  men  have 
been  discharged,  twenty-two  men  have  been  transferred  to  other  organizations  and 
thirty-three  men  have  been  wounded  in  action,  and  eighteen  men  taken  prisoners.  Eight 
have  been  promoted  from  the  ranks. 

Thirty-fourth  Regiment. — The  Thirty-fourth  regiment  composed  of 
men  from  this  city  and  western  Mass.  left  here  Aug.  15,  1862,  and  went 
through  Norwich,  Jersey  City,  Philadelphia,  Baltimore,  to  Washington ; 
crossed  Long  Bridge  to  Arlington  Heights,  and  camped  at  Camp  Casey. 
While  here  Maj.  Bowman  left  to  receive  his  commission  as  colonel  of 
the  36th.  Marching  to  Alexandria  on  the  22d,  the  regiment  was  unable 
to  get  transportation  and  camped  there,  remaining  during  Pope's  retreat 
from  Manassas ;  marched  to  Fairfax  Seminary,  Sept.  12,  and  on  the  15th 
to  Ft.  Lyon,  where  it  remained  until  May,  1863,  moving  thence  to  Upton 
Hill,  and  on  June  2  to  Washington,  where  it  was  occupied  in  defending 
the  city.     On  July  9  it  was  ordered  to  Harper's  Ferry  and  started  at  once, 


6o2  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


camping  at  Maryland  Heights;  crossing  the  Potomac  in  boats  on  the 
14th,  and  taking  possession  of  Harper's  Ferry,  from  which  the  enemy  had 
retreated. 

The  3-ith,  with  other  troops  under  Col.  Wells,  attacked  the  force  of 
Gen.  Imboden  and  put  it  to  flight.  The  regiment  was  commended  "for 
steadiness  of  conduct  and  its  endurance  in  the  march  of  35  miles  with- 
out food  or  rest  in  15  hours  and  successfully  fighting  double  their  num- 
ber for  ten  miles,  returning  to  camp  without  a  straggler." 

On  Dec.  10,  the  regiment  was  in  action,  marched  100  miles  in  four  days 
from  Harrisonburg  to  Harper's  Ferry,  escaping  from  a  superior  Rebel 
force.     It  took  part  in  the  battle  of  New  Market,  May  14: 

Our  advance  cavalry  v^^e  found  engaged  with  the  enemy.  The  fighting  lasted  till 
after  dark.  We  were  ordered  to  take  position  in  a  piece  of  woods  held  by  the  enemy. 
After  a  sharp  skirmish  we  drove  them  from  their  position.  We  lay  in  line  of  battle  all 
night,  in  a  cold,  drizzling  rain  storm,  which  had  continued  since  morning,  without  shel- 
ter from  the  storm,  or  anything  to  eat.  At  daylight,— May  15,— the  next  morning,  three 
companies  were  ordered  forward,  to  take  possession,  and  held  this  point  until  about 
eleven  A.  M.,  when  the  enemy  advanced  a  whole  brigade,  preceded  by  a  double  line  of 
skirmishers,  against  this  little  force.  By  skillful  deployment,  they  had  been  made  to 
believe  that  our  whole  force  was  there.  These  three  companies  waited  until  their  ad- 
vance was  within  twenty  rods,  when  they  were  rapidly  and  safely  withdrawn.  This 
maneuver  gained  for  us  three  or  four  hours,  and  enabled  a  part  of  the  remaining  force 
of  General  Sigel  to  come  up.  We  fell  back  about  a  mile,  and  forming  a  line  of  battle, 
awaited  the  attack.  The  enemy  were  soon  seen  advancing  in  beautiful  order,  with  three 
lines  of  battle,  each  larger  than  our  own,  their  line  yelling,  and  firing  with  great  ra- 
pidity. We  were  ordered  to  lie  down,  and  hold  our  fire  till  they  came  within  close 
range.  After  receiving  their  fire  some  ten  minutes,  we  arose  and  poured  into  them  a 
sharp  fire.  Their  first  line  was  crushed,  their  second  wavered,  halted,  and  began  to 
fall  back.  A  cheer  ran  along  our  lines,  and  the  first  success  was  ours.  Colonel  Tho- 
burn,  commanding  brigade,  rode  along  the  line,  ordering  us  to  prepare  to  charge.  We 
fixed  bayonets,  and  when  the  order  came,  sprang  forward.  The  enemy  had  rallied, 
and  received  us  with  a  severe  fire.  After  advancing  about  fifty  yards  we  discovered 
that  the  regiment  was  without  support,  and  going  forward  alone.  The  order  to  halt 
was  sounded,  but  nothing  could  be  heard  in  the  din  of  battle;  it  was  only  by  Colonel 
Wells  taking  the  color-bearer  by  the  shoulder,  and  holding  him  fast,  that  the  regiment 
could  be  stopped.  We  fell  back  to  our  first  position  and  renewed  the  fight.  The  bat- 
tery on  our  right,  losing  its  support,  had  limbered  up  and  retired.  We  were  alone  on 
the  right,  and  the  Fifty-fourth  Pennsylvania  on  the  left  of  the  pike;  the  fire  of  a 
whole  brigade  was  concentrated  upon  our  regiment.  The  men  were  falling  rapidly, 
and  it  was  useless  to  try  to  check,  with  our  small  force,  the  heavy  column  of  the 
enemy.  The  men  fell  back  fighting  stubbornly.  All  along  the  line  they  could  be  heard 
saying  to  each  other,  'For  God's  sake,  don't  run.  Thirty-fourth!  don't  let  them  drive 
you !'  We  were  ordered  by  General  Sullivan,  commanding  division,  to  fall  back  about  a 
mile,  when  a  second  line  was  formed.  The  enemy  did  not  pursue.  We  went  into  the 
fight  with  some  five  hundred  men.  Of  this  number  in  that  half-hour's  fight,  we  had  one 
officer  and  twenty-seven  men  killed,  eight  officers  and  one  hundred  and  sixty-six  men 
wounded;  three  of  the  former,  and  many  of  the  latter,  being  left  in  the  enemy's  hands; 
and  two  officers  and  sixteen  men  prisoners;  making  a  total  loss  of  two  hundred  and 
twenty-one.     Nearly  every  man  bore  about  him  the  marks  of  battle. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  603 

It  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Piedmont,  June  5.  Capt.  Potter,  then  in 
command,   reported: 

After  a  good  deal  of  maneuvering  by  our  brigade  on  the  left  of  the  line,  most 
of  the  time  under  a  heavy  artillery  fire,  we  were  moved  across  to  the  right  to  make  a 
charge  with  the  First  Brigade.  The  enemy  was  advantageously  posted  in  the  woods, 
on  the  crest  of  a  hill.  The  charge  was  made  about  2  P.  M.  The  rebels,  being  behind 
rail  breast-works,  made  a  stubborn  resistance.  We  charged  up  to  within  twenty  yards 
of  their  works,  when  the  whole  line  halted,  and  for  twenty  minutes  the  roar  of  mus- 
ketry was  terrible.  The  enemy  attempting  to  turn  our  left,  threw  a  heavy  force  upon 
our  fiank.  It  was  a  critical  time.  Had  our  left  but  given  way,  the  day  might  have 
had  another  issue.  The  two  companies  on  the  left,  I  and  B,  lost  fifty-four  men.  This 
attack  being  repulsed,  we  charged  in  turn  driving  them  in  the  greatest  confusion. 
Along  the  right,  our  fire  had  been  so  hot  it  compelled  the  rebels  to  keep  below  their  rail 
barricades.    We  caught  over  one  thousand  uninjured  men  lying  close  behind  them. 

The  regiment  lost  15  men  killed  and  90  wounded,  two  mortally. 
On  Jvme  T  it  marched  to  Buffalo  Gap,  destroying  public  buildings  and 
railroads.  On  June  10  it  was  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Lynchburg,  los- 
ing five  men  killed,  an  officer  and  41  men  wounded.  Then  began  a  long 
and  tedious  march  to  the  west  and  north  to  Gauley  Bridge.  Rations 
were  short,  and  the  men  suffered  from  hunger.  Marching  was  resumed 
July  2,  and  Camp  Piatt  reached  next  day.  On  the  -Ith  the  troops 
entrained  for  Cherry  Run,  Md.,  arriving  in  four  days,  completing  a  great 
circuit  of  many  marches  and  several  battles.  From  this  time  to  Sept. 
4  the  regiment  was  constantly  marching  in  various  directions  with  fre- 
quent skirmishes.  From  Sept.  4  to  19  it  was  at  Summit  Point.  The  reg- 
iment took  part  in  the  battle  of  Winchester,  Sept.  19,  Capt.  Thompson 
in  command : 

Our  regiment  was  ordered  to  hold  a  point  of  a  hill  looking  towards  a  ravine  where 
the  enemy  appeared  in  force,  and  from  which  a  flank  attack  might  come.  The  whole 
army  soon  charged  our  brigade,  passing  diagonally  from  left  to  right,  across  our  front. 
The  fighting  was  now  severe;  the  cheers  of  our  men,  and  the  fierce  yells  of  the  rebels, 
rising  above  the  roar  of  artillery  and  crashing  of  musketry.  We  soon  went  forward 
and  after  getting  clear  of  the  woods,  making  a  left  half  wheel,  we  charged  directly 
upon  the  enemy,  who  were  posted  behind  a  stone  fence.  We  were  now  almost  alone ; 
with  nothing  almost  on  our  left,  and  but  a  few  stragglers  on  our  right.  The  enemy 
opened  upon  us  a  fire  from  two  batteries ;  when  within  sixty  years  of  this  fence,  the 
rebels  rose  and  gave  us  a  terrible  volley.  The  men  were  falling  rapidly,  when  we  were 
ordered  to  lie  down.  The  two  batteries,  at  close  range,  were  firing  their  shot  and  shell 
into  us.  It  seemed  certain  death  to  remain.  A  staff  officer  ordered  us  to  hold  this 
position  if  it  cost  every  man  we  had.  He  told  us  that  the  Sixth  and  Nineteenth  Corps 
would  soon  be  up  on  our  left.  But  it  was  impossible  to  stay  there,  and  nothing  was  left 
but  to  charge  and  drive  the  enemy  from  the  wall.  The  order  was  given,  and  with  a  yell 
we  went  forward.  The  enemy  fled,  leaving  in  our  hands  one  gun.  While  gallantly 
leading  his  men  in  this  charge,  the  brave  Captain  Thompson  fell,  shot  through  the 
heart.  As  a  private  in  the  Eighth  Regiment,  he  fought  at  the  first  battle  of  Bull  Run. 
Obtaining  a  captaincy  in  the  Thirty-fourth,  he  proved  himself  a  most  accomplished  of- 
ficer.   Ever  foremost  in  battle,  his  personal  gallantry  on  the  field  won  for  him  the  re- 


5o4  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


spect  of  all.  Our  lines  were  soon  formed  for  the  final  charge,  in  three  lines  of  battle, 
crescent  shaped.  Over  an  open  field  we  moved  forward  to  the  attack ;  it  was  the  most 
splendidly  magnificent  sight  ever  seen ;  no  battle  picture  could  exceed  it.  In  beautiful 
order,  with  banners  gayly  flying,  these  three  lines,  each  nearly  a  mile  in  length,  ad- 
vanced upon  the  already  disordered  mass  of  the  enemy,  pouring  into  them  a  rapid  and 
concentric  fire.  As  they  broke,  two  divisions  of  cavalry,  with  flashing  sabres  and  loud 
yells,  charged  among  them,  then  wheeling,  charged  back,  driving  over  fifteen  hundred 
of  the  miscreant  horde  into  our  own  lines.  The  fight  was  over,  but  the  pursuit  was  kept 
up  all  night,  the  rebels  being  chased  to  Fisher's  Hill. 

Out  of  300  men  the  regiment  lost  110.     Next  day  it  moved  to  Cedar 
Creek.     Then  came  the  battle  of  Fisher's  Hill.     The  report  says: 

Before  daylight  on  the  twenty-second,  our  corps  was  moved  around  to  the  right 
of  our  lines.  We  passed  up  the  side  of  the  North  Mountain,  until  we  had  got  in  the 
rear  of  the  enemy's  lines,  where  with  fixed  bayonets  and  fierce  yells  we  charged  down 
the  mountain  side,  firing  as  we  advanced.  Had  the  heavens  themselves  opened,  and  we 
been  seen  descending  from  them,  the  surprise  and  consternation  of  the  rebels  could 
not  have  been  greater.  We  charged  over  their  works,  capturing  two  guns*  a  large 
amount  of  fixed  ammunition,  and  some  prisoners.  All  organization  being  lost  in  this 
wild  pursuit,  every  man  fought  for  himself,  and  in  his  own  manner.  One  man,  private 
William  Carr,  Company  B,  alone  charged  into  the  mass  of  retreating  rebels,  and 
brought  out  eight  prisoners,  whom  he  took  to  the  rear.  One  desperate  attempt,  only, 
was  made  by  the  enemy  to  check  our  advance,  but  in  the  wild  frenzy  of  battle  we  swept 
everything  before  us.  For  over  four  miles  we  charged  along  their  works,  turning  the 
enemy  out  as  the  plough  turns  the  furrow.  .  .  .  Thus  ended  the  fight  of  Fisher's 
Hill ;  to  which  the  history  of  this  war  furnishes  nothing  approaching  a  parallel ;— less 
than  five  thousand  men  routing  an  army  of  over  twenty  thousand,  and  driving  them 
from  a  position  which  they  boasted  they  could  hold  against  one  hundred  thousand. 
Our  regiment  took  two  guns  and  seven  caissons.    Our  loss  was  nineteen  men  wounded. 

On  the  ];3th  the  battle  of  Cedar  Creek  was  fought,  Lt.  Col.  Potter 
commanding.     The  report  says: 

Our  brigade  and  the  Third  were  ordered  to  advance  against  them,  to  discover  their 
force.  After  some  maneuvering  for  position,  we  moved  forward  under  the  severest 
fire  of  shell,  grape  and  canister,  we  had  ever  been  exposed  to.  Our  way  lay  across  an 
open  field,  and  our  regiment,  being  in  direct  range,  received  the  whole  fire.  The  shell 
would  strike  the  line  sweeping  down  four  or  five  men,  leaving  them  either  dead  or 
wounded.  The  regiment  would  close  up  these  gaps,  without  a  man's  faltering.  I  never 
saw  the  regiment  behave  more  splendidly.  We  took  position  behind  a  stone  fence 
where  we  were  below  the  range  of  their  artillery,  and  a  sharp  fire  of  half  an  hour  be- 
gan.   We  had  encountered  Kershaw's  whole  division  of  Longstreet's  Corps. 

The  Third  Brigade,  which  advanced  on  the  right  of  the  pike,  had  received  orders 
to  retire ;  similar  orders  had  been  sent  to  us,  but  never  reached  us.  We  were  not  in  a 
position  where  we  could  see  the  movements  of  the  other  brigade.  The  enemy  suddenly 
threw  a  heavy  force  upon  our  flank  and  rear.  The  four  right  companies  were  swung 
back  to  check  this  movement.  The  men  executing  this  movement  under  a  severe  fire, 
were  as  cool  as  on  drill.  Colonel  Wells  went  to  the  right  to  see  how  this  movement 
of  the  army  could  have  taken  place;  while  returning,  and  just  behind  our  colors,  he 
was  struck  by  a  ball.  He  threw  up  his  hands,  uttering  an  exclamation  as  of  great  pain. 
I  immediately  sent  an  officer  to  help  him  from  his  horse.     He  would  not  be  carried  to 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  605 


the  rear,  saying,  'Gentlemen,  it  is  of  no  use;  save  yourselves.'  We  would  not  maintain 
this  unequal  contest,  and  the  order  was  given  to  retire — and  our  brave  colonel  was  left 
to  die  in  the  enemy's  hands.  .  .  .  Thus  gallantly  fell  one  of  the  ablest  officers  in 
the  service,  at  a  time  when  the  honors  he  had  so  long  deserved  were  about  to  be  con- 
ferred on  him.  .  .  .  Our  loss  was  very  severe;  of  less  than  two  hundred  and  fifty 
men,  who  went  into  the  fight,  we  had  killed,  one  officer  and  eight  men ;  wounded,  two 
officers,  (one  of  whom  died,)  and  forty-six  men;  three  officers  and  thirty-seven  men 
captured.  This  fight  took  place  in  presence  of  the  whole  army,  and  within  range  of 
our  artillery ;  but  not  a  gun  was  fired  until  we  had  been  driven  from  the  field.  The 
enemy  did  not  pursue  as  they  were  within  range  of  our  guns. 

On  the  19th  was  fought  the  second  battle  of  Cedar  Creek,  in  which 
one  man  was  killed,  nine  wounded  and  32  captured.  The  regiinent  went 
to  Newton,  Oct.  19,  to  guard  a  hospital  and  remain  there  until  Nov.  10, 
when  it  joined  the  main  army  at  Kernstown,  Dec.  18  it  was  ordered 
to  Washington.  Since  April  29  it  had  marched  a  thousand  miles, 
fought  in  nine  battles  and  many  skirmishes ;  every  officer  except  one 
had  been  wounded,  and  nearly  every  man  had  been  hit.  The  colonel, 
major,  two  captains,  three  lieutenants  and  T3  men  had  been  killed  in 
action ;  the  lieutenant-colonel,  a  captain  and  a  lieutenant  severely 
wounded  and  taken  prisoners;  29  other  officers  and  613  men  wounded. 
But  eight  officers  and  302  men  were  fit  for  duty. 

Fifty-first  Regiment. — The  Fifty-first,  a  nine  months  regiment, 
recruited  at  Camp  Wool  under  Col.  Ward,  sailed  from  Boston  late  in 
November,  1862,  under  the  command  of  Col.  A.  B.  R.  Sprague,  and  pro- 
ceeded to  North  Carolina.  In  the  first  week  they  went  into  action.  Col. 
Sprague  made  the  following  report : 

I  reported  with  my  command,  seven  hundred  and  seventy-eight  rank  and  file,  on 
the  Trent  Road,  in  light  marching  order,  at  seven  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  Thursday, 
the  eleventh  inst.,  remaining  with  the  brigade  en  route  till  the  afternoon  of  Friday, 
when  we  were  detached  in  company  with  two  pieces  of  artillery,  under  command  of 
Captain  Ransom,  to  guard  the  'Beaver  Creek  Bridge,'  the  main  road  to  Kinston,  and 
the  road  to  Trenton,  in  rear  of  the  advancing  column.  Receiving  orders  from  Major- 
General  Foster,  at  half-past  one  o'clock  on  Sunday  morning,  to  join  the  main  force, 
without  delay,  we  marched  at  sunrise,  having  in  charge  twenty-one  prisoners,  (taken 
by  the  cavalry  on  the  main  road  to  Kinston,)  which  were  turned  over  to  the  provost- 
marshal  after  our  arrival  at  Kinston  on  Sunday  evening. 

We  advanced  with  the  brigade  on  Monday  morning,  arriving  at  the  scene  of  action 
at  Whitehall  about  eleven  o'clock,  A.  M.  on  Tuesday  morning,  and  though  not  par- 
ticipating in  the  engagement,  were  within  range  of  the  enemy's  guns,  on  the  right  of 
the  artillery,  which  was  engaged.  At  this  point,  in  obedience  to  orders  from  Major- 
General  Foster,  Lieutenant  Sanderson,  with  a  detachment,  was  detailed  to  examine 
the  river  below  the  bridge,  to  ascertain  the  practicability  of  fording  it.  After  a  care- 
ful examination  of  the  river  for  nearly  a  mile.  Lieutenant  Sanderson  reported  that  it 
was  not  fordable.  Tuesday  afternoon,  passing  up  with  the  main  column  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Neuse,  we  bivouacked  at  night  about  twelve  miles  from  Goldsboro'.  On 
Wednesday  we  were  detailed  to  guard  the  baggage  train,  from  which  duty  we  were 
relieved  in  the  afternoon,  when  the  train  and  troops  were  counter-marched,  after  the 
burning  of  the  railroad  bridge  by  the  advance.     Keeping  our  place  on  the  return,  on 


6o6  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Thursday,  Friday  and  Saturday,  we  encamped  on  Saturday  night  near  Deep  GuUey, 
and  arrived  at  our  barracks  on  the  Trent,  at  eleven  o'clock  on  Sunday  morning.  My 
men  were  considerably  jaded  and  foot-sore.  The  order  in  regard  to  pillaging  and 
foraging  was  enforced,  and  the  men  suffered  in  consequence  of  an  insufficient  supply  of 
meat.  Taking  into  consideration  the  fact  that  this  regiment  has  been  but  a  week  in  the 
field,  and  received  their  arms  only  two  days  before  they  had  marching  orders,  I  have 
the  honor  to  report  that  they  behaved  well  during  the  entire  march.  None  were  killed, 
none  wounded,  none  missing. 

In  January,  1863,  the  regiment  took  part  in  various  skirmishes.  In 
March  it  was  on  duty  guarding  the  railroad  between  Newbern  and  More- 
head  City.  Col.  Sprague  with  Cos.  B,  C,  D,  H  and  I  went  out  on  expe- 
dition May  r.  The  regiment  arrived  at  Fortress  Monroe,  June  28 ;  the 
regiment  volunteered  further  service,  proceeded  to  Baltimore,  and  was 
employed  in  fatigue  duty  and  hard  marching.  On  the  5th  six  companies 
under  Lt.  Col.  Studley  escorted  2,300  Rebel  prisoners  taken  at  Gettys- 
burg from  the  railroad  station  to  Ft.  McHenry.  The  regiment  searched 
the  houses  of  Baltimore  for  arms  and  seized  thousands  of  guns,  etc.  On 
July  6  the  regiment  went  to  Monacacy  Junction,  thence  on  the  Tth  to 
Sandy  Hook,  where  they  were  ordered  to  Maryland  Heights.  It  was 
to  assist  in  cutting  off  the  retreat  of  Gen.  Lee.  The  enemy  eluded  his 
pursuers.  The  regiment  reached  Worcester,  July  21.  In  nine  months 
the  loss  was  130.  The  returning  soldiers  were  warmly  greeted  ;  a  parade 
followed  by  a  banquet  in  Mechanics  Hall  was  tendered  to  the  regiment. 
Mayor  Lincoln  made  an  address,  and  Col.  Sprague  replied. 

Forty-second  Regiment. — Company  E,  42d  Regt.,  was  commanded 
by  Capt.  Frederick  G.  Stiles  and  1st  Lieut.  Augustus  Ford.  Thirty  of  the 
men  were  also  from  this  city.  The  regiment  was  recruited  at  Readville.  Co. 
E  went  to  the  front  with  the  regiment,  arriving  in  New  York,  Nov.  2, 
and  embarking  on  four  transports  for  New  Orleans,  Co.  E  on  board  the 
Charles  Osgood,  an  unseaworthy  old  craft  that  was  disabled  by  the  first 
gale  and  sought  shelter  in  Cape  May  harbor.  After  having  repairs  made 
at  Philadelphia,  the  old  boat  started  again  on  the  14th.  and  had  to  stop 
for  repairs  at  Key  West,  but  finally  reached  her  destination  Jan.  1,  1863. 
Co.  E  was  stationed  at  Bayou  Gentilly,  on  the  Pontchartrain  railroad  on 
the  26th.  The  company  was  afterward  broken  up  into  details  in  the  ser- 
vice in  this  section.  Part  of  the  company  was  in  a  fight  on  the  21st  at 
Lafourche  Springs.  The  regiinent  returned  at  the  expiration  of  nine 
months,  arriving  in  Boston  on  Aug.  10,  and  was  mustered  out  at  Read- 
ville,  Aug.   20. 

Fiftieth  Regiment. — Company  I  of  the  oOth  Regt.  was  from  this  city. 
Capt.  Nicholas  Power  was  in  command.  It  left  Canij)  Stanton  at  Box- 
ford,  Nov.  10,  1862,  with  the  regiment  and  embarked  Dec.  1  from  New 
York  on  the  steamer  New  Brunswick,  arriving  at  Baton  Rouge  on  Dec. 
16.  After  a  period  of  service  under  Gen.  Banks  and  doing  some  import- 
ant picket  duty,  the  company  took  part  in  an  expedition  to  destroy  a 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  607 

bridge  across  Bayou  Monticeno,  April  9.  The  regiment  took  part  in  the 
assault  on  Port  Hudson,  and  later  supported  the  batteries  until  the  fort 
was  taken,  July  9.  The  regiment  returned  home  by  steamer  Omaha  on 
the  Mississippi  to  Cairo,  thence  by  rail  to  Boston,  arriving  Aug.  11.  It 
was  mustered  out  Aug.  24. 

Fifty-seventh  Regiment. — The  Fifty-seventh  regiment,  in  which 
Worcester  was  well  represented,  left  the  State  in  April,  1864,  and  fought 
its  way  from  the  Wilderness  to  Hatcher's  Run.  From  Jan.  1,  1865,  to 
March  25,  it  was  at  the  siege  of  Petersburg,  making  a  reconnoisance 
towards  Weldon  in  February.  It  took  part  in  the  repulse  of  Gordon, 
March  25.  Sergt.  Maj.  Pinkham  captured  the  flag  of  the  57th  North 
Carolina  during  the  fight.  Maj.  Doherty,  who  commanded,  fell  in  action, 
mortally  wounded.  From  this  time  to  Lee's  surrender,  the  regiment 
was  constantly  in  active  service.  At  the  end  of  the  war  it  was  on  duty 
in  Washington  and  at  Tenallytown,  Md.,  on  provost  duty,  until  August. 
It  was  mustered  out  at  Readville,  Aug.  9. 

Second  Regiment  Heavy  Artillery. — Col.  A.  B.  R.  Sprague  accepted 
a  commission  as  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  Second  Regiment  of  Heavy 
Artillery,  in  which  94  men  from  this  city  enlisted.  Between  Sept.,  1863, 
and  Jan.  8,  1864,  the  regiment  left  this  State  in  detachments,  and  as 
events  proved,  was  never  united.  Four  companies  were  at  Norfolk,  Va., 
in  March ;  two  at  Macon,  Ga. ;  Co.  B  at  Newport,  N.  C. ;  Co.  C  at  More- 
head  City ;  Cos  E  and  F  at  Ft.  Totten,  N.  C. ;  Cos.  G  and  H  at  Plymouth, 
N.  C.  In  April,  Cos.  G  and  H,  including  about  25  Worcester  men,  were 
captured  in  an  engagement  at  Plymouth.  Of  the  275  captured,  but  35 
rejoined  the  regiment  early  in  1865.  The  others  were  disabled  or  dead. 
In  Sept.,  1864,  the  regiment  had  been  reinforced  by  recruits  and  num- 
bered 1,898  enlisted  men.  In  January,  1865,  there  were  six  companies 
at  Newbern  under  Lt.  Col.  Sprague.  Skirmishing  from  time  to  time, 
marching  and  picketing,  kept  the  detachment  busily  engaged.  In  June 
it  was  sent  to  occupy  forts  at  the  mouth  of  Cape  Fear  River.  It  was 
mustered  out  at  Gallup's  Island,  Boston  harbor,  Sept.  20,  1865. 

Fourth  Regiment  of  Heavy  Artillery. — The  Fourth  Regiment  of 
Heavy  Artillery,  enlisted  for  one  year,  and  mustered  into  service  in  Au- 
gust, 1864,  contained  213  men  from  this  city,  most  of  whom  were  in  Cos. 
D,  E  and  F.  It  served  in  the  defense  of  Washington,  and  was  mustered 
out  June  17,  1865. 

First  Battalion  of  Heavy  Artillery. — There  were  65  men  from  this 
city  in  the  First  Battalion  of  Heavy  Artillery,  mostly  in  Co.  F,  raised  for 
service  at  Fort  Warren.  Co.  F  enlisted  for  one  year.  The  various  com- 
panies were  on  coast  duty  in  this  State ;  Co.  F  at  Ft.  Warren.  It  was 
mustered  out  June  28,  1865. 

Second  Regiment  of  Cavalry. — Second  Lieut.  Edward  W.  Welling- 
ton and  55  other  men  from  this  city  were  in  the  Second  Regiment  of 
Cavalry,  distributed  in  the  various  companies.     They  left  the  State  in 


6o8  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

detachments  in  the  winter  and  spring  of  1863.  Col.  Lowell,  who  com- 
manded at  first,  was  succeeded  by  Col.  Crowninshield.  In  April  the  regi- 
ment took  part  in  three  expeditions  into  the  counties  of  Fauquier  and 
Loudon,  Va.  Skirmishes  caused  the  loss  of  two  warrant  officers  killed. 
A  band  of  Mosby's  men  was  captured  and  much  contraband  property 
destroyed  in  these  raids.  On  July  6  the  Second  took  part  in  an  engage- 
ment near  Tenallytown,  and  the  Rebels  were  driven  into  Rockville,  Md. 
During  21  days  in  August  it  was  under  fire,  losing  heavily.  On  Sept. 
19  it  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Opequan,  and  three  days  later  at  Snake 
Mount;  at  Luray  Court  House;  on  Sept.  38  at  Waynesboro,  and  Oct.  8 
at  Round  Top  Mountain.  The  next  day  "the  handsomest  purely  cavalry 
fight  and  victory  in  the  campaign,  the  battle  of  Thorn's  Brook  or  Wood- 
stock Races,"  took  place.  Lomax  was  driven  20  miles.  The  regiment 
was  in  the  battle  of  Cedar  Creek,  in  which  Col.  Lowell  was  mortally 
wounded.  From  the  beginning  of  1865  to  the  end  of  the  war  the  regi- 
ment was  actively  engaged,  doing  valiant  service,  in  the  saddle  con- 
stantly, and  under  fire  almost  continually.  It  took  part  in  the  Grand 
Review  in  W^ashington  at  the  end  of  the  war. 

Fourth  Regiment  of  Cavalry. — There  were  24  Worcester  men  in  the 
Fourth  Cavalry,  mostly  in  Cos.  E  and  F.  They  served  in  the  Army  of 
the  James  in  the  spring  of  1865.  Cos.  E  and  H  were  the  first  troops 
to  enter  Richmond  after  Lee's  surrender. 

Fifth  Regiment  of  Cavalry. — There  were  25  men  from  this  city  in  the 
Fifth  Cavalry,  mustered  in  the  spring  of  1864.  It  was  the  only  regiment  of 
colored  cavalry  from  this  State.  It  was  in  active  service  in  the  final 
campaign  in  Virginia,  and  won  distinction  for  bravery  in  many  skirm- 
ishes. After  Lee's  surrender  the  regiment  was  sent  to  Texas.  In  Nov., 
1865,  it  was  mustered  out  at  Gallup's  Island.  Col.  Henry  S.  Russell  was 
the  first  commander. 

The  Civil  War  at  Home. — Regardless  of  previous  opinions,  of  party, 
sect  or  race,  the  people  of  Worcester  united  patriotically  in  support  of  the 
Union.  From  every  pulpit,  sermons  urging  men  to  enlist,  denouncing 
treason  and  secession,  and  often  condemning  slavery  as  the  cause  of 
the  Civil  War,  were  preached  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of  the 
war.  The  editorials  of  the  Spy,  Transcript,  Palladium  and  Times 
rivalled  each  other  in  earnest,  solemn,  and  substantial  support  of  the 
government.  At  the  war  meetings  frequently  held  in  Mechanics  Hall,  in 
the  City  Hall,  churches  and  other  places  of  meeting,  the  most  patriotic 
and  eloquent  speeches  were  heard.  The  Spy  struck  the  keynote  of  pop- 
ular sentiment  when  it  said:  "Although  war  is  to  be  dreaded,  anarchy 
is  still  worse,  and  the  government  should  be  upheld  at  any  cost !"  Even 
in  the  first  week  of  the  Rebellion,  however,  it  was  felt  and  expressed 
here  that  slavery  must  be  abolished. 

At  a  public  meeting  May  4,  a  committee  was  appointed  to  raise 
funds  for  war  purposes. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  609 

Serving  for  the  Troops. — Before  the  first  of  May  the  ladies  of  the 
city  had  begun  to  prepare  clothing  for  the  troops.  Mrs.  John 
Boyden  presided  at  a  meeting  in  Central  Church,  when  an  organization 
was  effected  for  this  purpose.  Miss  Martha  LeBaron  elected  presi- 
dent. The  ladies  of  Central  and  Salem  Street  churches  were  at  work 
April  29.  Worcester  sent  clothing  in  abundance  to  the  soldiers  on  May 
7.  Even  on  Sundays  the  work  continued.  Maj.  Theron  E.  Hall  went 
south  May  15  in  charge  of  a  large  quantity  of  clothing  and  other  articles 
for  the  troops.  This  work  continued  throughout  the  war.  The  contri- 
butions of  the  women  of  the  city  to  the  comfort  and  preservation  of  the 
health  of  soldiers  in  the  field  was  invaluable. 

Flag-raisings. — Throughout  the  city  there  were  public  flag-raisings 
at  the  beginning  of  the  war.  A  flag  made  by  the  ladies  of  New  Wor- 
cester was  raised  there  with  much  ceremony,  May  6,  on  a  pole  100  feet 
high.  Speeches  were  made  in  the  evening  in  Union  Hall  by  Lorin  Weth- 
erell,  Rev.  Daniel  Dorchester,  John  Deah,  John  Toulmin,  Lyman  Whit- 
comb,  Charles  Hersey  and  others. 

A  flag  was  raised  on  the  grounds  of  the  Catholic  Institute,  May  9, 
by  the  teachers  and  pupils  of  St.  John  Sunday  School.  Almost  every 
store  and  dwelling,  shop  and  factory,  was  decorated  with  the  stars 
and  stripes.  The  expression  of  loyalty  by  showing  the  colors  con- 
tinued throughout  the  war. 

Visits  of  Regiments. — Often  during  the  war  regiments  from  other 
sections  of  the  state  and  from  other  states,  passing  through  this  city, 
were  entertained.  The  first  instance  was  that  of  the  First  New  Hamp- 
shire, May  21,  1861.  It  was  escorted  to  Mechanics  Hall,  welcomed  by 
the  mayor,  banquetted.     Col.  Tappan  made  a  suitable  reply. 

Fast  Days. — The  old  custom  of  fast  days  was  revived  during  the 
War.  ■  President  Lincoln  and  Gov.  Andrew  designated  the  first  of  these, 
and  it  was  appropriately  observed  here,  Sept.  27,  1861.  The  attendance 
in  the  churches  was  large ;   places  of  business  were  closed  all  day. 

Celebrating  Victories. — At  a  meeting  in  Mechanics  Hall,  April  19, 
1862,  the  Rebel  flags  captured  at  Newbern  by  Co.E  of  the  25th  Regt.,were 
presented  to  the  city  by  Major  McCafiferty,  with  the  request  that  they 
be  deposited  in  the  public  library.  The  major  took  occasion  to  eulogize 
Capt.  Thomas  O'Neil.  (See  biography).  The  mayor  spoke  and  intro- 
duced Rev.  Horace  James  of  the  25th.  Earlier  in  the  day,  the  scenes  of 
April  19,  1775,  were  duplicated  as  far  as  possible,  the  Highland  Guards 
and  McClellan  Guards  representing  the  minutemen.  On  May  12  a 
salute  of  100  guns  was  fired  on  the  Common  to  celebrate  the  capture  of 
Norfolk. 

A  Great  War  Meeting. — One  of  the  most  stirring  meetings  of  the 
war  was  held  in  Mechanics  Hall,  July  12,  1862,  when  the  need  of  troops 
was  urgent,  the  fortunes  of  the  Union  at  the  lowest  ebb.  Mayor  Aldrich 
W.-I-39. 


6io  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


presided  and  Genera)  Devens  was  the  principal  speaker.  The  venerable 
ex-Gov.  Lincoln  was  warmly  welcomed  and  made  a  stirring  address. 
Rev.  Mr.  Richardson  also  spoke.  The  meeting  favored  a  city  bounty 
of  $To  to  recruits.  James  White  offered  to  add  a  dollar  to  each  recruit. 
On  July  U  the  city  fixed  the  bounty  at  $100  each. 

A  Committee  of  Safety. — Adopting  the  name  of  a  Revolutionary  war 
tribunal,  the  great  gathering  in  City  Hall  July  W  formed  a  "committee 
of  safety"  consisting  of  100  leading  citizens,  to  take  charge  of  the  recruit- 
ing. Rev.  Mr.  Richardson,  Major  McCafferty  and  General  Devens  were 
again  the  speakers.  The  committee  of  safety  worked  through  executive 
committee  of  one  from  each  ward,  viz :  P.  Emory  Aldrich,  Dr.  Merrick 
Bemis,  Lee  Sprague,  Walter  Henry,  Elliot  Swan,  Patrick  O'Keefe, 
Charles  B.  Pray,  George  M.  Rice  and  Warren  Williams.  On  the  fol- 
lowing Saturday,  business  was  suspended  in  the  city  and  a  mass  meet- 
ing held  on  the  Common.  George  M.  Rice  of  Rice,  Barton  &  Co.,  offered 
an  additional  sum  of  nine  dollars  each  to  recruits  of  the  shops  of  his  firm. 
Earle  &  Jones,  Washburn  &  Moen,  Washburn  &  Son  and  Albert  Curtis 
made  the  same  offer  to  their  employees. 

Gov.  Andrew's  Appeal. — To  further  enlistments  at  this  time.  Gov. 
Andrew  came  to  Worcester  and  addressed  a  great  mass  meeting  on  the 
Common,  July  26.  The  mayor  presided  and  Col.  Wells  of  the  3-lth 
Regt.  also  spoke.  John  B.  Gough,  the  famous  temperance  lecturer,  made 
a  brilliant  address,  presenting  a  most  scathing  denunciation  of  the  south- 
ern rebellion  and  of  the  institution  of  slavery. 

The  Freedom  Club  Meeting. — The  meeting  held  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Freedom  Club  of  this  city,  an  organization  of  Abolitionists,  was 
significant  as  showing  the  increasing  support  of  the  people  to  the  anti- 
slavery  movement.  The  appeal  was  mainly  for  enlistments  and  support 
of  the  government,  but  the  resolutions  declaring  that  "the  time  has 
fully  come  for  the  government  to  proclaim  liberty  throughout  all  the 
land ;  to  receive  under  its  protection  all  slaves  who  shall  come  within 
our  lines  and  to  employ,  under  its  pledge  of  freedom,  such  of  them  as 
are  ready,  as  scouts,  or  pilots  or  spies  or  soldiers,  to  aid  in  subduing  the 
masters'  rebellion."  Hon.  J.  S.  C.  Knowlton  presided  and  spoke  ;  Rev. 
Mr.  Richardson;  Hon.  Amasa  Waters  of  No.  Brookheld  ;  Hon.  W.  W. 
Rice;  John  McCombe  and  Rev.  Dr.  Hill  were  the  other,  speakers.  The 
same  speakers  (except  ]\Ir.  Waters)  with  others  appeared  at  another  war 
meeting  in  Mechanics  Hall,  Aug.  22. 

Hon.  Charles  Sumner's  Address. — For  two  hours  Senator  Charles 
Sumner  spoke  at  a  war  meeting  in  Mechanics  Hall,  Oct.  17,  1862,  and  the 
meeting  was  described  as  a  triumph.  Nothing  like  it  had  been  seen  in 
the  city  for  years.  Hon.  A.  H.  Bullock  presided.  It  was  followed,  Oct. 
31,  by  another  large  gathering  at  which  Mr.  Bullock  delivered  one  of  the 
ablest  speeches  of  his  career;  Mayor  .-Mdrich.  supported  by  a  hundred 
vice-presidents,  ])resided. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  6ii 

Manufacturing  and  Business. — Before  the  war  Worcester  had  suf- 
fered severely  from  business  depression.  The  demand  for  war  supplies 
soon  gave  a  wonderful  stimulus  to  business  and  by  the  end  of  1861,  the 
industries  of  the  city  were  driven  to  capacity.  Many  of  the  manufac- 
turers here  took  war  contracts  from  the  government.  Fox  &  Mayo,  for 
instance,  manufactured  kerseys  for  the  soldiers ;  Nathan  Washburn  was 
making  iron  for  rifle  barrels  and  had  a  contract  for  150,000  musket  bar- 
rels; Osgood  Bradley  made  gun  carriages,  forges,  etc.;  Wood  &  Light 
and  Thayer,  Houghton  &  Co.  manufactured  machinery  for  the  govern- 
ment ;  George  Crompton  was  running  his  loom  works  night  and  day 
making  blankets ;  Allen  &  Wheelock  and  Shepard,  Lathe  &  Co.  were 
making  firearms;  Lucius  W.  Pond  was  building  Ellsworth  guns — light 
riil'ed  cannon  of  his  own  design. 

Skilled  labor  was  in  great  demand ;  wages  were  high ;  mechanics  in 
industries  employed  by  the  government  felt  their  services  were  needed  in 
the  shops  and  factories.  The  activit}^  in  business  thus  tended  to  restrict 
the  supply  of  volunteers  in  places  like  W^orcester. 

The  Freed-Slave  Commission. — To  raise  funds  for  the  soldiers  in  the 
field  and  to  celebrate  the  Emancipation  Proclamation  a  Costume  Prom- 
enade Avas  held  in  Mechanics  Hall  Feb.  23,  1863,  by  the  Free-Slave  Com- 
mittee, in  charge  of  Mrs.  Ichabod  Washburn.  Mrs.  Alonzo  Hill,  Mrs.  F, 
W.  Paine,  Mrs.  William  M.  Bickford,  Mrs.  R.  R.  Shippen,  Mrs.  Merrill 
Richardson,  Mrs.  B.  F.  Haywood,  Mrs.  Joseph  Sargent  and  Mrs.  John 
Davis.  Gen.  B.  F.  Butler  was  a  guest  and  made  a  brief  address.  The 
sum  of  $700  was  realized. 

Drafting. — Early  in  1863  it  was  realized  that  the  country  could 
not  be  saved  without  greater  military  forces  and  that  the  volunteer 
system  of  procuring  troops  had  failed  to  furnish  the  needed  men.  Con- 
scription w^as  inevitable.  But  the  draft  law  that  went  into  effect  July 
1,  1863,  was  a  poor  measure.  Drafted  men  were  allowed  exemption  on 
the  payment  of  $300  or  they  could  furnish  substitutes. 

Drafting  began  here  July  11,  S.  S.  Leonard,  a  blind  man,  drawing 
the  names.  The  result,  announced  late  in  August,  showed  that  of  700 
men  drafted  182  were  accepted;  1,752  were  rejected  as  disabled;  231 
exempted.  Of  the  182  accepted,  99  paid  commutation,  49  sent  substi- 
tes  and  but  eleven  men  went  into  service. 

The  work  of  recruiting  w^ent  on  in  the  old  way;  numerous  war  meet- 
ings were  held.  Committees  were  appointed  to  aid  in  the  work  of  pro- 
curing volunteers.  Hon.  Isaac  Davis  made  a  notable  speech  at  a  meet- 
ing Nov.  21.  The  war  commitee  elected  at  this  meeting  appointed  the 
following  executive  committee:  Dr.  Merrick  Bemis,  T.  W.  Wellington, 
Col.  A.  B.  R.  Sprague,  Capt.  Nicholas  Power,  George  Crompton,  Alzirus 
Brown,  Hon.  P.  Emory  Aldrich,  Maj.  E.  A.  Harkness  and  Loring  Goes. 
Rev.  Samuel  Souther  responded  to  the  call  at  this  time  and  enlisted  at 
the  office  of  Lieut.  Gird. 


6i2  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Mr.  Souther  was  one  of  the  speakers  at  the  war  meeting  Nov.  28  in 
Mechanics  Hall.  Col.  Homer  B.  Sprague,  a  former  principal  of  the 
high  school  of  this  city,  who  had  commanded  a  Connecticut  regiment 
and  led  a  famous  charge  at  Port  Hudson,  "was  replete  with  tiery  and 
patriotic  eloquence."  He  said :  "I  have  seen  whigs,  democrats  and 
republicans — white  and  black  men — fight  side  by  side  under  the  same 
starry  flag  and  seen  them  buried  in  a  common  grave  ;  and  in  your  bap- 
tism of  fire  and  blood,  I  have  learned  what  no  soldier  of  P'ort  Hudson 
will  ever  forget,  that  Massachusetts  is  earning  immortal  honors."  Hon. 
Isaac  Davis  and  Rev.  Edward  A.  Walker  spoke.  Mr.  Walker  offered  a 
piece  of  the  original  manuscript  of  "The  Star  Spangled  Banner"  to  the 
first  recruit  that  came  forward,  and  Thomas  Glaster  won  the  relic. 

At  another  war  meeting  Dec.  1,  Hon.  Stephen  Salisbury,  Rev.  Mr. 
Souther,  Rev.  Mr.  St.  John,  Col.  Sprague  and  Hon.  Peter  C.  Bacon,  who 
had  given  his  sons  to  his  country,  were  the  speakers.  At  another  meet- 
ing, the  next  evening,  Rev.  David  A.  Wasson,  and  Gen.  Calvin  E.  Pratt,  a 
former  resident,  spoke.  On  Dec.  4,  Rev.  Mr.  Richardson,  Hon.  Henry 
Chapin  and  Joseph  Mason  spoke.  On  the  fifth,  George  M.  Rice,  Peter 
C.  Bacon,  Maj.  McCafferty,  Rev.  Dr.  Hill,  Joseph  Chamberlain  and  John 
G.  Tobey  were  the  speakers. 

On  the  eighth  Hon.  W.  W.  Rice,  Hon.  P.  E.  Aldrich  and  others 
spoke  at  a  meeting  at  City  Hall.  Meetings  were  held  also  on  the  10th, 
12th,  loth,  19th,  30th  and  31st  of  December.  In  addition  to  speakers 
already  mentioned.  Rev.  Mr.  Banvard,  Lieut.  Gird,  Julius  Tucker  and 
Rev.  Mr.  Willis  added  their  appeals  for  recruits.  Judge  Ira  M.  Barton 
made  a  wonderful  speech  on  the  10th  and  Gen.  Devens  made  one  of  the 
greatest  speeches  of  the  war  at  the  meeting  in  Mechanics  Hall  on  the 
12th,  when  Hon.  Edward  Everett  also  spoke. 

Notwithstanding  all  the  eloquence  and  influence  of  war  meetings 
editorial  urgency,  and  pulpit  persuasion,  and  despite  the  patriotism  of 
the  soldiers  reenlisting  at  the  front,  the  city  lacked  34T  of  its  quota  in  the 
beginning  of  1864.  Public  meetings  continued.  One  was  held  in  the 
City  Hall,  Jan.  2  in  the  afternoon;  another  in  the  evening;  another  next 
day  in  Mechanics  Hall,  though  the  day  was  Sunday.  At  this  meeting 
Judge  Charles  Allen  and  Maj.  McCafferty  and  John  B.  Gough  were  the 
speakers.  The  results  were  shown  next  day,  wdien  fifty  men  enlisted. 
By  the  sixth  of  January  the  quota  was  full  and  the  city  rejoiced. 

Furloughs. — Every  kindness  and  consideration  was  shown  to  the 
soldiers  on  furlough,  especially  to  the  veterans  who  reenlisted  the  city 
showed  its  appreciation  lavishly.  In  the  winter  of  1864-5  a  hearty  recep- 
tion was  given  to  some  of  the  furloughed  men  of  the  25th  with  a  banquet 
in  City  Hall.  Of  650  men  in  this  regiment  450  reenlisted.  The  men  of 
the  regiment  passed  highly  complimentary  resolutions,  expressing  their 
love  and  appreciation  of  the  chaplain.  Rev.  Horace  James.  A  more  elab- 
orate celebration  attended  the  return  of  the  regiment  on  furlough  Feb.  19. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  613 


Capt.  J.  M.  Tucker  and  Lt.  John  Goodwin  were  given  swords  at  a  recep- 
tion on  Jan.  35th. 

The  21st  Regt.  received  a  great  ovation,  Jan.  31.  There  was  a 
parade  and  banquet  at  which  Col.  Hawkes,  Cok  Clark,  and  Mon.  A.  H. 
Bulk)ck  made  appropriate  speeches. 

The  Dale  Hospital. — The  buildings  and  grounds  of  the  Female  Col- 
lege were  taken  for  hospital  purposes  and  opened  in  September,  1864. 
Soldiers  were  sent  here  for  convalescence.  Fourteen  additional  buildings 
were  erected.  In  October  several  hundred  patients  were  received.  Dr. 
C.  N.  Chamberlain  afterward  of  Lawrence,  Mass.,  was  in  charge,  assisted 
by  the  staff  of  army  surgeons.  Charles  H.  Hazelton  was  hospital  stew- 
ard. The  inauguration  of  the  hospital  was  formally  celebrated  Feb.  22, 
1865.  A  flag  presented  by  the  ladies  of  the  city  was  raised ;  addresses 
were  made  by  Gov.  Andrew,  Hon.  A.  H.  Bullock  and  Dr.  Warren  Web- 
ster.    A  total  of  1,182  sick  and  wounded  were  admitted  to  the  hospital. 

The  Fourth  of  March. — In  honor  of  President  Lincoln's  reelection 
a  mass  meeting  was  held  in  Mechanics  Hall  at  the  time  of  his  second 
inauguration.  Alayor  Ball  presided  and  spoke.  Other  addresses  were 
made  by  Rev.  Mr.  Richardson,  Hon.  P.  Emory  Aldrich,  Hon.  Henry 
Chapin  and  Rev.  T.  E.  St.  John.  The  meeting  was  filled  with  the  spirit 
of  hope  and  rejoicing. 

Lee's  Surrender. — Bells  were  rung  and  the  shop  whistles  shrieked  and 
cannons  fired  when  the  news  of  Lee's  surrender  reached  this  city.  The  peo- 
ple filled  the  streets  and  cheered  on  the  afternoon  of  April  7th.  In  the  even- 
ing every  house  and  place  of  business  was  brilliantly  illuminated.  The 
news  of  Lee's  surrender,  April  9,  reached  here  about  midnight.  A  hundred 
guns  were  fired  on  the  Common;  John  Boyden's  "Secesh  bell,"  which 
rang  for  every  Union  victory,  was  sounded ;  people  left  their  beds  and 
assembled  in  the  streets,  shouting  and  cheering  till  they  were  hoarse. 
Bonfires  were  lighted  in  every  part  of  the  city.  The  fire  department 
turned  out,  leading  a  procession  that  visited  the  leading  citizens  of  the 
city.  Speeches  of  congratulation  and  rejoicing  were  made.  The  cele- 
bration continued  until  dawn. 

Through  the  next  day  and  night  the  victory  was  celebrated  and 
many  shops,  and  factories  were  not  operated.  Business  was  entirely 
suspended  in  the  afternoon.  The  schools  had  a  holiday.  A  hundred 
guns  were  fired  at  noon  on  the  Common,  100  more  at  Quinsigamond 
and  200  at  the  Dale  Hospital.  There  were  parades  of  coal  carts  at  noon ; 
of  the  fire  department  at  two  o'clock,  leading  the  German  Turners,  the 
Frohsinns  and  other  organizations.  There  was  a  noise  like  the  old- 
fashioned  Fourth  of  July  throughout  the  day.  In  the  evening  there  was 
another  general  illumination,  and  throughout  the  city  meetings  were 
held  to  give  expression  to  the  great  joy  and  relief  at  the  successful  term- 
ination of   the    Civil   War.     The   men   of   the   Crompton    Loom   Works 


6i4  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

paraded.  There  was  a  big  demonstration  at  Webster  Square,  and  a 
meeting  was  held  there. 

The  Fourth  of  July  Celebration. — A  more  formal  and  elaborate  cele- 
bration of  the  success  of  Union  arms  and  the  end  of  the  Rebellion  was 
planned  for  July  4,  1865,  designed  to  surpass  anything  of  the  kind  ever 
held  in  the  city.  The  following  committee  was  appointed  by  the  city 
council  May  30  :  Mayor  Ball ;  councilmen — Harrison  Bliss,  E.  C.  Cleve- 
land, William  E.  Starr,  George  R.  Peckham,  Salisbury  Hyde;  citizens — 
James  B.  Blake,  J.  D.  Daniels,  Henry  A.  Marsh,  Alzirus  Brown,  John 
S.  Baldwin,  Lucius  W.  Pond  and  George  Sumner.  Hon.  Phinehas  Bann 
was  chairman,  Charles  A.  Chase,  secretary. 

The  city  was  decorated  profusely.  An  arch  over  Main  Street  was 
erected  at  Harrington  Corner,  bearing  mottoes:  "The  Heart  of  the 
Commonwealth  greets  the  Defenders  of  the  Union"  and  "All  Honor  to 
Our  Gallant  Army  and  Navy,"  and  a  list  of  the  battles  in  which 
Worcester  men  had  taken  part.  A  memorial  arch  was  built  opposite  the 
post  office  by  the  city,  bearing  the  mottoes  :  "In  Alemory  of  the  Fallen," 
and  "Give  me  the  Death  of  Those  Who  for  their  Country  Die."  A  rustic 
arch  was  built  across  Main  Street  at  School  Street  and  another  arch 
opposite  Stephen  Salisbury's  house  at  High  and  Street,  with  the  mot- 
toes: "To  be  Free  is  to  be  Strong"  and  "Reap  the  Fields  Your  Valor 
Won."  Joseph  Chase  erected  an  arch  on  Harvard  Street,  bearing  the 
inscription :  "Your  Valor  and  Devotion  Have  Saved  the  Flag — 
Thanks."  At  the  residence  of  Hartley  Williams  the  decorations  were 
adorned  with  the  motto :  "Soldiers,  You  have  Crushed  Treason,  Ended 
the  Rebellion,  and  Saved  the  Country — Welcome."  George  Crompton 
built  a  costly  and  beautiful  arch  on  Green  St.  Charles  \Y.  Smith  erected 
a  very  beautiful  arch  on  Elm  Street.     There  were  many  others. 

Decorations  of  dwellings  and  places  of  business  were  extremely 
elaborate.  The  newspapers  of  the  day  gave  good  descriptions  of  them. 
Mottoes  abounded. 

James  B.  Blake,  chief  marshal,  led  a  procession  composed  of  all  the 
veterans  of  the  city,  the  members  of  each  regiment  forming  in  battalions 
in  order  of  seniority.  Col.  Josiah  Pickett  commanded  the  military  sec- 
tion. The  Worcester  City  Guard  and  State  Guards,  No.  1,  under  Col. 
D.  M.  Woodward,  did  escort  duty.  Four  floats  entitled  "Peace  through 
Victory,"  "Goddess  of  Liberty,"  "Pen  and  Sword,"  and  "Union"  were 
in  the  procession. 

The  dinner  in  Mechanics  Hall,  which  had  been  profusely  decorated 
with  bunting,  flags  and  mottoes  for  the  occasion,  was  the  crowning 
event  of  the  day.  Col.  Pickett  afterward  thanked  the  people  for  the 
reception  to  the  soldiers,  saying: 

Mayor  Ball  and  Citizens  of  Worcester: — On  behalf  of  these  brave  men,  who,  after 
conquering  treason,   re-establishing  the  government   on  a   secure   foundation,  and   se- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  615 


curing  the  blessings  of  liberty  to  all,  have  now  returned  to  you  in  triumph,  I  tender 
you  my  most  sincere  thanks  for  this  magnificent  ovation,  and  the  honor  you  have  be- 
stowed on  them  this  day. 

I  can  assure  you  it  gives  us  the  greatest  gratification  to  know  that  our  services  are 
so  highly  appreciated  /by  our  friends  and  fellow  citizens  at  home,  and  even  as  our  con- 
duct as  soldiers  has  elicited  your  unqualified  approval,  so  may  we  ever  continue  to 
merit  your  confidence  as  citizens,  maintaining  the  true  principles  of  right  and  justice, 
and  always  ready  to  respond  to  the  call  of  duty. 

The  other  speakers  were  Rev.  George  S.  Ball  of  Upton,  Col.  William 
S.  Lincoln,  Gen.  A.  B.  R.  Sprague. 

fn  addition  to  the  military  parade,  the  pupils  of  the  public  schools 
had  a  parade  and  there  was  a  Trades  Procession,  led  by  the  fire  depart- 
ment, and  followed  by  civil  organizations,  many  in  their  elaborate  uni- 
forms.    In  the  evening  the  illumination  was  general. 

Assassination  of  Lincoln. — When  the  news  of  the  assassination  ot 
Lincoln  reached  this  city,  Mayor  Phinehas  Ball  issued  a  proclamation 
dated  April  15,  1865,  advising  that  business  be  suspended,  the  city  draped 
in  mourning,  and  calling  a  public  meeting  in  Mechanics  Hall.  On  the 
morning  of  the  15th,  the  city  council  met  at  seven.  News  of  the  death 
of  the  president  came  about  eight.  The  bells  of  the  city  tolled  from 
ten  to  eleven. 

Mechanics  Hall  was  filled  with  a  grief-stricken  audience.  Hon.  A. 
H.  Bullock  presided.  Rev.  Dr.  Sweetser  prayed  and  read  the  4Gth  psalm. 
The  choirs  sang  hymns ;  Rev.  Mr.  Richardson  read  a  hymn ;  and  the 
meeting  adjourned  without  speeches. 

The  next  day  was  Sunday,  and  every  sermon  was  devoted  to  the 
life  and  character  of  the  martyred  president.  The  day  of  Lincoln's 
funeral  was  observed  as  a  day  of  fasting;  the  bells  were  tolled  from 
11.30  to  12,  and  from  two  to  three.  Flags  were  at  half-mast ;  the  schools 
were  closed ;  places  of  business  and  houses  were  draped  in  black ;  even 
locomotives  wore  mourning  emblems.  Minute  guns  were  fired  from  two 
to  three  by  a  detachment  of  the  State  Guards.  Services  were  held  in 
all  the  churches. 

The  sorrow  of  the  city  was  expressed  in  resolutions  drafted  by  Hon. 
Levi  Lincoln  and  adopted  by  the  city  council,  as  follows: 

"Resolved,  That  we  bow  in  humble  submission  to  the  Divine  Providence  which  has 
permitted  the  beloved  and  honored  Chief  Magistrate  of  the  nation,  Abraham  Lincoln, 
to  be  taken  by  the  hand  of  violence  from  the  scenes  of  his  labors,  and  from  the  scenes 
of  our  national  triumphs,  at  a  moment  when  all  eyes  were  turned  to  him  for  the  firm- 
ness, wisdom  and  discretion,  which  had  guided  us  through  four  years  of  civil  war,  and 
which,  we  believed,  would  guide  us  as  safely  through  all  the  difficulties  of  restoration 
and  stability  to  this  government. 

Resolz'ed,  That  we  desire  to  record  our  devout  gratitude  to  God,  that  he  granted 
to  the  people  of  the  United  States,  in  this  historical  crisis,  a  Chief  Magistrate  whose 
character  becomes  a  rich  and  lasting  legacy  to  this  and  succeeding  generations  ;  whose 
pure  and  Christian  life,  whose  patriotic  aims  and  purposes,  whose  temper  blending  the 


6i6  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

qualities  of  justice  and  mercy,  whose  conduct  as  a  ruler  acting  on  his  own  convictions, 
but  not  neglecting  the  wise  counsels  of  others,  will  transmit  his  name  and  his  fame  sec- 
ond only  in  the  line  of  presidents  to  those  of  the  beloved  and  lamented  Washington. 

Resolved,  That  in  this  hour  of  national  bereavement,  when  the  first  impulses  of 
all  loyal  hearts  are  those  of  dismay  and  terror,  it  now,  more  than  ever  before,  becomes 
the  duty  of  every  true  citizen  to  stand,  with  renewed  firmness  and  courage,  by  the 
government  and  Union  of  our  fathers,  to  the  end  that  all  the  traitors  of  this  country, 
and  all  the  people  of  the  world,  shall  perceive  and  know  that  the  death  of  our  presi- 
dent cannot  retard,  for  one  hour,  the  majestic  power  and  progress  of  our  government; 
and  that  its  victory,  over  all  its  enemies,  whether  at  home  or  abroad,  is  not  less  certain 
now  than  when  Abraham  Lincoln  stood  in  life  at  its  helm. 

Resolved,  That  we  turn  with  pride  and  joy  to  the  fact,  that  while  the  nation  is 
bereaved,  its  history  is  not  interrupted ;  that  under  our  glorious  constitution  one  presi- 
dent succeeds  another,  as  surely  and  as  grandly  as  one  day's  sun  succeeds  the  preced- 
ing ;  that  when  Lincoln  died  Johnson  succeeded  to  his  place,  that  our  government  goes 
on,  our  armies  march  to  victory,  and  our  history  moves  on  its  sublime  mission  as  surely 
to-day  as  when  the  late  Chief  Magistrate  was  witness  with  Grant  to  the  fall  of  Rich- 
mond ;  and  that  we  call  upon  our  fellow-citizens  to  return  from  the  scenes  of  mourn- 
ing to  rejoice  again  under  the  national  flag,  to  render  the  encouragement  and  support 
to  President  Johnson  which  they  rendered  to  President  Lincoln,  and  to  cultivate,  after 
the  hour  of  gloom,  sentiments  of  courage  and  cheerfulness,  and  faith  that  Almighty 
God  has  in  store  for  the  United  States  a  future  of  perpetual  beneficence  and  glory. 

Resolved,  That  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  land,  from  the  Atlantic 
to  the  Pacific,  and  from  the  northern  lakes  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  there  can  be  but  one 
nation ;    and  the  whole  people  must  be  free. 

Memorial  services  were  held  June  1,  1865,  in  Mechanics  Hall  and 
in  the  various  churches,  in  accordance  with  President  Johnson's  procla- 
mation. The  great  audience  in  the  hall  gathered  in  the  afternoon ;  the 
"hushed  quiet  appearance  of  the  vast  assembly  spoke  unmistakably  of 
the  awe  and  reverence  which  impressed  all  classes  of  the  community." 
Distinguished  citizens  sat  on  the  platform  and  a  choir  composed  of  the 
Mozart  Society  and  choirs  from  the  churches  sang  anthems  under  the 
direction  of  B.  D.  Allen.  Mayor  Ball  presided.  Hon.  A.  H.  Bullock, 
then  Speaker  of  the  House,  delivered  a  eulogy  that  took  rank  among 
the  best  delivered  on  that  occasion  in  the  country. 

Suregons  in  the  Service. — Dr.  Oramel  Martin  of  this  city  went  to 
the  front  with  the  Third  Battalion  of  Rifles  and  was  later  appointed 
brigade  surgeon  with  rank  of  major.  He  had  charge  of  a  hospital  near 
St.  Louis  having  12,000  patients,  and  was  afterward  medical  director  at 
Ft,  Scott,  Kansas.  In  1862  he  had  charge  of  the  Pacific  Hospital,  St. 
Louis,  and  was  later  medical  director  of  cavalry  in  Mississippi.  Later  he 
was  surgeon  of  the  board  of  enrollment  for  the  Eighth  District  and 
served  to  the  end  of  the  war. 

Dr.  Joseph  N.  Bates,  surgeon  of  the  15th  Regt.,  was  at  Ball's  Bluff; 
resigned  July  17,  1862,  on  account  of  ill  health. 

Dr.  J.  Marcus  Rice  went  out  with  the  25th  as  surgeon,  Sept.  16,  1861; 
was  wounded  in  the  chest  at  Roanoke  Island;  captured,  Oct.  1863,  near 
Newbern,  and  confined  in   Libby ;    returned  to  his  regiment  after  five 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  617 

months,  and  served  three  years;  was  later  staff  surgeon.  He  was  at 
one  time  the  medical  director  of  the  18th  Army  Corps,  and  later  medical 
inspector  of  the  Army  of  the   James.     He   ranked   as   major. 

Dr.  Samuel  Flagg,  assistant  surgeon  of  the  25th,  served  from  July 
81,  1861,  to  Aug.  9,  1863. 

Dr.  Horace  Mecorney  was  assistant  surgeon  of  the  25th,  Sept.  20  to 
July  15,  1863. 

Chaplains. — Rev.  Charles  T.  Canfield  was  chaplain  of  the  36th  from 
Aug.  28,  1862,  to  Oct.,  1863. 

Rev.  Gilbert  Cummings  was  chaplain  of  the  51st. 

Rev.  Horace  James,  pastor  of  the  Old  South,  resigned  to  become 
chaplain  of  the  25th  Regt.,  entering  the  service  Oct.  28,  1861,  and  serv- 
ing until  Apr.  27,  1861:;  was  afterward  assistant  quartermaster  of  Mass. 
Vols.  He  was  afterward  pastor  of  the  1st  Cong.  Church  of  Lowell,  and 
an  editor  and  proprietor  of  the  Congregationalist. 

Worcester  in  the  Navy. — In  the  Civil  War  this  city  contributed  but 
few  men  to  the  navy,  though  the  city  was  credited,  in  accordance  with  the 
rules,  with  160  men.  No  records  are  available  from  which  a  list  of 
natives  or  residents  of  Worcester  in  the  navy  may  be  secured. 

Commodore  George  S.  Blake,  son  of  Hon.  Francis,  was  born  here 
but  spent  most  of  his  life  in  the  service  of  his  country.  He  was  appointed 
midshipman  Jan.  1,  1818;  lieutenant  1827;  commander,  Feb.  27,  1847; 
captain  Sept.  4,  1855.  He  was  superintendent  of  the  Naval  Academy 
from  1858  to  1865.  He  successfully  resisted  the  attempt  of  the  Rebels 
to  seize  the  academy  early  in  1861. 

Bancroft  Ghirardi  was  born  in  New  Orleans  but  spent  his  youth 
here.  He  attained  high  rank  in  the  navy  after  the  war  and  did  dis- 
tinguished service  during  and  after  the  war. 

George  M.  Rice  Jr.  entered  the  navy  as  master's  mate  on  the  Min- 
nesota; was  an  officer  on  the  flagship  Hartford  at  Mobile  and  was 
wounded  there.  He  continued  in  the  navy  after  the  war;  died  of  yel- 
low fever  in  April,  1868,  returning  from  Cuba. 

Charles  P.  Rice  of  this  city  entered  the  Naval  Academy  in  1859"; 
served  through  the  Civil  War;  was  on  the  ship  Brooklyn  at  Mobile; 
rose  to  high  rank  after  the  war. 

George  D.  Upham,  son  of  Dea.  Joel  W.,  followed  the  sea  before 
the  war ;  was  appointed  sailing  master  in  the  navy  early  in  the  war  and 
was  engaged  in  the  pursuit  of  the  Rebel  Commissioners,  Mason  and 
Slidell;  commanded  a  steamer  carrying  suppUes;  resigned  as  lieutenant 
soon  after  Lee's  surrender. 

Capt.  J.  C.  Dutch  of  Worcester  commanded  the  U.  S.  barque 
Kingfisher  in  1863  in  St.  Helena  Sound,  and  did  much  valuable  service. 

Colored  Troops. — Some  colored  men  from  this  city  enlisted  in  the 
regiment  of  Gov.  Sprague  of  Rhode  Island ;  15  were  in  Col.  Robert  G. 
Shaw's  regiment,  and  live  in  the  55th  Mass.,  of  which  Lt.  Col.  William 


6i8  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Nutt  of  Xatick,  father  of  the  Charles  Nutt  of  this  city,  was  commander 
at  the  close  of  the  war.  There  were  22  in  the  Fifth  Cavalry  and  others 
in  various  regiments. 

The  Soldiers'  Relief  Society. — The  first  annual  report  of  the  Soldiers' 
Relief  Society,  which  was  organized  to  systematize  the  work  of  the 
women  of  the  city  to  supply  clothing  and  other  articles  for  the  troops, 
showed  receipts  in  cash  of  only  $1,229.61.  But  the  money  was  a  mere 
fraction  of  the  aid.  It  was  used  in  purchasing  material,  and  the  greater 
part  of  the  material  as  well  as  the  work  was  contributed.  Xot  only 
clothing,  but  food  of  all  kinds,  and  useful  articles,  too  numerous  to  be 
mentioned,  were  sent  to  the  soldiers.  The  next  annual  report  showed 
the  sum  of  $2,769.67  in  cash  received,  besides  the  proceeds  of  the  Wor- 
cester County  Fair,  Oct.  21-3,  amounting  to  $6,296.36.  In  1663-i  Mrs. 
Charles  Washburn  was  president.  For  the  year  ending  Oct.  1,  1864,  the 
cash  receipts  were  $4,130.39,  three-quarters  of  which  was  realized  from  a 
fair,  held  in  Oct.,  1863.  But  there  was  a  vast  quantity  of  food  and  cloth- 
ing forwarded  in  1862-3-4.  The  last  report  Oct.  9,  1865,  shows  receipts 
of  $6,793.56.  It  was  estimated  that  the  value  of  goods  sent  to  the  troops 
by  and  through  this  society  was  $30,000,  not  considering  the  value  of  the 
time  of  the  workers. 

The  Soldiers'  Rest. — In  accordance  with  the  custom  adopted  else- 
where rooms  known  as  "The  Soldiers  Rest"  were  opened  by  the  Ladies 
of  the  Relief  Committee  at  No.  4  Foster  Street,  July  7,  1862,  for  the  care 
of  sick  and  wounded  men  passing  through  the  city.  Soldiers  were  not 
expected  to  remain  there  more  than  24  hours.  Charles  W.  Freeland  gave 
the  use  of  the  quarters;  Thomas  C.  Bond  was  in  charge.  In  1862  the 
Rest  cared  .for  71  soldiers;  in  1863  for  72;  in  1864  about  800  and  in 
1865  about  1,400.  No  accurate  record  was  kept.  This  institution  was 
of  inestimable  service  at  times. 

The  Sanitary  and  Christian  Commissions. — The  first  meeting  in  the 
interests  of  the  Christian  Commission  appears  to  have  been  that  held 
Dec.  2,  1862.  Hon.  Isaac  Davis  presided  and  addresses  were  made  by 
Hon.  Edward  S.  Tobey,  Rev.  ]\Ir.  Alexander  and  Rev.  Dr.  ]\IcAuley  of 
Philadelphia;  the  following  committee  was  chosen  for  this  city:  Hon. 
Isaac  Davis,  George  M.  Rice,  Philip  L.  Moen,  David  Whitcomb  and 
Frederick  A.  Clapp.  Another  meeting  was  held  in  Old  South  Church, 
Feb.  17,  1863,  when  the  sum  of  $450  was  collected  for  the  purposes  of 
the  Commission. 

The  Sanitary  Commission  reported  receipts  of  $1,322.37  on  March 
3,  1864.  Meetings  were  held  in  various  churches  from  time  to  time  and 
collections  taken  for  the  commissions. 

Edmund  M.  Barton,  for  many  years  the  librarian  of  the  American 
Antiquarian  Society  and  now  librarian  emeritus,  was  for  two  years  agent 
of  the  Sanitary  Commission.  He  left  here  May  9,  1863,  visited  the  hos- 
pitals   in    New    York,    Philadelphia,    Baltimore     and    Washington    and 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  619 

reached  the  headquarters  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  May  2G,  continu- 
ing his  duties  there  to  the  end  of  the  war.  The  commission  of  Mr.  Bar- 
ton as  Relief  Agent  of  the  U.  S.  Sanitary  Commission  was  dated  July 
21,  1863,  under  the  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  June  15,  1861.  On  the 
field  of  battle  and  in  hospitals  he  worked  with  untiring  energy  and  zeal. 
Extracts  from  letters  of  Mr.  Barton  are  to  be  found  in  Marvin's  history 
(p.  409).  Perhaps  no  man  in  this  city  contributed  more  to  relieving 
sufifernig  during  the  war  than  Mr.  Barton. 

Visiting  the  Troops. — The  people  at  home  were  kept  in  close  touch 
with  the  doings  in  the  field,  not  onh^  through  the  newspapers  by  means 
of  the  newly  developed  telegraphic  service,  and  letters  from  their  cor- 
respondents, but  by  visits  of  citizens  bent  on  providing  food,  clothing, 
comforts  and  necessities.  Some  of  the  visits  have  been  mentioned. 
Mayor  Aldrich  and  Henry  S.  Washburn  took  money  and  supplies  in 
Sept.,  1862;  Alzarius  and  J.  Stewart  Brown  soon  afterward  took  money 
and  stores  to  the  troops.  These  and  many  other  visitors  were  warmly 
welcomed  by  the  grateful  soldiers. 

Prisoners  of  War. — Marvin  collected  a  small  list  of  Worcester  men 
who  were  confined  in  Rebel  prisons :  Amos  E.  Stearns  of  the  25th ; 
Martin  McCue  of  the  25th ;  George  Wellington  of  the  2d  hvy.  Art.,  who 
died  at  Andersonville.  It  is  impossible  to  prepare  a  complete  list  of  the 
prisoners,  though  the  rosters  of  the  various  regiments  show  that  there 
were  hundreds  of  Worcester  men  who  suffered  the  torture  of  priva- 
tion and  famine  in  southern  war  camps  and  prisons. 

Nurses. — At  the  beginning  of  the  war,  women  were  not  welcomed  in 
any  form  of  service,  even  nursing,  but  as  time  went  on  they  came  to  be 
an  important  part  of  the  hospital  service.  The  first  to  volunteer  for  this 
work  in  Worcester  were :  Mrs.  Helen  Smith,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Gird,  Mrs. 
Susan  Ware,  Miss  Elizabeth  Wheeler,  Miss  Julia  M.  Goddard  (later  wife 
of  Rev.  Mr.  Austin)  and  Mrs.  Susan  E.  Alger.  Three  of  them  were 
at  McDougall  Hospital,  Ft.  Schuyler,  N.  Y.  Mrs.  Alger  had  charge  of 
57  beds.  Mrs.  E.  M.  Rice,  wife  of  Dr.  Marcus  Rice,  acted  as  nurse 
through  the  greater  part  of  the  war. 

Clara  Barton,  founder  of  the  Red  Cross,  was  by  far  the  most  dis- 
tinguished woman  of  the  Civil  War  period.  Her  home  was  in  Oxford, 
but  she  had  many  friends  and  relatives  here  and  seemed  to  belong  to  this 
city.  This  is  not  the  place  for  a  biography  of  this  noble  woman,  but  it 
is  proper  to  say  that  her  example  stimulated  the  men  and  women  of  this 
city  to  greater  efforts  for  the  relief  of  the  sick  and  wounded  during  the 
war,  and  that  it  has  continued  with  increasing  measure  year  by  year  to 
the  present  time,  as  shown  by  the  amazing  response  to  the  appeal  of  the 
Red  Cross  at  the  beginning  of  American  preparation  to  enter  the  Euro- 
pean War  in  1917. 

Aid  to  Freedmen. — Early  in  the  war  a  committee  of  women  was 
formed  to  furnish  aid  to  the  slaves  that  came  into  the  Union  lines.    This 


620  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

committee  consisted  of  Mrs.  Ichabod  Washburn,  president ;  ]\Irs.  John 
Davis,  vice-president ;  Mrs.  Edward  Earle,  treasurer ;  Mrs.  Theo."  Brown, 
secretary,  and  Mrs.  E.  L.  Barnard,  Mrs.  J.  Aldrich,  Mrs.  James  C.  Morse, 
Mrs.  L.  B.  Witherby,  Mrs.  Edwin  Moody,  Mrs.  Samle  P.  Lee,  Miss 
Fanny  Brown,  Mrs.  Jason  Putnam,  Mrs.  B.  W.  Perkins  and  Mrs. 
Lemuel  Moss.  Clothing  and  supplies  came  to  the  committee  from  vari- 
ous churches  and  individuals,  and  some  money.  A  mass  meeting  was 
held  in  Mechanics  Hall,  July  17,  1863,  when  Rev.  Horace  James  and  oth- 
ers spoke  in  behalf  of  the  freedmen.     Hon.  A.  H.  Bullock  presided  ;  John 

B.  Gough  and  others  spoke.  Meetings  were  held  from  time  to  time  in 
the  churches,  and  collections  taken.  By  October  186-1  the  society  had 
spent  in  its  work  over  $4,000,  besides  sending  large  quantities  of  food, 
clothing,  reading  matter,  etc.  For  the  year  ending  Oct.  14,  1865,  the 
receipts  amounted  to  $2,491.01.  The  contributions  continued,  as  well  as 
the  needs  of  the  society,  for  some  time  after  the  war.  The  work  was 
finally  taken  over  by  the  Freedmen's  Bureau  under  Gen.  O.  O.  Howard. 

Early  in  1865,  in  addition  to  the  receipts  of  this  society,  the  sum 
of  $2,568.40  was  raised  here  by  Col.  N.  G.  Taylor  for  white  refugees  and 
loyal  sufferers  in  East  Tennessee. 

Home  Guards. — The  past  members  of  the  Worcester  Light  Infantry 
formed  a  body  of  Home  Guards,  April  24,  18G1,  appointing  D.  Waldo 
Lincoln  captain;  Henry  W.  Conklin,  W\  A.  Williams,  Putnam  W.  Taft 
and  Ivers  Phillips,  lieutenants. 

Two  days  later,  the  City  Guards  veterans  effected  a  similar  organi- 
zation under  George  W.  Ward,  captain ;   E.  A.  Wood,  William  A.  Smith, 

C.  B.  Whiting  and  John  Boyden,  lieutenants. 

The  Veteran  Light  Infantry  Guards  gave  a  reception  to  the  return- 
ing company  of  Light  Infantry,  Aug.  3,  1861,  Capt.  Lincoln  presiding. 

The  Home  Guards  were  not  called  upon  for  service  and  their  useful- 
ness was  perhaps  best  shown  in  encouraging  the  spirit  of  patriotism,  by 
aiding  enlistment.  They  marched  in  the  military  funerals  and  were 
active  in  arranging  receptions  to  the  soldiers  returning  on  furlough  or 
after  muster-out.     The  home  guards  disbanded  June  16,  1863. 

The  State  Guard. — The  State  Guard,  under  an  act  of  1863,  super- 
seded the  Home  Guard.  The  company  of  State  Guard  was  organized 
here  May  29  with  Col.  Ivers  Phillips  as  captain;  Capt.  Dana  H.  Fitch, 
first  lieut. ;   John  R.  Green,  2d  lieut. 

Ivers  Phillips,  William  Dickinson,  J.  H.  Renchley, 

Dana   H.    Fitch,  Isaac  Davis,  John  Rice,  2d, 

John  R.  Green,  John   D.   Baldwin.  John  S.  Clark, 

John   Boyden.  Tosei)h    Pratt.  Simeon  Clapp, 

Henry  Phelps,  William  E.  Starr,  R.  R.  Shepard, 

Hcaly  Baker,  Putnam  W.  Taft,  A.  L.  Mason, 

Thomas  Peirce,  William  B.  Taber,  A.   G.  Walker, 

Samuel  Houghton,  John  Barnard,  J.  H.  Haven, 

Joel  Davis,  D.  C.  Tourtelott,  Alfred   Parker, 

Allen    Harris,  PIdward  Clark,  Seba  Carpenter, 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE 


621 


James  A.  Whipple, 

E.  M.  Caulkins, 
William  C.  Clarke, 
William  H.  Towne, 
William  S.  Jenks, 
D.  W.  Jones, 
Alfred  Holden, 

C.  W.  Rice, 
David  Manning, 
James  Galloway, 
Hiram  French, 
Nathaniel   B.   Parkhurst, 
Lewis  A.  Rawson, 
Benjamin  Barber, 
Elliott  Swan, 
Alexander    Thayer, 
Courtland   Newton, 
L.  B.   Brigham, 
Daniel   Stratton, 
A.  L.  Burbank, 

F.  P.  Hutchins, 
A.  G.  Hinds, 
Samuel  W.   Kent, 
Edwin  Morse, 
Henry  A.  Denny, 
Joseph   Dennis, 
John  J.   Bigelow, 
Charles  Nason, 
George  C.   Taft, 
Josiah  G.  Perry, 
Jasper   Tucker, 


Samuel  Souther, 
Joseph  Boyden, 
Dexter  H.  Perry, 
Lemuel  Houghton, 
Tames  H.  Osgood, 
M.  V.  Warner, 
Charles    H.    Harvey, 
B.  F.  Nowell, 
E.  G.  Watkins, 
Simeon  Taylor, 
Moses  Spooner. 
Otis  Blood, 
Earl  Warner, 
J.  D.  Lovell, 
Silas  Bigelow, 
J.  E.  Wood, 
Samuel    Tourtellott, 
Oliver  W.  Claflin, 
E.  G.  Partridge, 
E.  B.  Crawford, 
T.  F.  Taft, 
Erastus  Fisher, 
Charles  L.  Knowlton, 
John    Goulding, 
Jonathan   Day, 
J.  B.  Lawrence, 
Jonathan    Carey, 
Simeon  Thompson, 
Calvin  Dyer. 
T.   P.  Wheelock, 


H.  P.  Nichols, 
Peter  Geno, 
Caleb  Dana, 
E.   E  Al)bott, 
T.  W.  Wellington, 
Henry   H.   Chamberlin, 
David  Gleason, 
William  P.  Daniels, 
H.  C.  Fisk, 
W.  Mecorney, 
S.   D.  Tourtellott, 
Charles  W.   Smith, 
John   Pollard, 
Albert  Curlif, 
T.  E.  St.  John, 
E.  M.  Hosmer, 
Edwin  Harrington, 
Charles  Goodale, 
Aaron   Goodale, 
Nathaniel  R.  Parkhurst, 
Asa  M.  Allen, 
Walter  Bigelow, 
J.  W.  Jordan, 
George  A.  Chamberlain, 
Henry  R.   Keith, 
Abraham  Fitts, 
Stephen  P.  Twiss, 
W.  Richmond, 
Charles  B.  Pratt, 
J.  H.  Samson. 


More  joined  later;  prominent  citizens  and  various  clergymen  were 
elected  honorary  members.  The  guard's  principal  duty  was  the  mel- 
ancholy one  of  attending  frequent  military  funerals.  During  the  disaf- 
fection over  the  draft,  the  Guard  performed  guard  duty  for  the  provost 
marshal.  In  July,  1863,  a  detachment  of  the  guards  escorted  drafted 
men  to  Boston. 

The  Guard  escorted  Gov.  Andrew  and  the  Council  from  the  rail- 
road station  to  the  Bay  State  House  Oct.  15.  The  next  day,  on  invita- 
tion of  Gov.  Gilmore  of  New  Hampshire,  they  went  to  Manchester,  N. 
H.,  and  were  royally  entertained  by  the  Amoskeag  Veterans.  They  vis- 
ited Fitchburg  Jan.  11,  1864,  and  enjoyed  a  banquet  and  some  good 
speaking.  At  the  receptions  to  the  21st  and  25th  regiinents  on  furlough 
in  February  the  Guards  did  escort  duty.  They  attended  the  funerals 
of  Dea.  Allen  Harris,  Lt.  Col.  Green,  Maj.  Dexter  F.  Parker,  Capt. 
Thomas  O'neil  and  Adjt.  McConville.  Almost  every  week  a  delegation 
or  the  entire  company  marched  in  these  funeral  processions. 

At  the  first  anniversary  of  the  organization,  celebrated  at  Webster 
Park,  a  flag  was  presented  to  the  Guards  by  Hon.  Ira  M.  Barton  in 
behalf  of  the  ladies  of  the  city.  Capt.  Phillips  received  the  flag  and 
entrusted  it  to  the  color  sergeant,  John  Boyden,  who  spoke  feelingly.  In 
his  speech  afterward  Capt.  Boyden  stated  that  this  was  the  first  com- 
pany of  State  Guard  organized  in  the  state.  Col.  Wetherell  spoke  for 
Gov.  Andrew.     Other  speakers  were:     Hon.  D.  Waldo  Lincoln,  mayor; 


622  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Col.  A.  J.  Wright,  capt.  of  the  3d  Co.  State  Guard  of  Mass.;  Hon.  Isaac 
Davis,  Rev.  Dr.  Hill  and  Rev.  Messrs.  Richardson,  Walker,  Barnard 
and  Shippen. 

Capt.  Phillips  entertained  the  company  at  his  home  in  Jan.,  1865 ; 
an  excursion  was  made  to  Springfield,  Feb.  7  and  the  U.  S.  armory 
inspected,  a  collation  served  and  much  after-dinner  speaking  heard. 

Lt.  Dana  H.  Fitch  succeeded  Capt.  Phillips  May  30,  1865;  John 
R.  Greene  was  elected  1st  lieut.  and  Healy  Baker,  2d  lieut. 

The  Guard  attended  a  flag-raising  in  Grant  Square,  July  1,  1865,  and 
was  entertained  at  the  home  of  T.  W.  Wellington.  In  the  evening  the 
members  met  Admiral  Farragut  at  the  residence  of  C.  S.  Messenger.  Its 
existence  came  to  an  end  in  1866  when  the  act  authorizing  its  formation 
was  repealed.  But  a  new  charter  was  granted  by  the  legislature  in  the 
spring  of  186 T  and  the  Guard  continued  for  many  years.  After  the  reor- 
ganization. Col.  Ivers  Phillips  was  chosen  captain;  Healy  Baker  and 
Charles  H.  Harvey,  lieuts.  It  was  divided  into  senior  and  junior  com- 
panies afterward,  and  in  18T0  S.  V.  Stone  was  major  commanding;  John 
R.  Greene  and  George  E.  Barton,  captains. 

Dr.  Samuel  Foster  Haven,  Jr.,  son  of  the  librarian  of  the  American 
Antiquarian  Society,  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard,  1852,  and  studied  med- 
icine under  Dr.  Henry  Sargent  and  in  the  Tremont  Street  Medical  Class 
in  Boston,  and  in  his  senior  year  was  house  physician  in  the  Massa- 
chusetts General  Hospital.  He  studied  abroad  1855-7  at  London,  Paris, 
Vienna  and  Berlin.  On  his  return  he  began  to  practice  in  Boston,  remov- 
ing in  the  spring  of  1858  to  this  city,  making  a  specialty  of  opthalmology. 
He  was  appointed  assistant  surgeon  of  the  15th  Regt.  and  served  about 
18  months  before  he  died.  He  believed  that  surgeon's  place  was  on  the 
field  of  battle  and  there  he  was  to  be  found.  He  was  promoted  surgeon 
of  his  regiment.  His  services  at  the  Battle  of  Antietam  were  especially 
heroic.  He  was  mortally  wounded  by  the  fragment  of  a  shell,  Dec.  13, 
1863.  His  body  was  brought  home  and  a  military  funeral  held  here. 
(See  p.  463  Marvin's  history  for  the  memorial  by  William  S.  Davis). 

Dr.  William  T.  Going,  a  native  of  this  city,  son  of  Rev.  Dr.  Going,  a 
Baptist  clergyman,  died  in  the  service  Oct.  23,  1861,  at  Springfield,  Ohio, 
aged  41  y.     He  was  in  the  17th  Ohio  Regt. 

Gen.  George  B.  Boomer  was  a  son  of  Rev.  J.  B.  Boomer,  of  this  city, 
and  was  educated  at  Worcester  Academy.  He  lost  his  life  in  the  service 
and  his  body  was  brought  home.  The  funeral,  June  23,  1863,  was 
attended  by  the  city  council.  State  Guard,  Highland  Cadets,  Gen.  Dev- 
ens  and  Col.  Wetherell,  among  other  military  officers.  Gen.  Boomer 
raised  a  regiment  in  Missouri.  He  was  wounded  at  the  Battle  of  luka 
and  when  he  recovered  was  given  command  of  a  brigade  by  Gen.  Grant, 
under  whom  he  served  from  that  time  until  he  died.  He  was  struck 
by  a  Rebel  bullet,  May  22,  1863,  at  the  Battle  of  Champion  Hill.  He 
was  an  exceedingly  brave,  efficient  and  patriotic  officer. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  623 

Lieut.  John  D.  Mirick  in  May,  1863,  was  commissioned  2cl  lieut.  of 
the  1st  Regt.  No.  Carolina  Vols,  (colored)  ;  he  was  soon  made  1st  lieut.; 
wounded  at  the  battle  of  Olustee,  Fla.  He  lingered  eight  days.  He  had 
served  in  the  25th  Regt. 

Maj.  Dexter  Franklin  Parker.  He  was  b.  in  Boston,  Aug.  2,  1828. 
His  parents  moved  to  Milford  and  died  when  he  was  young.  He  made 
his  own  way  after  the  age  of  fourteen  and  attended  Hopkinton  Academy 
several  terms.  In  1850  he  came  to  this  city  and  followed  the  trade  of 
boot-cutter.  In  1853  he  m.  (2)  a  daughter  of  Maj.  Thos.  Pierce.  Grad- 
ually he  became  known  as  a  public  speaker  of  ability  and  as  a  writer  for 
various  publications.  He  was  elected  representative  in  1856,  1857  and 
1860;  state  senator  1858-9.  In  early  life  a  Democrat,  he  joined  the  new 
Republican  party,  when  it  was  formed.  He  was  "decidedly  the  work- 
ing-man of  the  session"  and  one  of  the  most  prominent  legislators  while 
in  the  General  Court.  In  debate  he  was  specially  strong.  He  had  pre- 
pared from  the  records  of  various  towns  in  the  county  a  history  of 
industries.  He  went  to  Boston  to  enlist  in  the  Mexican  War  at  the 
age  of  sixteen,  but  was  rejected.  Then  he  worked  his  passage  to  New 
Orleans,  where  he  was  again  rejected.     When  the  call  for  arms  came  in 

1861,  he  went  alone  to  Washington,  joining  the  Worcester  Light  Infan- 
try when  it  arrived  soon  afterward.  He  was  made  brigade  quarter- 
master at  the  end  of  three  months,  with  the  rank  of  lieutenant;  after- 
ward commissioned  captain  on  the  stafif  of  Gen.  Couch  ;  then  major  in 
the  10th  Regt.  He  was  wounded  at  Spottsylvania  and  died  from  the 
wound.  May  28,  1864.  His  body  was  brought  home  and  a  very  impres- 
sive military  funeral  held,  June  4. 

Capt.  William  Batchelder  Bacon  was  a  son  of  Hon.  Peter  C.  Ba- 
con ;  entered  the  service  as  lieutenant  of  the  13th  Regt.  at  the  age  of 
17  yrs.  in  1861;  was  commissioned  captain  in  the  34th  Regt.  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1862.  He  met  his  death  in  action,  May  15,  1864.  He  was  dis- 
tinguished for  bravery  in  battle. 

Lieut.  Frank  Bacon  served  in  the  3d  Battalion  Rifles  in  1861,  and 
later  enlisted  in  the  Fifteenth;  was  commissioned  lieut.  in  the  101st 
N.  Y. ;   was  killed  at  the  Battle  of  Chancellorsville,  in  Mav,  1864. 

Major  Harrison  W.  Pratt  was  the  first  man  to  offer  his  service  to 
the  government  in  the  Civil  War  in  this  city;  enlisted  and  marched  with 
the  Sixth.  He  was  appointed  major  of  the  36th,  when  it  was  organized, 
and  was  its  commander  when  he  fell  mortally  wounded  at  the  Battle  of 
Fisher's  Hill,  in  Sept.,  1863.  His  body  was  brought  home  and  buried 
with  military  honors  Oct.  2. 

Lieut.  Henry  Daniels  and  his  brother  Myron  enlisted  July  15,  1864. 
Both  served  in  the  siege  of  Vicksburg  and  both  fell  in  the  Wilderness. 

Lieut.  E.  Dexter  Cheney,  w^hen  the  51st  Regt.  was  formed  here  in 

1862,  and  his  comrades  Coe  and  Childs,  both  also  killed  in  the  service, 
joined;    afterward  he  enlisted  in  the  57th  and  was  commissioned  captain 


624  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

of  Co.  B.     He  was  killed  before  Petersburgh,  his  body  brought  home 
and  buried  here,  July  28,  186-i. 

Sergt.  George  E.  Barnard  was  promoted  sergeant  for  conspicuous 
bravery  in  battle;  he  was  in  every  engagement  with  his  company  (E 
of  15th  Regt.)  ;  badly  wounded  at  Ball's  Bluff;  returned  to  fight  in 
Gettysburg.     He  was  the  last  man  killed  in  his  regiment. 

Capt.  Joseph  W.  Gird's  father  was  a  graduate  of  West  Point  and 
later  professor  of  mathematics  in  Louisiana  College.  Capt.  Gird  was 
born  in  Jackson,  La.,  Oct.  21,  1839.  The  family  moved  to  Illinois  when 
he  was  a  boy  and  when  his  father  died,  the  mother  came  to  this  city.  He 
attended  the  Worcester  High  School  and  was  studying  law  when  he 
enlisted  in  the  25th  Regt.,  a  private  in  Co.  F.  He  received  a  commis- 
sion as  lieutenant  in  the  36th  Regt.,  and  served  in  the  Kentucky  cam- 
paign. He  was  commissioned  captain  of  the  5Tth,  and  by  his  earnest 
and  effective  work  was  mainly  instrumental  in  hastening  the  organization 
of  that  command.  He  was  a  brave,  faithful  and  capable  officer  and 
served  his  country  well.  "With  abilities  which  gave  promise  of  great 
usefulness"  and  an  exemplary  character,  "he  offered  himself  as  a  sacrifice. 
None  went  forth  with  more  devotion  to  country,  with  more  unselfish 
desire  to  promote  the  welfare  of  the  soldier  or  with  more  faith  in  the 
triumph  of  our  armies  and  the  principles  for  which  they  contended,  than 
Captain  Gird,"  wrote  Marvin.  He  was  struck  by  a  bullet  in  the  head, 
May  6,  1864,  at  the  Wilderness  and  killed. 

Col.  Julius  Massena  Tucker's  father  was  business  manager  of  the 
"Worcester  Palladium,"  Julius  E.  Tucker,  and  the  son  was  among  the 
first  to  enlist  in  1861  at  the  age  of  19  yrs.  in  the  Third  Battalion  Rifles, 
but  he  was  counted  out,  as  the  company  then  had  a  surplus.  He  enlisted 
at  the  next  opportunity  in  the  25th  Regt.  and  served  for  a  year.  He  was 
commissoined  lieutenant  in  the  36th  Regt.  in  1862  and  was  with  it 
a  year  enduring  much  fighting  and  hardship.  In  the  autumn  of  1863 
when  he  had  returned  to  civil  life,  he  was  induced  to  try  to  raise  a  com- 
pany for  the  oTth  Regt.  In  20  days  he  enrolled  126  men.  He  was 
wounded  in  the  face  June  17  at  Petersburg;  was  brought  home  to  die 
but  in  seventy  days  was  on  duty  again  as  colonel  of  his  regiment.  He 
led  a  gallant  charge  at  Ft.  Steadman  Mar.  25,  1865,  and  he  lost  his  horse 
and  everything  except  the  clothing  he  wore  in  the  battle.  He  received 
a  furlough  as  a  reward  for  his  service  that  day,  returned  to  the  front, 
and  commanded  his  regiment  to  the  end  of  the  war.  He  received  his 
commission  as  major  June  14,  1864;  as  lieutenant  colonel  (dated  from 
June  15,  1864),  and  he  was  brevetted  colonel,  April  15,  1G65.  His 
wound  seriously  handicapped  him  in  civil  life  by  interfering  with  his 
speech.  He  was  appointed  inspector  in  the  Custom  House,  but  his 
career  was  cut  short  by  death,  June  22,  1866,  at  the  age  of  25  years. 

Corporal  Charles  S.  Wilder  was  a  student  at  Worcester  Academy 
when  he  enlisted  in  Co.  A  21st  Regt.  in  Aug.  1861;   he  served  faithfully 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  625 


through  all  the  tough  campaigning ;  re-enlisted  in  Jan.  18(i4  and  after  his 
furlough  joined  the  Army  in  Virginia  and  fought  bravely  in  every 
engagement  until  wounded,  June  2,  I860.  He  was  captured  and  taken 
to  Richmond,  where  he  died  a  few  days  later. 

Lieut.  Albert  C.  Walker  was  a  son  of  Aaron  G.  Walker  of  this  city; 
enlisted  in  the  Light  Infantry;  assisted  in  raising  Co.  H  of  the  34th; 
was  made  acting  adjutant  in  the  spring  of  1864;  commanded  his  com- 
pany after  the  Battle  of  Newbern  ;    fell  at  Piedmont. 

Adjt.  Dwight  Newbury  of  the  15th,  died  from  a  wound  received 
near  the  close  of  1863.  His  body  was  brought  home  for  interment  and 
his  funeral,  Dec.  11,  was  largely  attended  by  militia  and  military  men 
of  this  section,  the  city  government  and  many  citizens. 

Rev.  Samuel  Souther,  a  native  of  Fryeburg,  Me.,  graduate  of  Dart- 
mouth, 1842,  and  of  the  Bangor  Theological  Seminary,  came  to  Worces- 
ter in  1857  and  became  city  missionary  and  chaplain  at  the  jail  and 
insane  asylum.  He  had  previously  been  minister  of  the  Congrega- 
tional Church  at  Belfast,  Me.,  and  agent  of  the  American  Sunday  School 
Union.  In  1863-4,  he  w^as  representative  from  this  city.  He  was  inde- 
fatigable in  the  work  of  enlisting  men  for  the  service,  speaking  at  war 
meetings,  before  and  after  his  own  enlistment  in  the  5Tth,  in  which  he 
served  as  sergeant.  He  was  killed  in  the  Wilderness  and  his  body  was 
never  found. 

Adjt.  Henry  McConville  was  one  of  the  first  to  enlist  and  had  a  gal- 
lant record.  He  was  mortally  wounded  in  the  Battle  of  Cold  Harbor, 
and  survived  but  ten  days.  His  body  was  brought  home  and  buried 
with  military  honors.  "Youthful,  chivalric  and  brave,  he  is  another 
offering  on  the  altar  of  our  country.  Where  patriotic  spirits  like  his  are 
to  be  found,  such  a  land  is  safe  and  will  have  a  glorious  history."  The 
funeral  in  St.  John's  Church,  June  15,  was  attended  by  the  Emmet 
Guards,  the  State  Guard,  the  Father  Matthew  Temperance  Society,  the 
A.  O.  H.,  the  Christian  Doctrine  Association,  the  city  council,  ofificers  of 
the  army  and  navy  and  many  other  citizens. 

Lieut.  William  Daley,  another  Worcester  man,  killed  at  Cold  Har- 
bor, after  long  and  gallant  service ;  after  he  was  wounded  his  com- 
rades attempted  to  bring  him  into  the  trenches,  but  he  said  that  he  was 
mortally  wounded  and  might  as  well  die  there  as  anywhere.  General 
Smith  said  that  such  a  brave  man  should  be  recovered  and  ordered  him 
dug  out.  Accordingly,  two  men  dug  their  way  underground  to  the 
spot  where  he  lay  and  brought  him  within  the  lines.  He  died  June  24, 
1864.     The  funeral  here  June  27,  in  St.  John's  Church  was  imposing. 

Corp.  Timothy  F.  Taft  Jr.,  before  the  war  had  been  in  South  Amer- 
ica and  he  hurried  home  to  do  his  part.  He  served  four  years  in  the 
Army  of  the  Cumberland  and  was  very  popular  with  his  comrades.  He 
served  in  a  Connecticut  regiment  and  was  killed  at  Atlanta. 

Capt.  Edward  R.  Washburn  had  lived  here  three  years  before  the 
W.— 1-40. 


626  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

war,  but  went  to  Lancaster  his  old  home,  raised  a  company  and  was  com- 
missioned captain.  In  the  assault  on  Port  Hudson  he  was  wounded  by 
five  bullets.  The  surgeons  pronounced  his  wounds  fatal,  but  he  lived 
to  come  home,  only  to  die  of  his  wounds  after  apparently  recovering. 

Lieut.  Samuel  F.  Woods  was  born  in  Barre;  graduated  at  Yale  in 
1856,  and  studied  law  here  and  in  the  Harvard  Law  School;  was  admit- 
ted to  the  bar  and  was  practicing  at  Barre,  when  he  enlisted  in  April 
1861,  as  lieut.  of  the  Holden  Company,  Third  Battalion  Rifles.  After 
his  term  of  enlistment  he  lived  here  until  commissioned  adjutant  of  the 
34th.  He  was  afterward  assistant  adjutant  on  the  staff  of  Gen.  Weber. 
He  was  severely  wounded  at  Piedmont ;  came  home  and  died  here  at  the 
house  of  his  brother-in-law,  Hon.  P.  Emory  Aldrich,  June  26,  186-4. 

Corp.  Charles  W.  Upham,  a  son  of  Dea.  Joel  AV.  Upham ;  enlisted 
in  the  15th;  was  taken  prisoner  at  Ball's  Bluff',  and  died  after  six  weeks 
of  privation  in  prison,  Dec.  14,  1861,  aged  19  years,  3  m.,  5  d.  He  sleeps 
in  an  unmarked  grave. 

Dr.  Adams  Conant,  born  in  Worcester,  Feb.  26,  1838,  son  of  Benja- 
min K.  Conant :  enlisted  at  Ft.  Warren,  Aug.  10,  1862 ;  appointed  hos- 
pital steward  at  Alexandria,  \'a. ;  received  the  degree  of  M.  D.  from  the 
Medical  University  of  Nashville  while  on  duty  there ;  was  on  duty  later 
at  Evansville,  Lid.;  in  the  course  of  duty  was  injured  and  died  June  13, 
1865,  from  his  wounds. 

Sergt.  A.  T.  Bailey  lived  here  several  3'ears  before  the  war  and  had  a 
promising  business  future ;  enlisted  in  the  36th  and  was  a  model  sol- 
dier; he  died  after  a  few  hours  from  wounds  received  in  the  Battle  of 
Spottsylvania  Court  House,  May  12,  1864. 

Major  Elijah  A.  Harkness  was  educated  in  the  Worcester  schools 
and  took  the  first  opportunity  to  serve  his  country ;  serving  first  in  Co. 
A,  Third  Battalion  Rifles,  of  which  he  was  lieutenant;  commissioned  first 
lieut.  and  adjutant  in  the  25th;  later  major  of  the  51st;  brave,  capable, 
faithful,  cheerful ;   popular  with  ofiicer  and  men.     He  survived  the  war. 

At  Cold  Harbor  the  national  colors  of  the  25th  had  been  shot  to  rib- 
bons. Then  the  blue  flag,  the  gift  of  the  ladies  of  this  city,  was  unfurled. 
Three  color-bearers  had  been  shot,  when  John  E.  Lewis  raised  the  flag 
once  more.  He  was  also  shot,  but  managed  to  plant  the  flag  in  the 
ground.  But  as  he  wavered  and  fell  his  hand  grasped  the  flag  and 
dragged  it  down  with  him,  and  it  was  stained  with  his  blood.  Casey  of 
Co.  C  rescued  the  flag. 

No  attempt  has  been  made  to  give  extended  biographical  records  of 
all  the  Worcester  soldiers  killed  in  the  service.  Space  forbids.  Li  the 
roster  at  the  end  of  this  chapter,  a  brief  record  of  each  soldier's  military 
service  is  given.  Since  the  war  hundreds,  if  not  thousands,  of  other  men 
who  served,  in  the  war  have  become  residents  of  the  city.  In  many  of 
the  biographical  sketches  in  this  work  their  services  are  mentioned.  Ac- 
counts of  many  of  the  distinguished  officers  are  also  given  in  the  bio- 
graphical  section. 


CHAPTER  XXXV 
The  Spanish  War 

The  following  is  Major  Fairbanks'  account  of  the  campaign  of  1898 : 

At  the  first  call  of  the  President  for  troops,  the  Worcester  Light  Infantry,  Com- 
pany C ;  the  Worcester  City  Guards,  Company  A ;  the  Wellington  Rifles,  Company  H, 
and  the  Heywood  Guards,  Company  F,  of  Gardner,  comprising  the  third  battalion  of 
the  Second  Regiment,  were  ordered  to  report  with  the  regiment  at  South  Framing- 
ham  on  May  3d,  to  be  mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United  States. 

The  Worcester  companies  assembled  at  their  armory  on  the  morning  of  May  3d, 
and,  after  an  address  by  Mayor  Dodge  and  prayer  by  Almon  Gunnison,  D.  D.,  marched 
to  the  depot,  under  escort  of  the  gray-haired  veterans  of  George  H.  Ward  Post  10, 
G.  A.  R.,  and  the  veteran  members  of  the  three  companies.  Thousands  of  people  lined 
the  streets  as  the  soldiers  passed.  They  knew  the  call  to  duty  had  been  quickly  an- 
swered, and  that  cold^  wet  May  morning  was  an  occasion  of  solemnity  to  all — a  scene 
rarely  witnessed  and  ever  to  be  remembered. 

The  Worcester  Light  Infantry,  for  the  third  time  in  its  history,  left  Worcester  in 
answer  to  the  nation's  call.  Its  members  responded  in  large  numbers,  and  its  full 
quota  of  seventy-seven  men  was  filled  soon  after  the  arrival  at  South  Framingham. 

The  company  as  mustered  into  the  United  States'  service  was  officered  as  follows : 
Frank  L.  Allen,  Captain ;  Arthur  C.  King,  First  Lieutenant,  and  Herbert  H.  Warren, 
Second  Lieutenant.  On  Alay  12th  the  company  proceeded  with  the  regiment,  which 
was  designated  Second  Regiment  Massachusetts  Infantry,  United  States  Volunteers, 
to  Lakeland,  Florida,  and  became  part  of  the  First  Brigade,  Second  Division,  Fifth 
Army  Corps.  The  journey  south  was  by  rail  from  Jersey  City,  and  on  the  whole  was  a 
pleasant  one  for  all. 

The  company  passed  through  the  capital  on  the  morning  of  May  15th,  where  thirty- 
seven  years  before  it  reported  for  duty  with  the  Sixth  Massachusetts  Regiment  for 
three  months'  service  in  the  War  of  the  Rebellion.  Lakeland  was  reached  on  the  morn- 
ing of  May  17th,  and  camp  was  established  on  the  shore  of  a  beautiful  lake. 

After  a  stay  of  two  weeks  in  Lakeland,  the  regiment  moved  to  Tampa  on  Memorial 
day,  and  established  its  camp  at  Ybor  City,  a  suburb  of  the  city.  This  was  one 
more  step  in  the  journey  to  Cuba,  and  in  one  week  orders  came  to  proceed  to  Port 
Tampa  for  the  purpose  of  embarking  in  the  fleet  that  was  to  convey  the  army  of  Maj. 
Gen.  Shafter  to  Santiago,  the  objective  point  of  the  campaign.  It  was  the  fortune  of 
the  Light  Infantry  to  be  assigned  to  the  transport  Concho,  on  which  we're  the  Fourth 
Infantry  and  the  Twenty-fifth  Infantry  of  colored  troops.  None  will  forget  the  week 
spent  on  that  boat,  especially  the  first  night  when  the  men  were  placed  below,  where, 
from  the  heat,  lack  of  ventilation  and  closeness  of  the  bunks,  it  seemed  almost  impos- 
sible to  breathe.  Afterwards  life  was  more  bearable  by  reason  of  all  being  allowed 
to  sleep  on  deck.  The  first  night  the  company  was  assembled  under  arms  upon  the 
receipt  of  news  that  Spanish  war  vessels  were  outside  the  harbor  and  an  attack  was 
feared,  but  it  proved  to  be  false  news,  and  only  served  to  delay  the  departure  of  the 
fleet  for  several  days.  The  crowded  condition  of  the  "Concho"  made  it  necessary  to 
transfer  the  Second  Regiment  detachment  to  the  Knickerbocker,  No.  13,  in  which  the 
journey  from  Port  Tampa  to  Santiago  was  made.  The  fleet  of  about  forty  transports, 
with  its  convoy  of  war  vessels,  sailed  on  June  13th,  and  after  a  tedious  and  unevent- 
ful voyage  arrived  off  Santiago  on  the  20th. 


628  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  Light  Infantry  landed  at  Daiquiri  on  the  23d,  and,  after  a  terrible  march  of 
eleven  miles  through  swamps  and  the  thick  tropical  growth,  joined  the  regiment  at 
Siboney  headquarters,  and  two  battalions  of  the  regiment  having  landed  on  the  22d, 
proceeded  to  that  place.  The  company  now  had  but  two  officers,  the  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, Herbert  H.  Warren,  having  been  detailed  as  an  aid  on  the  staff  of  General  Lawton, 
the  division  commander.  Lieutenant  Warren  rendered  efficient  service  as  a  staff  offi- 
cer, and  was  recommended  for  brevet  rank  by  the  general. 

On  June  24  the  regiment  moved  and  bivouacked  at  "Las  Guasamas,"  the  scene  of 
the  engagement  of  the  cavalry  brigade  which  included  the  Rough  Riders.  Here  for 
the  first  time  were  seen  the  bodies  of  men  killed  in  action,  and  the  sight  was  not  with- 
out its  effect  upon  the  feelings  of  all.  From  this  time  to  the  30th  of  June,  there  were 
frequent  changes  of  camp.  The  rainy  season  had  set  in,  and  the  days  were  made 
dreary  and  uncomfortable  by  frequent  heavy  showers.  The  men  were  rapidly  becom- 
ing debilitated  by  the  change  of  climate,  lack  of  proper  food,  and  exposure  to  the  ele- 
ments. 

On  June  30th  orders  came  to  break  camp,  and  with  one  day's  rations  the  march 
was  taken  up  for  El  Caney,  which  was  to  be  attacked  the  next  morning  at  daylight. 
The  regiment  bivouacked  near  the  town,  and  at  about  6  A.  M.  the  battle  began,  which, 
late  in  the  afternoon,  resulted  in  the  capture  of  the  place.  The  battalion  to  which  the 
Light  Infantry  was  attached,  with  one  company  of  the  Second  Battalion,  was  cut  off 
from  the  regiment  by  order  of  the  division  commander  at  the  point  where  Captain 
Capron's  battery  was  in  action.  This  break,  which  caused  a  delay  of  more  than  an 
hour,  resulted  in  keeping  the  company  from  participating  in  the  most  serious  part  of 
the  battle  in  which  the  greater  number  of  the  casualties  in  the  regiment  occurred.  The 
company  finally  reached  the  firing  line,  and  with  the  other  companies  of  the  battalion 
was  assigned  a  position  which  afforded  good  cover,  but  was  kept  from  firing,  which 
from  that  position  would  have  been  of  no  value.  The  company  occupied  this  place 
throughout  the  day,  with  the  bullets  of  the  enemy  continually  whistling  overhead.  For- 
tunately, during  the  entire  day  no  casualties  resulted  to  the  battalion,  except  in  two 
companies,  the  Worcester  City  Guards,  A  Company,  and  the  Heywood  Guards,  F 
Company,  of  Gardner,  and  in  these  none  were  fatal. 

After  the  battle  a  distressing  night  march  was  made  to  San  Juan,  which  was 
reached  at  daylight,  and  a,fter  a  short  halt  the  regiment  moved  under  a  scattering  fire 
to  the  base  of  a  hill,  and  went  into  camp.  On  the  night  of  this  day,  July  2d,  occurred 
the  so-called  "night  attack,"  which  resulted  in  several  casualties  in  the  regiment,  but 
one,  however,  in  the  Worcester  battalion. 

The  company  was  now  under  the  command  of  Lieut.  King,  Captain  Allen  on  the 
evening  after  the  battle  of  El  Caney  having  been  compelled,  by  an  acute  attack  of 
rheumatism,  which  rendered  him  practically  helpless,  to  go  to  the  hospital.  This  was 
a  severe  loss,  and  one  that  was  greatly  regretted  by  all.  Lieut.  King  commanded  the 
company  from  this  time  until  the  arrival  at  "Montauk  Point,"  L.  I.,  and  his  efficient 
services  were  amply  testified  to  by  the  affection  in  which  he  was  held  by  the  men  upon 
their  return  home.  From  July  2d  until  the  surrender  of  Santiago,  the  company  was 
continually  digging  trenches,  performing  guard  and  outpost  duty,  under  conditions  that 
rapidly  sapped  strength  and  vitality. 

The  formal  surrender  of  Santiago  took  place  on  July  17  and  i8th.  From  that 
time  until  August  13,  the  date  of  sailing  for  Montauk  Point,  it  was  a  constant  strug- 
gle for  life.  It  seemed  only  a  question  of  time  when  all  must  succumb  to  the  sur- 
rounding conditions.  The  daily  rains  made  life  nearly  unbearable,  and  the  death  rate 
throughout  the  regiment  was  constantly  on  the  increase,  but  the  end  came  on  Aug. 
I2th,  when  camp  was  broken,  the  regiment  embarked  on  the  transport  Mobile,  and 
sailed  the  next  day,  the  13th,  for  Montauk  Point,  which  was  reached  on  the  evening 
of  the  i8th,  but  the  regiment  did  not  disembark  until  the  20th.  Immediately  upon  disem- 
barking, it  went  into  "detention  camps"  for  the  purpose  of  quarantine,  and  after  stay- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  629 

ing  there  three  days  a  new  camp  was  established,  which  was  occupied  until  Saturday, 
the  27th,  when  the  regiment  was  furloughed.  At  Montauk  supplies  in  generous  quanti- 
ty were  received  from  the  citizens  of  Worcester.  They  did  much  good,  and  were 
gratefully  appreciated. 

In  the  afternoon  of  Aug.  27th  the  company  reached  Worcester.  Eight  of  its  mem- 
bers had  died  of  disease,  and  those  who  returned  were  in  a  pitiable  condition.  The 
citizens  of  Worcester  were  shocked  at  the  appearance  of  the  men,  who  so  short  a 
time  before  marched  away  in  full  vigor  and  strength. 

The  muster-out  took  place  November  3,  1898. 

Post  10,  G.  A.  R.,  escorted  the  companies  from  the  depot  to  the  Armory.  And  its 
members  must  have  been  vividly  reminded  of  the  old  days  of  the  War  of  the  Re- 
bellion. 

The  following  is  the  roll  of  the  officers  and  men   comprising  the 
Worcester  Light  Infantry,  when  it  left  for  the  front: 

Captain,  Frank  L.  Allen;  First  Lieutenant,  Arthur  C.  King;  Second  Lieutenant, 
H.  H.  Warren  ;  Sergeants— First  Sergeants,  George  H.  Hill,  A.  S.  Longley,  George  W. 
Stebbins,  C.  T.  Fletcher,  William  E.  Barton,  H.  B.  Wentworth ;  Corporals,  J.  W.  Hol- 
brook,  C.  H.  Colburn,  R.  H.  Dowse,  J.  Luey  Wilmot,  C.  A.  Vaughan,  P.  W.  Lincoln  ; 
Cook,  A.  G.  Bursdorf ;  Musicians,  A.  F.  Wheeler,  H.  T.  Chapin ;  Artificer,  E.  A. 
Stearnes  ;  Wagoner,  T.  B.  Maynard  ;  Privates,  H.  H.  Adams,  O.  T.  Aldrich,  J.  H.  Al- 
len, Lyman  Bartlett,  C.  E.  Butler,  W.  H.  Butler,  Geo.  C.  Butler,  G.  E.  Bennett,  G.  H. 
Bejune,  J.  F.  Bradley,  C.  A.  Browne,  L.  A.  Brigham,  E.  A.  Briggs,  F.  E.  Grossman, 
F.  H.  Clarkson,  F.  M.  Crooker,  F.  P.  Dean,  W.  G.  Dennis,  E.  T.  Drury,  C.  T.  Eld- 
ridge,  W.  W.  Eddy,  J.  H.  Flinn,  Jr.,  Geo.  S.  Farrow,  O.  J.  W.  Gleason,  H.  J.  Greene, 
L.  B.  Glixman,  W.  L  Gage,  F.  C.  Hale,  R.  E.  Henderson,  J.  W.  Humes,  George  T. 
Jones,  R.  Johnson,  B.  W.  Kincaid,  J.  C.  King,  C.  H.  Knibbs,  S.  L  Mayo,  George  Mar- 
tin, E.  J.  Martin,  W.  A.  Merrified,  R.  H.  Pitts,  A.  J.  Pembleton,  B.  A.  Prince,  J.  E. 
Pope,  Geo.  E.  Rix,  W.  D.  Rheutan,  W.  D.  Roberts,  Charles  M.  Sands,  A.  D.  Stewart, 
Robert  Taft,  F.  S.  Tucker,  A.  T.  Wintersgill,  J.  W.  Wheeler,  E.  D.  Woolbridge,  Emit 
Zaeder. 

Captain  Winslow  Sever  Lincoln  commanded  Company  C,  the  Light 
Infantry,  before  the  Spanish  War.  He  was  offered  a  commission  as  cap 
tain  of  immunes  June  4,  1898,  with  the  choice  of  white  or  colored  troops, 
but  yielding  to  the  wishes  of  his  family,  he  accepted  the  position  of  cap- 
tain and  assistant  commissary  of  subsistence,  and  June  26th  he  reached 
headquarters  at  Tampa  and  was  assigned  as  chief  commissary  of  the 
Third  Division,  Fourth  Army  Corps.  Subsequently  he  was  transferred 
to  the  Second  Brigade  of  the  same  Division.  While  in  the  unhealthful 
camp  at  Fernandina  his  health  became  seriously  impaired  but  recovered 
after  an  illness  of  four  weeks.  Soon  afterward  he  was  sent  home.  On 
his  return  to  duty  he  was  assigned  to  the  First  Brigade,  Second  Division 
at  Anniston,  Ala. ;  was  relieved  Jan.  1,  1899,  and  sent  to  Havana  as 
assistant  to  Col.  A.  L.  Smith  and  was  assigned  to  the  distributing  depot 
at  Quemados,  nine  miles  from  Havana,  from  which  rations  for  15,000 
troops  were  furnished.  When  beef  from  this  country  failed,  he  was  in 
charge  of  purchasing  native  cattle.  He  left  Cuba  for  home  April  10, 
1899,  and  was  discharged  June  1  follovving. 


630  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Capt.  Lincoln  joined  the  Light  Lifantry  in  18(35;  again  he  enHsted 
and  was  aide-de-camp  with  the  rank  of  captain  for  nearly  a  year  after 
June  1ST.").  From  18TG  he  was  again  in  the  company,  promoted  step  by 
step,  captain  from  Nov.  23,  1880,  to  Oct.  3,  1883.  (See  Early  Families). 
During  the  Cuban  campaign  he  was  lieutenant  of  the  Light  Infantry, 
but  was  on  detached  service  in  the  Cuban  campaign.  He  was  ill  in  Flor- 
ida and  was  detailed  to  division  headquarters  there,  but  he  went  with  the 
expedition  and  served  on  the  staff  of  Gen.  Lawton.  He  was  fever- 
stricken  and  furloughed  home  July  30,  recovering  in  time  for  the  muster 
out.  He  was  brevetted  captain  for  gallant  conduct  at  El  Canen.  He 
became  captain  of  the  company  after  the  war,  and  later  major  of  his 
regiment. 

Fred  P.  Dean  attained  a  peculiar  distinction  in  the  Spanish  War.  He 
and  .Sergeant  iJarton  located  the  grave  of  Lieut.  Benchley,  after  the 
Battle  of  San  Juan  Hill.  He  had  marked  the  grave  of  every  soldier  of 
his  regiment  buried  in  Cuba.  In  November  he  brought  the  body  of 
Lieut.  Benchley  to  Worcester.  He  was  appointed  by  Col.  Clark  in  the 
spring  of  1899  to  accompany  the  government  burial  corps  to  Cuba.  The 
party  began  its  work  in  Porto  Rico,  and  there  it  was  discovered  that 
the  stencil  apparatus  was  buried  deep  in  the  hold  under  the  cargo. 
Dean's  lettering  skill  came  into  play,  and  his  work  was  so  well  done  that 
the  cargo  was  undisturbed.  He  continued  w-ith  the  corps  and  before  his 
return  had  lettered  the  name,  rank,  company  and  regiment  on  1,378  boxes 
containing  the  bodies  of  American  soldiers  returned  to  their  homes  for 
burial.  He  also  made  plans  of  all  the  places  where  bodies  w^ere  exhumed. 
In  1899  he  w^as  offered  similar  employment  in  the  Philippines  and  was 
engaged  in  the  work  for  nine  months.  He  made  another  trip  in  1900  and 
another  in  1902,  returning  late  in  November  1903.  Altogether  he  let- 
tered caskets  of  9,000  American  soldiers  wdio  died  in  foreign  parts. 

In  Memoriam. — Fred  Baldwin  Taft,  born  in  Charlton;  died  in  Cu- 
ba, July  14,  1898 ;    w^as  a  Worcester  fireman. 

James  Woodbury  Wheeler,  died  in  Cuba,  Aug.  2,  aged  32 ;  was  an 
insurance  agent ;    buried  in  Lynn. 

Silas  I.  Mayo,  died  Aug.  7,  aged  26;   buried  at  Fairfield,  Me. 

Arthur  Dawson  Stewart,  died  Aug.  10,  aged  19 ;  a  native  of  Grand 
Pre,  N.  S. ;   machinist;  buried  at  Hortonsville,  N.  S. 

Harold  Benning  Wentworth,  sergeant,  died  at  sea  Aug.  14,  aged  28; 
had  been  physical  director  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  Holy  Cross;  left  a 
widow. 

Robert  Henry  Dowse,  b.  Aug.  24,  1868;  died  Aug.  26,  1898;  wood- 
carver;    buried  in  Sherborn. 

William  David  Roberts,  born  Staffordsville,  Conn,  May  3,  1879 ;  died 
here  Sept.  3,  1898;   buried  at  Cherry  Valley. 

Joseph  Clarence  King,  died  at  division  hospital,  Santiago,  Sept.  5, 
aged  18;   buried  in  Leicester,  his  native  town. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  631 

Lieut.  Arthur  C.  King,  died  here  June  30,  1901,  aged  34 ;  had  served 
ten  years  in  the  company ;  was  president  of  the  Cuban  War  Veterans ; 
left  a  wife  and  two  children ;  Ijuried  in  Hope  Cemetery.  He  was  in  the 
wall  paper  business. 

Royal  H.  Pitts,  died  in  Boston,  June  3,  1899;  was  Adjutant  Gen- 
eral of  the  Legion  of  Spanish  War  Veterans. 

Eugene  F.  Drury,  died  in  the  Worcester  City  Hospital,  Nov.  1,  1902 ; 
enlisted  in  the  U.  S.  Regulars  after  the  war,  Jan.  9,  1899  ;  served  in  the 
Ninth  Infantry  in  the  Philippines  and  took  part  in  many  engagements ; 
was  in  China  during  the  Boxer  war;  was  discharged  Jan.  9,  1902.  He 
was  buried  in  Leicester. 

City  Guards. — Every  man  in  the  City  Guards  volunteered  in  the 
Spanish  War  and  under  Capt.  Edwin  G.  Barrett  the  company  went  to 
camp  in  South  Framingham  May  3,  1898,  with  the  Second  Regiment,  in 
which  it  was  Company  A.  On  May  10  they  were  mustered  into  the 
federal  service.  Next  day  the  regiment  started  for  the  South,  taking 
the  steamer  Plymouth  at  Newport,  R.  L,  and  after  a  tedious  wait  in  New 
York,  proceeding  by  rail  through  Washington,  they  arrived  in  Savan- 
nah, Georgia,  on  the  loth  and  late  at  night  in  Lakewood,  Fla.  They 
were  the  first  of  the  volunteers  to  arrive.  Here  they  camped  and  until 
May  30  Camp  Massachusetts  was  their  home.  Capt.  Barrett  was  the 
first  officer  of  the  day.  The  next  camp  was  at  Ybor  City,  a  suburb  of 
Tampa,  where  they  remained  until  June  7.  They  embarked  on  the 
transport  Concho  and  next  they  were  transferred  to  the  Knickerbocker 
June  12,  and  next  day  that  boat  anchored  near  Orizaba.  The  fleet  finally 
arrived  near  Santiago  May  20,  but  a  landing  was  not  made  until  two 
days  later.  A  stearh  launch  from  the  cruiser  New  York  with  a  line  of 
small  boats  came  to  the  side  of  the  transport.  In  these  boats  the  men 
and  supplies  were  taken  ashore.  Most  of  the  company  did  not  get  ashore 
until  the  23d.  From  the  landing  at  Daiquiri,  the  regiment  marched  to 
Siboney  and  camped.  The  march  to  Santiago  has  been  described.  The 
company  took  part  in  the  engagement  and  siege  of  Santiago.  Peter  N. 
.White  was  the  only  man  wounded  by  two  bullets.  But  disease  soon 
began  to  make  inroads  in  the  company.  Deaths  became  frequent. 
The  company  embarked  on  the  transport  Mobile  Aug.  12.  Food  and 
accommodations  were  lacking ;  most  of  the  men  were  fever-stricken ; 
all  were  suffering  from  heat,  hunger  or  disease.  At  the  arrival  at  Mon- 
tauk  Aug.  19,  Capt.  Barrett  telegraphed  home  that  every  man  in  his 
company  was  alive.  To  his  vigilance,  his  resourcefulness  in  getting  pro- 
visions and  fatherly  care  of  the  sick  many  of  his  men  owed  their  lives. 
The  men  went  ashore  next  day  and  were  released  from  Quarantine  on 
the  24th.  Many  Worcester  friends  came  to  camp  with  delicacies  and 
comforts  for  the  soldiers.  The  company  returned  to  Worcester  Aug. 
27  and  most  of  the  company  joined  the  ranks  and  marched.  Of  the  67 
who  went  in  May,  54  were  in  line.     Lieut.  Plummer  and  Privates  Fischer 


632  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

and  Fairbanks  were  left  in  Cuba  on  duty  ;  Artificer  Clapp  and  Privates 
Forest  and  Torkelson  were  in  the  hos])ital  at  Montauk,  and  Sergeant 
Sawyer  and  Privates  Christenson  and  Israel  in  the  detention  camp  at 
Montauk.  A  sixty-day  furlough  was  given  the  men.  Muster-out  was 
at  Springfield,  Nov.  2. 

Though  not  a  man  was  lost  in  the  Cuban  campaign,  four  men  died 
from  the  results  of  their  service. 

In  Memoriam. — Joseph  Henry  Beaudoin,  born  here  May  12,  1875, 
son  of  Aimable ;    died  Sept.  3,  1898. 

Lewis  M.  Fay,  born  at  Brookfield,  M.,  son  of  William  W.;  died 
in  California   1901. 

George  Leon  Forest,  son  of  Hormisdas;  died  at  St.  Peter's  Hos- 
pital, Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  1,  1898;  was  captain  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A. 
Basket  Ball  Team. 

Sergeant  Edward  Robert  Riedl,  born  here  Aug.  12,  18T0,  son  of 
Mathew,  died  in  Westborough,  Oct.  21,  1900 ;   buried  in  Hope  Cemetery. 

Emmet  Guards. — The  Emmets  voted  unanimously  to  ofl^er  their  ser- 
vices in  the  war,  at  a  meeting  April  11,  1898,  before  war  was  declared. 
Recruiting  brought  the  number  in  the  company  to  7-1  by  the  29th.  The 
company  left  for  Framingham  May  4,  receiving  one  of  the  greatest  ova- 
tions ever  given  an  organization  in  the  city.  The  company  was  escorted 
by  Post  10,  G.  A.  R. ;  students  from  Holy  Cross  and  the  Catholic 
Schools;  and  by  practically  all  the  Catholic  organizations  in  the  city. 
The  Emmets  were  sworn  into  the  United  States  service  at  Framingham 
May  11 ;  2d  Lieut.  Hurley  succeeding  Lieut.  Hines  who  failed  to  pass 
the  physical  tests ;    Sergt.  William  E.  McCann  becoming  2d  lieut. 

After  a  wait  that  tried  the  patience  of  the  men,  the  Ninth  Regi- 
ment broke  camp  on  May  31.  Before  starting,  M.  B.  Lamb  and  P.  J. 
McManus  presented  a  purse  of  $250  in  l)ehalf  of  the  honoraries.  James 
Logan  had  previously  sent  $50  to  the  captain  and  the  Volunteers'  Aid 
Association  had  sent  money,  stockings  and  supplies.  When  the  train  in 
three  sections  passed  through  Union  station  in  this  city  it  was  greeted 
by  a  vast  throng;  at  New  Worcester  there  was  another  crowd  to  bid 
the  boys  goodbye.  All  along  the  route  they  were  given  an  ovation,  espe- 
cially at  Chester  and  Pittsfteld,  where  cofifee  and  lunch  was  served  and 
boxes  of  good  things  provided.  By  way  of  Albany,  Baltimore  and 
Washington,  the  trains  proceeded  to  Dunn-Loring,  their  destination, 
Virginia.  In  camp  Alger  the  Emmets  were  visited  by  many  Worcester 
friends,  including  Mayor  Dodge,  Rev.  Father  Thomas  Conaty ;  money, 
dainties,  sui)plies  of  all  kinds  was  received.  They  were  a  lively  lot 
and  found  plenty  of  amusement.  The  celel)ration  of  Bunker  Hill  Day 
was  elaborate ;   the  whole  regiment  took  part. 

The  Ninth  was  in  the  First  Brigade,  Third  Division,  Second  Army 
Corps,  associated  with  the  ;)3d  and  31th  Michigan  regiments.  The  com- 
mand moved  by  train  to  Alexandria,  June  24,  leaving  but  one  man  of  the 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  633 

Emmets  in  the  hospital ;  thence  tlie  regiment  was  transported  to  New- 
port News  on  the  ^oth,  and  embarked  on  the  transport  Harvard  which 
steamed  away  for  Cuba  on  Sunday,  arriving  about  midnight  June  30, 
at  Santiago  harbor,  where  the  Spanish  fleet  was  "bottled  up."  The  reg- 
iment landed  at  Siboney  next  day.  Four  hours  later  they  took  up  the 
line  of  march  that  the  Rough  Riders  had  followed  to  Las  Guasimas. 
Wounded  men  from  El  Caney  were  met  on  their  way  to  the  hospitals. 
They  were  under  for  that  day  for  the  first  time.  At  two  in  the  morn- 
ing of  July  3,  the  company  was  marched  to  the  support  of  the  10th  U.  S. 
Infantry  near  San  Juan  and  set  to  trench  work.  The  Spaniards  opened 
fire  at  daybreak.  Later  in  the  day  a  truce  was  declared.  The  Emmets 
were  then  in  the  Third  Brigade,  Third  Division,  Fifth  Corps.  There 
were  few  casualties  and  no  deaths  in  the  company  during  the  engage- 
ment and  siege  at  Santiago.  But  the  tropical  climate  and  lack  of  food 
soon  brought  sickness  and  suffering.  Henry  Sullivan  was  the  first  of 
the  Emmets  to  die.  But  the  Emmets  were  more  fortunate  than  many 
other  companies  in  their  camp  location.  August  12,  Halleck  Bartlett 
arrived  with  delicacies  and  supplies  from  home,  though  the  greater  part 
of  the  things  sent  to  the  Emmets  never  arrived.  But  Lieut.  McCann 
made  good  the  loss  by  appropriating  a  six-mule  tea,m  load  of  malted 
milk,  canned  goods  and  other  food  from  the  Santiago  docks. 

Camp  was  broken  Aug.  23  and  the  Emmets  embarked  on  the  trans- 
port Alleghany,  which  arrived  with  its  load  of  sick  and  emaciated  sol- 
diers at  Montauk,  L.  L,  Aug.  31.  The  Emmets  were  greeted  by  Wor- 
cester friends  and  physicians,  Dr.  Timothy  J.  Foley,  Dr.  McGourty  and 
Dr.  John  Ronayne.  Later  came  many  others  to  the  aid  of  the  boys 
from  Worcester.  Only  eleven  of  the  Emmets  were  able  to  walk  to  the 
boat  when  the  start  for  home  was  made  on  the  Vigilant ;  Doctors  Foley, 
McGourty,  Joseph  H.  Kelley,  M.  F.  Fallon,  T.  A.  O'Callaghan,  W.  J. 
Delahanty,  J.  W.  McKoan,  Rev.  D.  F.  McGillicuddy,  Michael  L.  Russell 
and  Frank  J.  Moynihan  were  with  the  soldiers.  From  New  London, 
the  company  went  by  train  to  Worcester  through  Providence.  They 
were  received  at  10.30  at  Union  station  by  a  great  gathering.  But  half 
of  the  company  had  been  able  to  reach  home ;  some  were  dead ;  others 
were  scattered  in  hospitals. 

The  recruits  for  the  Emmets  left  Worcester  July  14  and  were  sent 
to  Camp  Alger,  but  on  account  of  the  typhoid  epidemic  were  removed 
Aug.  7  to  Bristow  Station,  Va.,  and  vicinity.  On  the  27th  they  were 
taken  to  Middletown,  Penn.  On  Sept.  4  the  command  started  for  Camp 
Dalton,  South  Framingham,  and  on  Sept.  10th  the  Emmet  recruits  were 
sent  to  Worcester  with  a  general  furlough  for  sixty  days. 

A  reception  was  given  to  the  Emmets  Oct.  31.  Col.  Wellington 
was  chief  marshal  of  the  parade.  The  Grand  Army,  the  militia  took 
part.  The  Emmets  under  Capt.  Moynihan  and  both  lieutenants  had 
71  men  in  line.     In  the  evening  there  was  a  reception  in  Mechanics  Hall, 


634 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


which  was  crowded.  Col.  F.  W.  Wellington  was  toast-master.  The 
speakers  were  Mayor  Rufus  B.  Dodge,  Hon.  Joseph  H.  Walker,  Hon.  A. 
S.  Pinkerton,  Rev.  D.  F.  McGillicuddy,  Col.  W.  S.  B.  Hopkins,  and 
W^illiam  H.  Bartlett,  Department  Commander  of  the  G.  A.  R. 

The  Emmets  reported  at  the  Armory  Nov.  6.  Of  the  total  number 
enlisted  (106)  80  enlisted  men  and  three  officers  were  present.  They 
were  mustered  out  Nov.  26.  The  company  mascot  Couchee,  returned 
from  Cuba  and  enjoyed  the  honors  of  a  veteran  until  April  11,  1901, 
when  he  was  chloroformed. 

In  Memoriam.— Henry  Sullivan,  the  first  of  the  Emmets  to  die  in 
the  service,  was  born  in  Winchendon,  Oct.  24,  1872,  son  of  Henry;  mar- 
ried Mary  Moynihan ;  died  July  23,  1898 ;  buried  in  St.  John's  cemetery. 

George  Washington  Brosman,  born  in  New  York  City,  Nov.  6,  1877, 
son  of  John,  "a  veteran  of  the  British  army ;  died  at  Egmont  Key,  Fla., 
Aug.  20 ;  pressman  on  the  Worcester  Post ;  buried  in  St.  John's  cemetery. 

Corporal  John  Daniel  Sweney,  born  in  County  Kerry,  Ireland,  Feb. 
27,  1877,  died  Aug.  21,  son  of  Daniel.  His  body  was  the  first  to  be 
brought  home;  he  was  buried  with  military  honors  in  St.  John's 
cemetery. 

Edward  Francis  Sullivan,  born  in  Shrewsbury,  Aug.  29,  1874,  died 
on  the  way  home ;   was  a  stationary  engineer. 

Charles  Francis  McMann,  born  in  Underbill,  Vt.,  son  of  ^lichael ; 
died  Aug.  30 ;  was  a  star  football  player  in  Brigham  Academy ;  taught 
school  1897-8. 

Michael  Joseph  Healey,  born  at  Castle  Island,  County  Kerry,  Ire- 
land, 1875,  son  of  Edward,  died  at  sea,  Aug.  31 ;  was  a  moulder  by  trade. 

Joseph  M.  Coffee,  born  in  New  Haven;  died  at  Camp  Meade  Sept. 
5;    buried  at  New  Britain,  Conn. 

Corporal  John  Francis  Horan,  born  at  Abbeyfeale,  County  Limer- 
ick, Ireland,  son  of  Michael ;  came  to  this  country  in  1880 ;  foreman  for 
Henry  Mellen,  mason;    member  of  the  A.   O.   H.;    died  at  Montauk, 

Sept.  9. 

John  Francis  Keegan,  born  here  Nov.  2,1872,  son  of  John,  who  served 
in  the  Civil  War;  founder  by  trade;  died  at  Montauk,  Sept.  9  of  typhoid 
pneumonia;    buried  in  St.  John's  cemetery. 

James  Francis  McTiernan,  born  here,  son  of  James;  died  at  Mon- 
tauk, Sept.  15 ;  funeral  at  St.  Stephen's. 

John  James  Craven,  born  in  Ireland,  son  of  John,  died  at  Montauk, 
Sept.  25 ;  came  to  America  in  1885 ;  wire-drawer  in  Washburn  &  Moen's 
mill;  had  been  in  the  Emmets  three  years;  member  of  the  A.  O.  H.; 
buried  in  St.  John's  cemetery. 

John  Edward  Casey,  born  in  County  Kerry,  Nov.  18,  1866,  son  of 
Michael ;  died  after  his  return  at  the  State  Hospital,  Dec.  31,  1899. 

Walter  Allen,  born  in  England,  Oct.  28,  1877,  son  of  George ;   came 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  635 


to  this  country  in  1881  ;  after  the  Cuban  War  enlisted  in  the  U.  S.  Infan- 
try and  served  at  Pekin  where  he  died  Nov.  5,  1900. 

Peter  H.  Bennett,  born  here,  son  of  Patrick,  died  June  24,  1902. 

David  James  Kennedy,  born  at  Hardwick,  son  of  David ;  enlisted  in 
the  U.  S.  Infantry  after  the  war;  fought  in  the  Philippines  and  in  China; 
wounded  at  Tien  Tsin,  July  13,  1900 ;   died  July  2,  1903. 

William  H.  Murphy,  born  here  April  19,  1879,  son  of  John;  died 
of  malaria,  contracted  in  Cuba,  Oct.  12,  1904. 

Timothy  J.  Ahern,  born  in  Ireland  at  Buttertin,  County  Cork,  came 
to  this  country  in  1896 ;  married  Bridget  Devine  :  died  March  9,  1905,  aged 
31  years,  of  disease  contracted  in  the  service. 

Wellington  Rifles. — At  the  outbreak  of  the  Spanish  War,  the  Wel- 
lington Rifles,  Co.  H,  2d  Regiment,  were  recruited  by  Captain  Charles  S. 
Holden  to  full  strength.  Edward  B.  Fish  was  then  first  lieutenant;  Harry 
T.  Gray,  second  lieutenant.  The  roster  of  the  company  will  be  found  in 
Mr.  Roe's  history. 

The  company  went  to  Camp  Dewey  in  South  Framingham 
May  3,  1898,  and  was  mustered  into  the  United  States  service  May  9. 
The  regiment  started  for  the  South  May  12  and  on  the  ITth  arrived  at 
Lakeland,  Florida.  On  the  30th  the  regiment  moved  to  Ybor  City  and 
on  the  seventh  of  June  arrived  at  Tampa  City.  The  start  for  Cuba 
was  made  on  the  Concho.  Rations  were  often  wanting;  the  heat  was 
intense  and  the  boys  endured  much  suffering.  On  the  12th  the  regi- 
ment was  transferred  to  the  transport  Knickerbocker,  which  finally  got 
under  way  on  the  14th.  Part  of  the  regiment  landed  at  Santiago  on  the 
32d  and  on  the  23d  the  Wellingtons  landed  at  Mount  Losiltires.  After 
the  engagement  at  Las  Guasimas,  June  24,  the  second  Regiment  was 
marched  toward  that  place,  halting  over  Sunday,  and  resuming  the 
march  on  Monday,  camping  from  Tuesday  to  Thursday,  June  30. 

The  regiment  was  in. action  at  El  Caney  and  at  the  siege  of  Santiago. 
The  men  suffered  from  lack  of  food,  and  sickness  increased  in  the  com- 
pany as  in  the  rest  of  the  army.  The  weeks  after  the  surrender  were 
full  of  hardships  and  suffering.  Finally  the  company  embarked  on  the 
Mobile  in  command  of  Lieut.  Gray,  after  a  severe  campaign  of  fifty  days 
in  Cuba.  Lieuts.  Fish  and  Privates  Cook,  Hodgkins  and  Wood  were  left 
in  the  hospital  and  Private  Coates  was  left  in  charge  of  them.  On  the 
way  home  there  were  eleven  deaths.  The  company  reached  Montauk 
Point  Aug.  18,  landing  on  the  20th.  Here  good  quarters  and  food  were  at 
hand.  Hardly  had  the  boys  settled  in  camp  when  George  D.  Barber,  a 
former  member  of  the  Wellingtons,  arrived  with  a  supply  of  butter, 
bread  and  cheese,  and  Capt.  W.  E.  Hassam  with  more  delicacies.  On 
Aug.  27th  the  company  embarked  on  the  steamer  Block  Island,  landed  at 
New  London,  Conn.,  at  9.45  p.  m.,  and  reached  this  city  at  3.45  p.  m. 
They  were  mustered  out  at  Springfield. 

In  Memoriam. — Charles  E.  Buck,  the  first  to  die  in  Cuba,  was  born 


636  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

here,  Nov.  12,  1878,  son  of  Charles  P.  Buck ;  his  body  was  brought  home 
for  burial  in  Hope  Cemetery. 

Aloysius  Lincon  Farmer,  born  here  Dec.  4,  1880,  died  Oct.  1,  1898 ; 
special  student  in  Holy  Cross,  son  of  William  L.  Farmer,  a  veteran  of 
the  Civil  War  in  the  First  Mass.  Cavalry. 

Earle  Eugene  Clark,  born  in  Uxbridge,  Dec.  17,  1878,  son  of  Everett 
E. ;   died  Aug.  17,  1898. 

John  Michael  Moran,  born  Aug.  9,  1879,  in  Brookfield,  died  Aug.  27, 
the  day  his  company  started  to  return  from  Montauk,  son  of  Patrick 
J.,  who  served  in  the  22d  Conn,  in  the  Civil  War  and  in  the  Fourth  U.  S. 
Artillery. 

Fabian  Hakanson,  born  in  Sweden,  May  17,  1878,  died  Aug.  6;  son 
of  Charles  A. ;   he  is  buried  here  in  the  Swedish  cemetery. 

John  J.  Moore  came  home,  but  died  at  St.  Vincent  Hospital  Aug.  31. 
He  was  born  here,  Nov.  14,  1876,  son  of  Martin. 

Alston  Dwight  Kimball,  son  of  Herbert  A.,  was  born  at  South- 
bridge,  Nov.  2,  1872;  died  at  Montauk,  Aug.  28;  buried  in  Hope  Cem- 
etery. 

John  James  McLaughlin,  born  here  April  22,  1874,  son  of  John ;  was 
brought  home  and  apparently  recovered  ;  married  Mary  O'Day  ;  but  died 
Oct.  2,  1902,  as  a  result  of  his  service  in  Cuba. 

W'illiam  Capen  Green,  born  here  Dec.  12,  1877,  son  of  Ellis,  died  of 
fever  Aug.  9 ;   buried  in  Spencer. 

Marvin  Fisher  Ames,  corporal,  born  in  Walton,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  28,  1868, 
son  of  John  Fisher,  who  served  in  the  Civil  War ;  studied  law ;  was 
admitted  to  the  bar;  member  of  Willie  Grout  Camp,  S.  \'.;  died  Aug. 
13,  1898;  buried  March  5,  1900,  in  Walton,  after  a  funeral  here  in  the 
Church  of  the  Unity,  at  which  Rev.  Frank  L.  Phalen,  chaplain  of  his  reg- 
iment preached  and  Frank  P.  Goulding,  Esq.,  delivered  a  eulogy.  The 
Wellingtons  and  other  militia  attended. 

Thomas  Francis  Keevan.  born  in  Westborough  May  17,  1873,  son 
of  Thomas,  who  served  in  the  Civil  War,  died  after  his  return,  April 
12,  1901. 

George  Warren  Hodgkins,  born  in  Calais,  Me.,  March  17,  1864,  son 
of  William;  call  man  in  the  Worcester  Fire  Department;  died  Sept.  12 
on  the  transport  Missouri  on  his  way  home. 

Harvey  Randall,  born  in  Montpelier,  France,  Nov.  28,  1877,  son  of 
Dr.  Orlando  of  Pasadena,  Cal. ;  was  the  company  musician;  one  of  the 
first  to  die  in  the  company. 

Charles  Maxwell  Haye,  born  at  Chazy,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  10,  1877,  son  of 
Charles  M.;  was  at  one  time  a  reporter  on  the  Telegram;  died  at  Mon- 
tauk, Sept.  3;   buried  at  Cypress  Hills,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

Silas  Undergrave,  born  at  Millbury,  Feb.  14,  1872,  son  of  Silas;  died 
Aug.  1  ;    buried  in  the  Catholic  Cemetery,  Millbury. 

Volunteers'  Aid  Association. — A  meeting  was  held  in  the  rooms  of 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  637 

the  Board  of  Trade  May  37,  1898,  to  organize  the  Volunteers'  Aid  Asso- 
ciation, which  in  five  months  following  raised  and  disbursed  for  the  bene- 
fit of  the  soldiers  from  this  city  the  sum  of  $9,000.  Major  E.  T.  Ray- 
mond was  president;  Rev.  A.  S.  Garver,  vice-president;  Carl  Bonney, 
secretary;  Halleck  Bartlett,  treasurer,  forming  an  executive  committee 
with  Gen.  A.  B.  R.  Sprague,  Dr.  T.  J.  Barrett  and  Stephen  Salisbury. 
Large  committees  on  relief  were  appointed ;  a  finance  committee  of  one 
from  each  ward  and  much  volunteer  work  was  done.  Miss  Frances  M. 
Lincoln  was  elected  chairman  of  the  Relief  Committee.  Supplies  of  all 
kinds,  food  in  abundance  and  great  variety  were  contributed.  Enter- 
tainments of  all  sorts  were  held  to  raise  funds.  The  city  gave  loyal  sup- 
port to  the  Association,  and  the  soldiers  who' received  the  substantial  evi- 
dence of  the  thoughtfulness  of  the  people  at  home  were  encouraged  and 
sustained  during  the  trying  months  of  the  Cuban  campaign.  But  more 
important  than  the  sending  of  food  and  supplies  to  the  front,  was  the 
relief  provided  for  the  families  left  without  sufficient  means,  and  the  care 
of  the  sick  soldiers  after  their  return.  Mrs.  Angie  A.  Robinson,  chair- 
man of  the  committee  on  Local  Relief,  was  very  efficient  in  this  work. 

United  Spanish  War  Veterans. — Col.  E.  R.  Shumway  Camp  No.  28, 
organized  in  1901,  meets  in  the  G.  A.  R.  Building.  John  E.  Fitzpatrick 
was  commander  in  1917.  Mabel  Shumway  Auxiliary,  organized  1907; 
Mrs.  Emma  Northridge,  president,  1917. 

In  1905  a  History  of  Companies  A,  C  and  H  of  the  Second  Regi- 
ment and  G  of  the  Ninth,  entitled  "Worcester  in  the  Spanish  War"  by 
Hon.  Alfred  S.  Roe  was  published  (331  pages).  The  history  was  begun 
while  the  author  was  editor  of  the  Worcester  Magazine,  in  which  the 
parts  relating  to  the  Light  Infantry  and  City  Guards  were  published, 
1901-3.  The  book  is  an  intimate  personal  history  of  the  rank  and  file.  It 
contains  portraits  of  more  than  600  members  of  these  companies  besides 
other  illustrations. 


CHAPTER  XXXVI 

Early  Military  Organizations — Worcester  Light  Infantry — City  Guards 
»  — Jackson  Guards — Emmet  Guards — Wellington  Rifles — 

Battery  B — Worcester  Continentals 

Early  Militia  Companies. — During  the  colonial  and  provincial  peri- 
ods every  man  able  to  bear  arms  was  drilled  and  most  of  them  saw- 
active  service.  The  soldiers  at  first  were  assigned  to  various  garrison 
houses  under  designated  commanders.  In  1T35  or  soon  afterward  a 
military  company  was  formed  and  Daniel  Heywood  elected  captain. 
An  account  of  the  service  of  the  Worcester  militia  companies  may  be 
found  in  the  history  of  the  French  and  Indian  Wars.  In  1760  there 
were  two  militia  companies  in  town,  commanded  by  Capt.  John  Johnson 
and    Capt.   James    Goodwin. 

At  the  close  of  the  Revolution,  the  Worcester  Artillery  was  organ- 
ized from  volunteers  and  was  commanded  by  Major  William  Treadwell 
(see  biography).  At  the  time  Lincoln  wrote  his  history  this  was  the 
oldest  militia  company.  Capt.  Josiah  G.  Perry  commanded  it  in  1836. 
It  had  two  six-pounders  granted  by  the  state  for  its  use.  They  were 
field-pieces  taken  from  the  British  in  the  battle  of  Saratoga,  and  bore 
the  British  markings,  crown,  lion  and  unicorn,  and  the  motto:  "Honi 
Soit  Qui  Mai  y  Pense." 

The  Independent  Cadets,  organized  when  war  with  France  threat- 
ened in  1798,  disbanded  when  the  danger  was  over.  The  Worcester 
Rifle  Corps,  established  in  1823,  was  disbanded  in  1835. 

Worcester  Light  Infantry. — The  Worcester  Light  Infantry  is  the 
oldest  military  organization  in  the  city.  It  was  formed  at  Moore's  Tav- 
ern, at  the  corner  of  Main  and  Mechanic  Sts.  Oct.  17,  1803.  Although 
there  had  been  two  state  militia  companies  in  existence,  they  were  not 
uniformed  and  lacked  proper  arms.  The  charter  for  the  new  company 
was  granted  on  petition  of  Levi  Lincoln,  Jr.,  June  6,  1803,  and  a  rousing 
appeal  in  the  Spy  of  Oct.  5  for  enlistments  evidently  filled  the  quota  at 
once.  The  last  survivor  of  the  original  company  was  Charles  Tappan, 
born  1784,  died  1874. 

In  1807  the  company  ofifered  its  services  when  war  with  England 
was  impending,  but  the  militia  was  not  needed.  In  the  War  of  1812 
the  company  was  ordered  to  Boston,  Sept.  14,  1814,  and  stationed  at 
South  Boston.  The  muster  roll  of  the  company  appears  in  the  history  of 
the  War  of  1812  in  this  work. 

During  the  Mexican  War,  the  company  volunteered  again,  but  the 
quota  of  the  state  being  full,  it  Avas  not  ordered  into  service.  The  com- 
pany survived  the  opposition  to  maintaining  militia  after  this  war,  but 


640  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

it  was  neglected  and  languished.*  It  sprang  to  life  at  the  sound  of  the 
guns  at  Ft.  Sumpter,  and  proved  its  usefulness  by  helping  to  save  Wash- 
ington from  the  Rebels.  Its  service  in  the  Civil  War  is  described  else- 
where. Members  of  the  company  afterward  served  in  various  commands 
in  the  war  and  many  won  commissions.  J.  Waldo  Denny  was  captain  in 
the  25th ;  Harrison  W.  Pratt  in  the  34th ;  William  S.  Lincoln  was  lieut. 
col.  of  the  34th,  and  colonel ;  Frederick  G.  Stiles  raised  a  company  for 
the  42d  Regt. ;  George  W.  Prouty  one  for  the  51st  in  ISG'-i,  and  Augustus 
Ford  one  for  the  42d  in  1864. 

The  first  armory  was  the  gun  house  on  the  Common,  built  for  the 
Artillery  Company  about  1784.  Afterward  it  was  located  in  a  wooden 
building  on  the  site  of  the  City  Hall,  the  Town  Hall,  the  Central  Ex- 
change building  in  1844;  the  Central  School  building,  1854;  the  Bliss 
building,  1856;  Horticultural  Hall,  1858;  the  City  Hall,  3  865;  Brinley 
Hall,  later  the  G.  A.  R.  Hall,  on  the  site  of  the  Slater  building;  Warren 
Hall,  Pearl  street,  1869;  Taylor  Building,  Main  street,  1871  (here  fire 
destroyed  the  records  and  property)  ;  the  armory  on  Waldo  street ; 
Clark's  Block,  Main  street;  Chase  building,  Front  street,  1889;  the 
present  armory  since  1890. 

The  company  served  in  the  War  with  Spain  in  the  3d  Battalion,  2d 
Regt.  M.  V.  M.,  under  Maj.  H.  B.  Fairbanks,  a  former  captain  of  the 
Light  Infantry.      (See  Spanish  War  in  this  work). 

The  Light  Infantry  directly  and  indirectly  contributed  GOO  officers 
and  men  to  the  Civil  War  and  77  officers  and  men  to  the  Spanish  War. 
An  historical  sketch  of  the  organization  was  written  by  Maj.  F.  G. 
Stiles  and  printed  in  the  proceedings  of  the  Worcester  Society  of  An- 
tiquity. (Vol.  XVII,  No.  13,  p.  616).  Since  1877  a  veteran  organization 
has  been  maintained.  Various  citizens  havfe  been  elected  honorary 
members  from  time  to  time,  in  recognition  of  important  public  service 
or  special  gifts  or  aid  given  to  the  company. 

A  notable  event  in  the  history  of  the  cqmpany  was  an  excursion  to 
Baltimore  and  Washington  in  1891,  in  which  48  active  and  43  veteran 
and  honorary  members  took  part,  besides  delegations  from  other  organ- 
izations. But  throughout  its  existence  the  Light  Infantry  has  been  roy- 
ally entertained  at  home  and  in  other  towns  and  cities,  on  many  occa- 
sions.    It  has  taken  part  in  all  the  public  celebrations  of  importance  and 


*May  II,  1834,  Christopher  Columbus  Baldwin  wrote  in  his  diary  (p.  300)  : 
"Yesterday  which  was  Saturday  there  was  a  caricature  of  a  military  parade.  It 
was  to  have  begun  in  the  morning,  but  owing  to  a  powerful  rain  did  not  appear  until 
afternoon.  It  originated  in  a  contempt  of  the  present  laws  regulating  the  militia.  The 
general  was  Knowlton  a  native  of  Shrewsbury,  and  now  a  student  of  law  in  the  office 
of  William  M.  Towne  Esq.  of  Worcester.  He  was  dressed  in  a  most  grotesque  and 
fantastical  manner  and  mounted  upon  a  horse  of  the  very  meanest  appearance.  There 
were  about  a  hundred,  horse  and  foot,  with  music,  baggage  cart  and  everything  to 
throw  ridicule  ui)on  the  military  system.  Some  of  the  soldiers  for  knapsacks  had  com- 
mon tin-kitches  strapped  upon  their  backs,  others  small  churns  and  one  was  tarred 
and  feathered.  A  very  good  account  of  the  whole  exhibition  was  given  in  the  Wor- 
cester   Palladium." 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  641 

taken  its  place  in  all  the  great  military  parades  since  it  was  organized. 
Its  cajitains  from  the  beginning  have  been  : 

Levi  Thaxter,  1804-06;  Enoch  Flagg,  1806-09;  William  E.  Green,  1809-11;  Isaac 
Sturtevant,  1811-12;  John  W.  Lincoln,  1812-16;  Sewall  Hamilton,  1816-20;  John 
Coolidge,  1820-22;  Samuel  Ward,  1822-24;  Artemus  Ward,  1824-26;  John  Whitte- 
more,  1826-27;  Charles  A.  Hamilton,  1828-31;  Zenas  Studley,  1831-32;  Wilham  S.  Lin- 
coln, 1832-34;  Charles  H.  Geer,  1834-36;  Henry  Hobbs,  died  1836;  Dana  H.  Fitch,  1837- 
38;  D.  Waldo  Lincoln,  1838-40;  Ivers  Phillips,  1841 ;  Henry  W.  Conklin,  1842;  Joseph 
B.  Ripley,  1843;  Edward  Lamb,  1844-48;  Levi  Barker,  1849;  Edward  Lamb,  1850- 
52;  Charles  S.  Childs,  1853;  Samuel  P.  Russell,  1853-54;  George  Barker,  1854;  George 
F.  Peck,  1855;  Edward  Lamb,  1856-59;  Harrison  W.  Pratt,  1859-62;  George  W. 
Prouty,  1862-65;  James  M.  Drennan,  1865-69;  George  H.  Conklin,  1869-70;  Joel 
H.  Prouty,  1870-71;  John  Calligan,  1871 ;  John  A.  Lovell,  1871-74;  John  J.  Upham, 
1874-75;  Levi  Lincoln,  Jr.,  1875-77;  Joseph  P.  Mason,  1877-79;  Thomas  E.  Leavett, 
1879;  Frank  L.  Child,  1879-80;  Winslow  S.  Lincoln,  1880-83;  Edward  A.  Harris,  1883- 
89;  Frank  L.  Child,  1889-90;  Frederick  G.  Davis,  1890-91;  Harry  B.  Fairbanks,  1891- 
95;  Phineas  L.  Rider,  1895-98;  Frank  L.  Allen  (Cuba),  1898;  Phineas  L.  Rider, 
1898-1905;   Herbert  H.  Warren,  1906-14;   Wm.  Stevenson,  1915 — . 

For  more  than  a  hundred  years  the  anniversary  of  the  organization 
has  been  celebrated,  except  wdien  the  company  was  in  service,  and  the 
centennial  of  the  organization  was  observed  jointly  with  the  Portland 
Light  Infantry,  which  received  its  charter  one  day  later.  The  company 
went  to  Portland,  starting  on  June  3,  1903,  and  was  royally  entertained 
there.  On  the  6th  the  Portland  company  came  to  this  city.  The  other 
militia  companies  of  the  city,  the  Fitchburg  Fusiliers,  the  United  Train 
from  Providence,  a  company  of  the  First  Heavy  Artillery  of  Boston,  two 
companies  from  Hartford  were  guests  of  the  Light  Infantry.  The 
Highland  Military  Cadets  also  were  in  the  parade.  The  day  was  spent 
at  the  picnic  grounds  at  Edgemere  on  Lake  Quinsigamond.  In  the 
evening  there  was  a  banquet  in  Mechanics  Hall.  The  toastmaster  was 
Hon.  James  Logan,  a  veteran  of  the  company;  speakers — Mayor 
Fletcher;  Lt.  Gov.  Guild;  Alderman  Chapman  of  Providence,  and  oth- 
ers. Maj.  F.  G.  Stiles,  the  oldest  surviver  of  the  infantr}-,  read  a  paper 
entitled  "A  Full  Century  of  the  Light  Infantry"  (p.  6,  Worcester  Maga- 
zine, July,  1903).     He  said: 

"The  prosperity  of  the  Worcester  Light  Infantry  has  depended  upon  not  only  its 
founders  but  upon  every  officer  and  member  that  has  been  enrolled  since  its  organiza- 
tion, but  especially  upon  the  first  three  commissioned  officers;  Levi  Thaxter,  captain, 
Enoch  Flagg,  first  lieutenant  and  Levi  Lincoln,  ensign.  These  officers  were  all  living 
more  than  a  half  century  after  the  company  was  formed.  Capt.  George  B.  Peck,  who 
is  with  us  tonight,  commanded  the  company  in  1855  and  sent  invitations  to  these  officers 
to  attend  the  fifty-second  anniversary.  Neither  of  them  was  able  to  accept,  but  all 
sent  acknowledgments  and  regrets." 

Ensign  Levi  Lincoln  lived  65  years  after  the  company  was  formed, 
W.— 1-41. 


642 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


never  losing  his  interest  in  it,  but  always  having  a  word  of  cheer  and  an 
open  house  for  all  who  comprised  its  membership.  The  name  of  Lincoln 
has  been  on  the  roll  from  the  beginning.  Three  brothers,  Enoch  Lin- 
coln, afterwards  governor  of  Maine ;  William  Lincoln,  the  historian,  and 
John  W.  Lincoln,  captain  of  the  company,  1812  to  1816.  William  S.  Lin- 
coln, son  of  Levi,  commanded  the  company  from  1833  to  1834;  Daniel 
Waldo,  his  brother,  from  1838  to  1841 ;  another  brother  George  who  was 
killed  at  Buena  Vista  was  in  the  ranks.  William  Lincoln,  son  of  Wil- 
liam S.,  served  in  the  company  in  the  Civil  War,  and  his  brother  Levi 
Jr.  commanded  it  from  1875  to  ISTT.  Winslow  S.  Lincoln,  son  of  Wil- 
liam S.,  commanded  the  company  from  1880  to  1883.  Pelham  W.  Lin- 
coln, grandson  of  Ensign  Levi,  served  in  the  company  in  the  Spanish 
War. 

We  are  proud  of  the  Lincoln  record  and  doul)t  if  it  can  be  equalled 
by  any  other  military  company  where  so  many  members  of  one  family, 
even  to  the  fourth  generation,  have  l)een  enrolled  in  its  ranks. 

Worcester  City  Guards. — When  the  Worcester  Light  Infantry  was 
torn  by  political  dissension  in  1840,  all  the  Whigs  withdrew  excepting 
Capt.  D.  Waldo  Lincoln.  Both  political  parties  had  invited  the  militia 
compqiny  to  take  part  in  its  parade  on  the  Fourth  of  July  ;  the  company 
had  voted  to  take  part  in  the  Democratic  celebration.  The  Whigs  were 
allowed  to  leave  the  organization,  and  their  places  were  filled  by 
Democrats.  The  Whigs  immediately  organized  a  new  company,  named 
the  Worcester  Guards,  Aug.  6.  1840.  Not  until  1850  was  the  name 
changed  to  Worcester  City  Guards.  The  first  parade  with  64  men  in  the 
ranks,  was  held  Sept.  19,  1840,  and  a  supper  at  the  Worcester  House  at 
which  Gov.  Levi  Lincoln  presided.  The  first  officers  were:  Capt. 
George  Bowen ;  1st  Lieut,  (afterward  Maj.  Gen.)  George  Hobbs;  3d 
Lieut.  Leonard  Pool;  3d  Lieut.  George  W.  Richardson;  1st  Sergt.  and 
Clerk,  Hiram  Gould;  3d  Sergt.  Joshua  R.  Bigelow;  3d  Sergt.,  Samuel  T. 
Lamb;  4th  Sergt.,  Eldridge  G.  Pratt;  5th  Sergt.  and  Color  Bearer, 
Charles  Blanchard.  The  company  attended  the  dedication  of  the  battle 
of  Bunker  Hill,  and  was  on  guard  duty  while  Daniel  Wel)ster  was 
speaking. 

In  1860  a  gold  medal  was  bought  by  subscription,  inscril^ed :     "Pre- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE 


643 


sented  by  the  Worcester  Guards  of  1840  to  the  Worcester  City  Guards, 
Sept.  19,  1860,  to  be  shot  for  annually." 

The  following  armories  have  been  occupied  successively :  Town 
Hall,  a  wooden  building  on  Thomas  street,  the  attic  of  Dr.  John  Green's 
building,  nearly  opposite  Central  street,  Waldon  Block ;  the  Worcester 
Bank  building;  Brinley  Hall,  Main  street,  Taylor  building  (burned  in 
1875,  destroying  the  company  records,  the  silk  banner,  a  painting  by 
Henry  Woodward,  etc.)  ;  Waldo  street  armory ;  Clark's  Block,  Front 
street.  Mechanic  street  and  the  present  armory.  Following  was  the 
muster  roll  of  1843 : 


Charles  Blanchard, 
Charles  P.  Chapiii, 
Frederick  A.  Paige, 
William  F.  Emerson, 
George  A.  Barber, 
George  A.  Chamberlain, 
Ithamar  S.  Goes, 
Edwin  W.  Nye, 
Milton  Homer, 
Edwin  L.  Heywood, 
Samuel  T.  Lamb, 
Henry   Adams, 
Elbridge  G.  Pratt, 
Henry  H.  Edgarton, 
Leonard  Poole, 
Nathaniel  D.  Coe, 
George  Geer, 
Luther  Slater, 
John  G.  Goes, 
George  B.  Conklin, 
George  S.  Putnam, 
George  Bower, 
Loanimi  Harrington, 
Stephen  T.  Coe, 
Charles  P.  Nichols,  Jr. 
Windsor  Hatch, 
George  E.  Wyman, 
Francis  E.  Bigelow, 


Joshua  R.  Bigelow, 
George  W.  Richardson, 
Hiram  Gould, 
George  C.  Trumbull, 
Francis   W.   Eaton, 
Lewis  H.  Nye, 
George  W.  Adams, 
Harrison   Bliss, 
Joel  Nourse, 
Edward  F.  Dixie, 
Julius   L.   Clark, 
Charles    Paine, 
Joseph    Boyden, 
Samuel  V.  Stone, 
Artemus  Ward,  2d, 
George  W.  Capron, 
Lewis  Boyden, 
John  Metcalf, 
Russell  R.  Shepard, 
Joseph  Pratt, 
George   Dryden, 
David  J.  Baker, 
Jonathan  H.  Knights, 
Horatio  N.  Tower, 
Theophilus   Brown, 
Edwin  I.  Howe, 
George  F.  Ramsdell, 


David  E.  Merriman,. 
Samuel  Lees, 
Leonard  White, 
Barzillian   Spencer,. 
Leonard  Gates, 
George  A.  Brown, 
George  H.  Merriman, 
Charles  S.  Ellis, 
Charles  N.  Oliver, 
Dan  forth  PI.  Bundy, 
Edwin  Eaton, 
Erastus  B.  Rice, 
William  W.  Ward, 
Samuel  R.  Leland, 
Hiram  W.  Shepard, 
Allen  Billings, 
Luther  H.  Goulding, 
James  G.  Henderson, 
G.  Wyman  Rockwood, 
Charles  C  Chamberlain, 
Thomas   Kellogg, 
Harlow  M.  Guild, 
Lewis  Thompson, 
John  B.  Wyman, 
William  C.  Head, 
J.   Crawford  Wyman, 
Amos  C.  Rathborn. 


The  company  took  part  in  the  parade  celebrating  the  completion  of 
the  Atlantic  cable,  Sept.  1,  1856.  Like  all  militia  companies,  they  took 
part  in  every  celebration  of  importance,  marching  in  holiday  processions, 
often  enjoying  anniversaries  and  banquets  at  homes  in  various  other  cit- 
ies and  towns.  They  became  famous  for  their  fine  drill-work  and  hand- 
some uniforms.  The  most  prominent  men  of  the  city  joined.  They  were 
visited  by  the  Amoskeag  Veterans  of  Manchester  in  1855,  and  by  other 
militia  companies  from  time  to  time,  and  the  occasions  were  celebrated 
with  great  zest  and  enthusiasm.  In  1858  the  Boston  Light  Infantry  paid. 
a  visit  to  the  company. 


644  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  record  of  the  Guards  in  the  Civil  and  Spanish  War  is  given 
elsewhere.  Early  in  the  spring  of  1861,  B.  R.  Sprague  was  chosen  cap- 
tain, assuming  command  April  IT  ;  Josiah  Picket,  1st  lieut. ;  George  C. 
Joslin,  2d  lieut. ;  Orson  Moulton,  ;kl  lieut. ;  Elisha  A.  Harkness,  4th  lieut. 
The  company  left  for  the  front  with  the  3d  Battalion  Rifles.  Of  the 
company  5(5  served  afterward  in  the  Civil  War.  Shaw,  Burdick,  Lieuts. 
Mathews  and  Pelton,  Lieut.  Daniels  and  Lieut.  Bacon  were  killed  dur- 
ing the  war.  (See  p.  41,  Hathaway's  Hist.  City  Guards).  Six  former 
members  of  the  companies  attained  the  rank  of  general :  Leonard,  W^ard, 
WS^man.  Sprague,  Pickett  and  Goodell ;  two  colonels:  A.  A.  Goodell 
and  J.  M.  Goodhue;  six  lieut. -cols. :  Walter  X.  Batchelder,  Homer  B. 
Sprague,  Orson  Moulton,  D.  :\L  Woodward.  J.  M.  Tucker.  James  H. 
Corbin  ;  one  major:  George  AL  Curtis.  Twenty-nine  l)ecame  captains, 
and  15  lieutenants.  In  each  case  the  highest  rank  only  of  the  individual 
is  counted.  The  record  shows  how  valuable  the  previous  militia  training 
became  in  time  of  war.  Twenty-three  members  were  killed  or  died  in 
the  service ;  seven  in  Rebel  prisons.  A  history  of  the  company  by  Lt. 
Samuel  Hathaway  was  published  in   1896. 

A  Veteran  Association  has  been  maintained  since  Feb.  19,  1886. 
Gen.  A.  B.  R.  Sprague  was  its  first  president.  The  veterans  gave  a  ban- 
quet in  1890  to  celebrate  the  50th  anniversary  of  the  Guards.  Gen. 
Sprague  presided.  Gen.  Charles  Devens,  Col.  F.  W.  Wellington,  Col. 
Ivers  Phillips  who  was  captain  of  the  Light  Infantry  in  1841,  Major 
F.  A.  Harrington,  Capt.  T.  G.  Davis,  Capt.  Geo.  L.  Allen,  Capt.  Wm. 
Regan,  Capt.  John  Lepire,  Capt.  W.  A.  Condy.  Col.  W.  S.  B.  Hopkins, 
Gen.  R.  H.  Chamberlain,  Hon.  Julius  L.  Clarke  and  Lt.  Samuel  Hatha- 
way were  the  speakers,  and  2 TO  members  and  guests  attended. 

The  captains  of  the  company  have  been :  George  Bowen,  George 
Hobbs,  Leonard  Pool,  George  B.  Conklin,  L.  Lincoln,  Xewton,  Edwin 
Eaton,  Charles  W.  Longley,  John  M.  Goodhue,  George  H.  Ward,  A.  B. 
R.  Sprague,  R.  H.  Chamberlain,  Joseph  H.  Titus,  W.  H.  King,  E.  R. 
Shumway,  George  H.  Cleveland,  William  D.  Preston,  William  A.  Condy, 
Edwin  G.  Barrett,  Frederick  H.  Lucke   (1915-T). 

The  Jackson  Guards. — At  a  meeting  in  Fenwick  ILall,  Aug.  9,  1852,  a 
militia  company  composed  of  yoimg  men  of  Irish  birth  or  descent  was 
organized,  and  it  was  afterward  named  the  Jackson  Guards.  The  charter 
of  the  company  was  granted  September  21.  The  company  drilled  at  236 
Front  street;  later  in  Warren  Hall,  Pearl  street.  Their  first  drillmaster 
was  Major  F.  G.  Stiles,  of  the  Light  Infantry.  Michael  O'Driscoll  was  the 
first  captain.  From  the  first  they  were  met  with  prejudice  and  disfavor 
in  the  militia.  At  the  muster  in  Leominster  in  1853  they  received  many 
discourtesies ;  at  Longmeadow  in  1854  the  feeling  was  bitter.  The 
Knownothing  sentiment  was  strong  at  that  time.  That  party  elected 
a  governor  in  1854  and  controlled  the  Legislature.  As  a  result  the  seven 
Irish  companies  were  disbanded.     The  Adjutant   General  came  to  this 


AND  ITS  PliOPLR  645 

city  February  IT  and.  having-  l)rokcn  into  the  armory  of  the  company, 
removed  all  the  public  property  and  transported  it  to  Boston.  The  men 
refused  to  give  up  their  arms  and  ammunition.  Capt.  O'Driscoll  secured 
the  arrest  of  Stone,  but  he  was  speedily  released  on  bail.  There  was  an 
indignation  meeting,  Feb.  20,  in  Fenwick  Hall,  but  on  the  advice  of  their 
counsel,  Gen.  B.  F.  Butler,  no  further  proceedings  were  taken  by  the 
Jacksons.  At  least  ten  of  the  Jacksons  went  into  the  service  with  the 
Emmet  Guards  in  1861.  The  Jackson  Guards  were  Comi^any  D  of  the 
Eighth  Regiment. 

The  Emmet  Guards. — The  Emmet  Guards  were  organized  in  June, 
1859,  with  Matthew  J.  McCafferty  as  captain,  but  the  company  did  not 
become  a  part  of  the  state  militia  until  1861.  At  the  outbreak  of  the 
Civil  War  they  volunteered,  and  were  accepted  and  became  Company 
C,  Third  Battalion  of  Rifles.  The  Emmets  were  well  drilled  and  equip- 
ped and  were  sent  at  once  to  Washington,  as  related  elsewhere.  The 
original  officers  were  Capt.  Michael  S.  McConville  ;  First  Lieut.  Michael 
O'Driscoll;  2d  Lieut.  M.  J.  McCafferty;  ;3d  Lieut.  Thomas  O'Neill;  ■4th 
Lieut.  Maurice  Melavan.  The  company  was  composed  of  men  of  Irish 
birth  or  descent.  The  service  of  the  Emmets  in  the  Civil  War  is  related 
elsewhere.  The  war  virtually  disbanded,  the  Emmets  as  a  militia 
organization. 

The  Sarsiield  Guards,  composed  of  Irishmen,  was  organized  after  the 
war  with  Captain  Joseph  H.  Corbett  in  command. 

A  new  company  was  formed  Nov.  21,  1881,  under  the  old  name  of 
Emmet  Guards  by  fifteen  young  men  of  Irish  birth  or  descent.  The 
captain  was  Joseph  H.  Corbett,  late  of  the  Sarsfields;  John  J.  Hughes 
was  first  lieutenant ;  William  Regam  second  lieutenant  and  Thomas  F. 
McGauley,  treasurer.  Not  until  May  10,  1887,  dfd  this  company  become 
part  of  the  state  militia,  and  their  first  appearance  in  camp  was  at  Fram- 
ingham,  ]\.\\x  19,  1887.  An  honorary  association  was  formed  June  9, 
1887.  Jeremiah  Murphy  being  chairman,  Richard  O'Flynn  secretary, 
elected  June  9,  1887,  and  historian. 

The  officers  in  1896  were:  Capt.  J.  J.  Moynihan  ;  1st  Lieut.  M.  E. 
Hines;    2d  Lieut.  J.  F.  Hurley.     The  captains  since  have  been  John  F. 

Hurley  and  Thomas   F.   Foley    (1917 )  ;    Lt.  J.  J.   Hughes  became 

captain  in  1883-4;  William  Regan  1884-94;  Jeremiah  J.  Moynihan,  1894- 
1907;   John  F.  Hurley,  1907 ;   Thomas  F.  Foley  1912 . 

The  officers  at  the  beginning  of  1917,  before  the  United  States 
declared  war  against  Germany,  were  :  Capt.  Thos.  F.  Foley ;  1st  Lieut. 
George  A.  Corbin ;    2d  Lieut.  William  P.  Fitzgerald. 

Dr.  Joseph  W.  O'Connor  of  this  city  was  battalion  adjutant  with  the 
rank  of  lieutenant  in  the  Ninth  Regiment. 

The  Emmet  Honorary  Association  was  organized  during  the  Span- 
ish War,  in  which  the  Emmets  served  as  part  of  the  Ninth  Regiment 
(Co.  G)    (see  Spanish  War).     The  first  officers  were  John  J.   Riordan. 


646  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


chairman;  William  J.  Tansey,  secretary;  Dr.  George  McAleer,  vice- 
president;  Lt.  James  Early,  treasurer.  Directors:  Richard  O'Flynn, 
J.  F.  Fitzgerald,  Paul  Henry,  J.  Frank  Quinn,  Philip  J.  O'Connell.  The 
first  meeting  was  held  March  31,  1898;  the  next  meeting  May  3,  when  it 
was  voted  to  do  escort  duty  the  next  day,  when  the  Emmets  started 
for  camp,  choosing  Col.  F.  W.  Wellington  for  chief  marshal.  A  fund 
was  raised  for  the  company  at  the  time  it  started  for  the  front,  Richard 
Healy  being  the  largest  contributor.  During  the  war  the  Honoraries 
aided  the  families  of  the  soldiers  and  forwarded  supplies  to  the  boys  in 
Cuba.  They  attended  to  the  burial  of  those  who  lost  their  lives  and 
while  the  boys  were  at  Montauk  they  gave  very  substantial  aid.  Me- 
morial services  to  those  who  gave  their  lives  in  the  war  were  held  at  St. 
John's  Church,  Feb.  22,  1899.  The  organization  raised  a  total  of  about 
$1,500.  At  the  final  meeting  June  12,  1900,  Dr.  McAleer  read  a  eluogy 
on  John  J.  Riordan. 

The  Ladies'  Auxiliary  to  the  Emmet  Guards  was  organized  in  June, 
1898,  to  make  comfort  bags  and  provide  supplies  for  the  sick  and 
wounded  soldiers.  Meetings  were  held  two  evenings  a  week  at  98  Front 
street.  Mrs.  P.  H.  Murphy,  Mrs.  J.  F.  Hurley  and  Mrs.  P.  J.  Moynihan 
were  appointed  to  represent  the  auxiliary  in  the  Soldiers'  Aid  Associa- 
tion, and  they  took  an  active  part  in  the  work  of  that  organization.  To 
raise  funds  a  lawn  party  was  held  July  27,  at  St.  Stephen's  Church,  and 
the  net  proceeds  were  over  $600.  The  president  of  the  auxiliary  was 
Mary  E.  Fitzgerald;  secretary,  Abbie  I.  Heffren ;  treasurer,  Mrs.  Wil- 
liam Goodwin. 

Wellington  Rifles. — Action  was  taken  April  17,  1894,  to  organize 
another  company,  and  on  the  24th  58  names  were  submitted  to  the 
mayor  and  aldermen  and  approved.  Col.  Fred  W.  Wellington  of  this 
city,  a  member  of  the  Governor's  staft",  was  assigned  to  inspect  the  men, 
and  on  May  2,  56  men  were  mustered  in  and  the  following  officers 
elected:  Captain,  Charles  E.  Burbank;  first  lieut.,  Walter  E.  Hassam ; 
2d  lieut.,  Wright  S.  Prior.  The  captain  had  been  a  West  Point  cadet 
one  year;  the  lieutenants  were  graduates  of  Norwich  University,  a  mili- 
tary institution.  The  company  was  named  for  Col.  Wellington,  and  was 
entitled  Co.  H  of  the  Second  Regiment,  M.  V.  N.  The  captains  have 
been:  Charles  E.  Burbank;  Charles  S.Holden,  1898-1900;  Henry  C. 
Young,  1901-1912;  Clarence  E.  Smith,  1913;  Eugene  F.  Burr,  1914.  An 
account  of  the  service  of  this  company  in  the  Spanish  War  is  given  else- 
where. 

Battery  B,  organized  in  May,  1869,  consisted  of  a  section  of  two 
guns,  commanded  by  a  first  lieutenant  and  known  as  Section  A.  In  Oc- 
tober, 1869,  the  section  was  recruited  by  the  addition  of  two  guns  and 
necessary  men  for  a  battery  of  four  guns,  and  was  designated  as  the 
Fifth  Battery,  attached  to  the  Third  Brigade,  then  commanded  by  Gen. 
Robert  H.  Chamberlain,  for  whom  the  battery  was  named  the  Cham- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  647 

berlain  Light  Battery.  During  the  reorganization  of  the  mihtia  in  18T6, 
the  battery  was  attached  to  the  First  BattaHon  of  Light  Artillery,  First 
Brigade,  and  its  name  changed  to  Battery  B.  In  1878  it  was  detached 
and  remained  an  independent  battery  of  the  First  Brigade  for  several 
years.     In  1891  it  was  again  placed  in  the  Battalion. 

The  first  armory  of  the  battery  was  in  the  city  barns  in  South  Wor- 
cester, the  company  rooms  being  in  the  Taylor  building.  The  equip- 
ment at  first  was  two  brass  twelve-pounders  and  two  iron  pieces,  with 
carriages  and  caissons.  Some  years  later,  when  the  battery  was  located 
in  the  Waldo  street  armory,  four  ten-pound  Parrotts  and  carriages  were 
issued  to  it  and  used  several  years.  In  1886  while  the  armory  was  in 
Barton  Place,  the  battery  was  increased  by  having  two  Catling  guns, 
and  a  platoon  of  men  added.  Since  1890  the  quarters  have  been  in  the 
present  armory.  In  1891  four  three-inch  muzzle-loading  steel  rifled 
guns  took  the  place  of  the  Parrotts.  From  time  to  time  since  then  the 
equipment  has  been  changed. 

The  captains  of  the  battery  have  been :  E[enry  W\  Reed,  1869-71 ; 
John  G.  Rice,  1871-77;  George  L.  Allen,  1877-82;  Henry  C.  Wadsworth, 
1882  ;  George  L.  Allen,  1882-84 ;  Fred  W.  Wellington,  188-1-87  ;  John  E. 
Merrill,  1887-89;  George  L.  Allen,  1889-91;  Laurence  G.  Bigelow,  1891- 
94;  Joseph  Bruso,  Jr.,  1894-98;  Herbert  W\  Haynes,  1899-1905  ;  Edward 
W.  Wheeler,  1905-1916;   John  F.  J.  Herbert,  1916. 

Lieutenants  since  1900. — Arthur  H.  Boswcll.  William  E.  Sayle,  Wil- 
liam T.  Gould,  Edward  W.  Wheeler,  John  F.  J.  Herbert,  Nicholas  J. 
Smith,  Walter  J.  Cookson,  Arthur  P.  Trombly. 

Capt.  Joseph  A.  Smith  has  been  paymaster. of  the  Battalion  for  many 
years  and  Lieut.  Nicholas  J.  Skcrrett  of  this  city,  battalion  quarter- 
master. 

In  1916  the  officers  of  the  battery  were:  Capt.,  J.  F.  J.  Herbert;  Sr. 
1st  Lieut.,  Arthur  P.  Trombley  ;  Jr.  1st  Lieut.,  George  Bieberbach.  At  the 
beginning  of  the  war,  1917,  the  officers  were:  Capt.  Herbert;  lieuten- 
ants, Trombley,  John  B.  Haliburton,  Milton  ]".  Haynes  and  Edward  J. 
Gully. 

The  Battery  entered  the  LInited  States  service  and  is  now  "some- 
where in  France"  in  command  of  Captain  Herbert. 

Capt.  Herbert  is  an  editor  by  profession,  having  served  for  twenty 
years  on  the  staff  of  the  Daily  Spy  and  the  Worcester  Evening  Post. 

Worcester  Continentals. — Though  not  strictly  militia,  the  W^orcester 
Continentals  form  one  of  the  most  picturesque  of  the  military  bodies  of 
the  city.  Calling  into  their  ranks  many  of  the  most  distinguished  men, 
maintaining  a  spirit  of  loyalty  intermingled  with  much  conviviality,  the 
organization  is  welcomed  wherever  it  goes  and  is  popular  at  home  and 
abroad.  It  has  exercised  a  stimulating  effect  on  the  patriotism  of  the 
citizens,  especially  in  reminding  them  of  the  patriots  who  won  Indepen- 
dence and  established  a  nation.     In  its  charter  the  objects  are  stated: 


648  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

"Military  organization,  drill,  discipline  and  parade,  and  the  preservation 
of  military  associations  and  spirit." 

It  ^vas  incorporated  April  14,  18T9.  The  organization  was  sug- 
gested first  by  Willard  F.  Pond  at  the  time  of  the  centennial  celebration 
here,  and  the  meeting  to  organize  was  held  .Vpril  10,  18T6.  A  hundred 
men  were  enrolled  for  the  parade,  of  which  the  company  Avas  one  of  the 
most  conspicuous  features.  "In  its  ranks  were  seen  the  very  flower 
of  Worcester's  citizenry  and  on  its  active  or  honorary  list  a  representa- 
tive, one  or  more,  of  every  family  of  any  distinction  in  the  city.  Follow- 
ing are  the  officers  and  members  at  the  time  of  the  parade,  July  4,  1876: 

Captain,  William  S.  B.  Hopkins;  first  lieutenant,  David  M.  Woodward;  second 
lieutenant,  Joseph  M.  Titus;  first  lieutenant  and  adjutant,  Edwin  A.  Wood;  surgeon, 
rank  of  major,  Frank  H.  Kelley,  M.  D. ;  asst.  surgeon,  rank  of  ist  lieutenant,  George 
A.  Bates,  M.  D. ;  chaplain,  rank  of  captain,  Rev.  Edward  H.  Hall,  D.  D. ;  ist  lieutenant 
and  quartermaster,  Willard  F.  Pond;  color  sergeant,  A.  B.  Lovell;  sergeant  and 
treasurer,  William  G.  Strong ;  sergeant  and  clerk,  George  E.  Boyden ;  first  sergeant, 
W^illiam  H.  Drury ;  second  sergeant,  Harvey  B.  Wilder ;  third  sergeant,  M.  V.  B. 
Richardson;  fourth  sergeant,  William  B.  White;  fifth  sergeant,  Charles  H.  Harvey; 
sixth  sergeant,  William  A.  Gile,  Esq. ;  seventh  sergeant,  Nathaniel  Paine ;  Eighth  ser- 
geant, Frank  A.  Leland. 

Original  and  Charter  members,  1876. — Charles  A.  Allen,  Edwin  Ames,  Edward  E. 
Andrews,  Joseph  AI.  Ballard,  George  E.  Barton,  George  A.  Bates,  Joseph  N.  Bates,  Ar- 
thur M.  Bigelow,  Charles  A.  Bigelow,  Charles  E.  Black,  Frank  T.  Blackmer,  Charles 
H.  Bowker,  George  E.  Boyden,  William  F.  Brabrook,  George  W.  Brady,  Lucius  L, 
Brigham,  John  K.  Brown,  George  B.  Buckingham,  Fred  A.  Chase,  John  S.  Clark,  El- 
lery  B.  Crane,  Ossian  T.  Crawford,  Percy  Daniels,  William  H.  Drury,  Henry  W.  Eddy, 
William  F.  Ewell,  George  E.  Fairbanks,  Henry  T.  Farrar,  A.  W.  Fuller,  Emory  W. 
Gates,  William  A.  Gile,  Silas  W.  Goddard,  William  S.  Goodell,  Ransom  M.  Gould,  Rev. 
Edward  H.  Hall,  George  H.  Harlow,  George  B.  Harris,  Charles  H.  Harvey,  L.  A. 
Hastings,  Samuel  Hathaway,  Henry  G.  Hayden,  George  F.  Hewett,  William  D.  Hol- 
brook,  William  S.  B.  Hopkins,  William  F.  Hudson. 

Henry  J.  Jennings,  William  W.  Johnson,  John  W.  Jordan,  William  S.  Jourdan, 
Frank  H.  Kelly,  George  P.  Kendrick,  L.  C.  Kenney,  Emerson  P.  Knight,  Frank  A. 
Knowlton,  Frank  E.  Lancaster,  Frank  A.  Leland,  A.  Beaman  Lovell,  William  Mc- 
Cready,  John  N.  Morse,  Jr.,  William  Alunroe,  Frank  A.  Newton,  George  M.  Newton, 
John  C.  Newton,  James  A.  Norcross,  Nathaniel  Paine.  Charles  G.  Parker,  David  Park- 
er, Edward  P.  Pevey,  William  L.  Plaisted,  Willard  F.  Pond,  Henry  S.  Pratt,  Edward 
Prince,  Otis  E.  Putnam,  Edward  J.  Putnam,  M.  V.  B.  Richardson,  William  H.  Robin- 
son, Charles  E.  San  ford.  Nelson  R.  Scott,  Albert  E.  Smith,  Henry  E.  Smith,  Joseph 
A.  Smith,  Herbert  L.  Stockwell,  William  G.  Strong,  Elisha  W.  Sweet. 

Ransom  C.  Taylor,  R.  Fred  Taylor,  Joseph  A.  Titus,  AL  E.  Walker,  A.  M.  Warn- 
er, Alfred  D.  Warren,  W.  Ansel  Washburn,  Fred  W.  Wellington,  Merritt  A.  Wheeler, 
Prescott  E.  White,  William  B.  White,  Charles  B.  Whiting,  Charles  F.  Whitmore,  Geo. 
H.  Whitney,  Harvey  B.  Wilder,  Edwin  A.  Wood,  David  AL  Woodward. 

Other  members  added  in  1877-78-79. — William  F.  Bacon,  Rev.  George  S.  Ball, 
Frederick  R.  Bardwell,  Daniel  W.  Bemis,  James  W.  Bigelow,  Sylvester  Bothwell,  Wil- 
liam H.  Burnett,  George  A.  Carter,  Edwin  Chapin,  David  B.  Chase,  Charles  A.  Clarke, 
Chas.  H.  Cleveland,  Peter  L.  Conniffe,  George  W.  Coombs,  Mirick  H.  Cowden,  Wil- 
liam H.  Crawford,  David  Davis,  George  C.  Dewhurst,  D.  Marshall  Doane,  Charles  H. 
Ellsworth,  Charles  P.  Fisher,  Edward  S.  Fiske,  Louis  Friendly,  Edward  E.  Frost,  Ja- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  649 

laam  Gates,  William  H.  Gay,  Daniel  N.  Gibbs,  Charles  E.  Grant,  Stephen  E.  Greene, 
Moses  Gross. 

Charles  N.  Hair,  Augustus  Hamblett,  George  F.  Harvvood,  Robert  Hay,  Charles 
E.  Hellyar,  Charles  A.  Hill,  Charles  D.  Holmes,  Fred  F.  Hopkins,  George  S.  Hoppin, 
A.  B.  F.  Kinney,  Charles  Lalime,  Rev.  Charles  M.  Lamson,  Nathaniel  S.  Liscomb,  Al- 
fred S.  Lowell,  Samuel  W.  Manning,  William  H.  Maynard,  Alden  C.  Moore,  Lucius 
A.  Murdock,  A.  D.  Norcross,  William  A.  Piper,  A.  P.  Pond,  Henry  C.  Pyne,  Edward 
J.  Russell,  Thomas  S.  Sloan,  Ezra  S.  Snow,  Edward  H.  Stark,  Rolla  N.  Stark,  E.  E. 
Stone,  Charles  D.  Thayer,  Ellis  Thayer,  Lyman  B.  Vaughn,  George  F.  Verry,  Charles 
A.  Waite,  Lewis  Ware,  Courtland  T.  Webb,  Joseph  F.  Wicks. 

The  uniform  of  the  Continentals  was  copied  exactly  from  the  uni- 
form worn  by  Rev.  Joseph  Sumner  of  Shrewsbury,  a  soldier  in  the  Rev- 
olution, even  the  shoe  and  knee  buckles  being  reproduced. 

Among  the  organizations  who  have  entertained  the  Continentals 
during  their  many  trips  abroad  are  the  following : 

Ancient  and  Honorable  Artillery  Company,  Boston,  in  1876,  1881,  and  at  various 
other  times  when  delegations  have  been  invited  to  participate  with  them  in  their  an- 
nual celebrations. 

The  Boston  Tigers,  Company  K,  ist  Regiment,  M.  V.  M.,  1882. 

The  Boston  Fusileer  Veteran  Association,  1894. 

The  National  Lancers,  Boston,  1893. 

The  Boston  Light  Infantry  Veteran  Association,  1893. 

First  Light  Infantry  Regiment,  Providence,  1880-1888. 

First  Light  Infantry  Veteran  Association,  Providence,  1876-1884  and  1886,  and 
on  other  occasions. 

United  Train  Artillery,  Providence  1883-1889-1900. 

Newport  Veteran  Artillery  Company,  1876-1880. 

Governor's  Foot  Guard,  Hartford,  1882- 1884- 1889. 

Putnam  Phalanx,  Hartford,  1882,  1884,  1889,  1892,  1893,  1894,  1895,  1902,  1904,  1908, 
1912. 

The  Old  Guard  of  New  York,  1876,  1879,  1891. 

The  Albany  Burgesses  Corps,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  1877,  1885,  1887. 

The  Saratoga  Citizens  Corps,  22d  Separate  Co.,  N.  Y.  N.  G.,  1878,  1881,  1882,  1887. 

The  Philadelphia  State  Fencibles,  1890. 

The  Continental  Guards,  of  New  Orleans,  1880. 

The  Amoskeag  Veterans,  Manchester,  N.  H.,  1885,  1892,  1893,  1894,  1895,  1908, 
and  on  other  occasions. 

Kansas  City  Veterans,  G.  A.  R.,  1894. 

Second  Corps  Cadets,  Salem,  1893. 

Newburyport  Veteran  Artillery  Association,  1892. 

The  Highland  Cadets  of  Montreal,  P.  Q.,  1900. 

Royal  Troops  of  the  Citadel  and  Colonel  Wilson,  Quebec,  1890. 

Lexington  Minute  Men,  Lexington,  Mass.,  1913. 

Among  the  memorable  trips  of  the  Continentals  may  be  mentioned 
that  of  1907,  when  four  similar  organizations  joined  the  Continentals  in 
the  pilgrimage  to  Concord,  with  the  governors  of  three  states.  After 
returning  to  Boston  there  was  a  parade  and  a  review  on  Boston  Com- 
mon.    The  visit  to  Hartford  to  attend  the  dedication  of  the  Memorial 


650  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Bridge  was  an  historic  occasion,  and  the  visit  to  that  city  in  1911  was  an 
exceedingly  festive  day. 

In  June,  1907,  the  Continentals  were  selected  by  Gen.  Nelson  A. 
Miles  as  his  escort  in  the  parade  during  Old  Home  Week  in  Boston.  In 
September,  190T,  a  delightful  trip  to  Maine  was  made.  In  1909  they 
went  to  Washington  and  took  part  in  the  inauguration  parade,  notwith- 
standing the  great  storm  that  prevented  many  organizations  from  tak- 
ing part  in  the  ceremonies  of  the  day. 

During  the  southern  trip  in  191G  a  drum  of  the  13th  \'a.  Regt.  taken 
in  the  Civil  War  and  given  to  the  Continentals  by  Dr.  A.  F.  Wheeler  of 
this  city  was  presented  with  much  ceremony  to  the  Daughters  of  the. 
Confederacy  in  Richmond. 

Very  early  in  the  career  of  the  Continentals  they  established  a  lasting  reputation 
as  hosts,  when,  on  October  2  and  3,  1876,  they  had  the  pleasure  of  acting  as  escort  to 
the  Ancient  and  Honorable  Artillery  Company,  during  that  command's  pilgrimage, 
which  in  1876  was  to  Worcester. 

Since  this  time  the  corps  has  received  here  and  entertained  the  Saratoga  Citizens' 
Corps,  Albany  Burgesses  Corps,  United  Train  of  Artillery,  Providence ;  Second  Corps 
of  Cadets,  Salem;  First  Light  Infantry  of  Providence;  Putnam  Phalanx,  Hartford; 
Amoskeag  Veterans,  Manchester;  both  first  and  second  companies  of  Governor's  Foot 
Guard,  Hartford  and  New  Haven ;  Newburyport  Veteran  Artillery  Company,  Boston 
Light  Infantry  Association,  Fusileer  Veteran  Association,  as  organizations,  and  on 
many  occasions  have  had  as  honored  guests  delegations  from  these  and  other  kindred 
associations. 

Two  Hundredth  Anniversary. — One  of  the  most  notable  occurrences  in  Worcester 
in  which  the  Continentals  took  a  prominent  part,  was  at  the  time  of  the  celebration  of 
the  two  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  naming  of  the  town  of  Worcester,  on  October  14 
and  15,  1884. 

On  this  occasion  the  Continentals  had  as  special  guests  the  full  command  of  First 
Company,  Governor's  Foot  Guard  of  Hartford,  with  Colt's  famous  band,  some  over 
125  men  and  band,  and  the  corps  was  accorded  the  distinguished  honor  of  having  the 
right  of  the  line  of  parade  as  escort  to  the  chief  marshal,  General  Tosiah  Pickett. 

Other  notable  occasions  when  the  corps  has  rendered  distinguished  service  at 
home  have  been  the  escort  to  President  Rutherford  B.  Hayes,  Aug.  23.  1877 ;  escort  to 
Governor  Alexander  H.  Rice,  Sept.  5,  1878,  and  escort  to  General  William  T.  Sher- 
man, Sept.  5,  1881. 

In  April,  1904,  the  Continentals  were  honored  by  the  presence  as  a  guest  of  General 
Nelson  A.  Miles,  then  in  command  of  the  United  States  army,  and  on  April  ig,  1905, 
they  received  and  entertained  Rear-Admiral  Lamberton  of  the  United  States  navy.  The 
following  year,  on  April  19,  1906,  the  corps  had  as  special  guests,  Rear-Admiral  Cogh- 
lan  of  the  navy.  His  Excellency,  Governor  Curtis  Guild,  and  Hon.  William  Wyndham, 
British  consul  at  Boston. 

Dedication  of  Tablet. — One  of  the  notable  achievements  of  the  Continentals  and 
which  will  remain  as  a  lasting  memorial  of  the  corps,  was  the  erection  of  a  han3some 
bronze  tablet,  marking  the  spot  where  General  George  Washington  stopped  for  rest 
and  refreshment  during  his  passage  through  Worcester  on  his  trip  from  Philadelphia 
to  Cambridge,  July  i,  1775. 

This  tablet  rests  upon  the  outer  walls  of  what  is  now  Poli's  theatre  on  Elm  street, 
and  is  the   site  of  what  was  in  revolutionary  times  the  spot  on   which   the    famous 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  651 

Stearns'  tavern  was  conducted.  The  place  is  better  known  as  the  site  of  the  old  Lin- 
coln house. 

The  tablet  is  in  plain  view  of  passers  by  and  has  been  commented  on  by  authorities 
on  such  work  as  one  of  the  best  designed  and  wrought  tablets  ever  erected.  The  tablet 
was  placed  by  the  Continentals  April  19,  1915. 

The  list  of  organizations  with  whom  there  has  been  an  interchange  of  courtesies 
serves  to  show  the  widespread  acquaintance  enjoyed  by  the  Continentals  as  an  organi- 
zation and  the  high  regard  entertained  for  its  membership  in  the  ranks  of  kindred  as- 
sociations throughout  the  country. 

The  commanders  of  the  Continentals,  past  and  present,  have  been  as  follows: 
Lieut.  Col.  William  S.  B.  Hopkins,  1876-1886  and  1889-1891.  Lieut.  Col.  Edward  J. 
Russell,  1886.  Lieut.  Col.  Henry  E.  Smith,  1886-1889.  Lieut.  Col.  Aaron  S.  Taft,  1891- 
1892.  Lieut.  Col.  Nathan  Taylor,  1893.  Lieut.  Col.  William  A.  Gile,  1894-1898.  Lieut. 
Col.  Phineas  L.  Rider,  1899-1900.  Lieut.  Col.  Rufus  B.  Dodge,  1901-1904.  Lieut-Col. 
George  H.  Harlow,  1905-1906.  Lieut.  Col.  William  A.  Lytle,  1907-1910.  Lieut.  Col. 
Charles  S.  Holden,  191 1.  Lieut.  Col.  J.  Edmund  Thompson,  1912-1913.  Lieut.  Col. 
Frank  L.  Coes,  1914. 

Annual  parades  have  been  held  either  at  home  or  in  places  visited  by  the  corps, 
and  whether  as  guests  to  visitors  from  abroad  or  being  entertained  by  other  military 
bodies,  the  Worcester  Continentals  have  borne  themselves  in  a  manner  to  reflect  credit 
upon  themselves  and  the  city  of  Worcester. 

It  has  been  the  custom  of  the  corps  to  fittingly  celebrate  such  days  as  Washington's 
birthday,  Feb.  22,  Patriots'  Day,  April  19,  Bunker  Hill  Day,  June  17,  and  Independence 
Day,  July  4th,  by  parades,  open  house  during  the  noonday  or  by  exercises  in  the  even- 
ing, and  on  more  than  one  occasion  such  observances  have  been  participated  in  by  high 
public  officials  and  the  public  generally.  At  such  times  the  hospitality  of  the  corps  has 
been  unbounded. 

In  an  historical  sketch  of  the  Continentals  written  by  Adjt.  Herbert 
Adams  and  published  in  the  Worcester  Evening  Gazette,  March  29, 
1916,  he  gives  special  credit  to  the  founder,  to  Lt.  Col.  George  H.  Har- 
low, to  whom  "more  than  to  any  other  member  is  credit  due  for  a  longer 
period  of  untiring,  loyal  service  as  clerk  and  commander  than  any  other 
member,  joining  in  1876  and  remaining  a  member  until  he  died;  and  to 
Lt.  Col.  Hopkins,  who  was  longest  in  command."  For  an  account  of 
Lt.  Col.  Coes  and  most  of  the  other  commanders,  see  the  biographical 
section. 


CHAPTER  XXXVII 

European    War — The    First    Worcester    Soldiers    in    France — Training 
School — Financial  Contributions  in  1917-18 — Volunteers 

The  Worcester  Military  Training  School. — In  preparation  for  the 
war  that  seemed  inevitable  in  1915,  a  Worcester  MiHtary  Training  School 
was  formed  in  the  winter  of  1915-16,  and  three  companies  numbering 
from  60  to  100  each  were  drilled  by  officers  volunteering  for  the  purposes 
— Major  Warren,  Captains  Foley,  Weeden,  Burr,  Herbert  and  others ; 
Lieuts.  H.  W.  Robbins,  J.  W.  O'Connor,  H.  R.  Hoyle,  A.  P.  Trombly,  A. 

F.  Murray,  H.  L.  Searles,  G.  A.  Corbin,  John  A.  Jones.  (For  roster,  see 
Wor.  Mag.  1916,  p.  55).  Many  of  the  leading  business  and  professional 
men  belonged  to  these  companies. 

Officers  Trained  at  Plattsburg. — The  following  officers  trained  at 
Plattsburg,  N.  Y.,  received  commissions  dated  August  10,  1917: 

Captains  of  Infantry. — Second  company — James  E.  Higgins  of  Worcester,  Charles 

G.  Bowker  of  Worcester,  and  Sherman  O.  Haight  of  Worcester,  all  in  the  infantry 
section,  officers'  reserve  corps.  Third  company — Robert  E.  Nugent  of  Worcester,  in 
the  infantry  section,  officers'  reserve  corps.  Fifth  company — Norman  Harrower  of 
Worcester,  in  the  infantry  section,  officers'  reserve  corps.  Sixth  company — Leslie  C. 
Wells  of  Worcester,  infantry,  in  the  new  national  army. 

Captains  of  Cavalry — First  troop— Lawrence  Ewing  of  Worcester,  in  the  cavalry 
section,  officers'  reserve  corps. 

Captains  of  Field  Artillery. — First  battery — Marvin  C.  Taylor  of  Worcester,  in  the 
field  artillery  section,  officers'  reserve  corps. 

First  Lieutenants  of  Infantry. — Second  company — Haskell  Williams  of  Worcester, 
in  the  infantry  section,  officers'  reserve  corps.  Fifth  company — Daniel  W.  Lincoln  of 
Worcester,  in  the  infantry  section,  officers'  reserve  corps. 

First  Lieutenants  of  Field  Artillery. — Third  battery — Horace  Wyman  of  Worces- 
ter, in  the  field  artillery  section,  officers'  reserve  corps. 

First  Lieutenants  of  Ordnance  Department. — Ordnance  Department — Herbert  K. 
Cummings  of  Worcester,  in  the  ordnance  department,  national  army. 

Second  Lieutenants  of  Infantry.— First  company — Sylva  C.  Lachapelle  of  Worces- 
ter, in  the  infantry  section,  officers'  reserve  corps.  Second  company — Walter  H.  But- 
ler of  Worcester,  in  the  new  national  army.  Third  company — Thomas  J.  Sinnott  of 
Worcester  and  Harold  M.  Paine,  of  Worcester,  in  the  infantry  section,  offi- 
cers' reserve  corps.  Fourth  company — Samuel  W.  Fernberger  of  Worces- 
ter, and  Roland  M.  Cook  of  Worcester^  all  in  the  infantry  section,  officers'  reserve 
corps.  Fifth  company — Thornton  R.  Stenberg  of  Worcester,  in  the  infantry  section, 
officers'  reserve  corps.  Sixth  company— Sergt.  Robert  W.  Love,  Co.  G,  Ninth  Massa- 
chusetts Regiment,  of  Worcester,  in  the  infantry  section,  officers'  reserve  corps.  Eighth 
company — Frederick  E.  Bond  of  Worcester  and  Councilman  Philip  D.  Wesson  of 
Worcester,  in  the  infantry  section,  officers'  reserve  corps,  George  C.  Phipps  of  Wor- 
cester, in  the  new  national  army. 

Second  Lieutenants  of  Cavalry. — First  troop — Richard  H.  Mooney,  of  Worcester, 
in  the  cavalry  section,  officers'  reserve  corps. 


654                                                         HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 
, • 

Second  Lieutenants  of  Field  Artillery.— First  battery— Philip  F.  Coe  of  Worces- 
ter, Lincoln  H.  Dean  of  Worcester,  in  the  new  field  artillery  section,  officers'  reserve 
corps.  Second  battery— Miles  S.  Perkins  of  Worcester,  in  the  field  artillery  section, 
officers'  reserve  corps.  Third  battery— Richard  K.  Hutchins  of  Worcester,  in  the  field 
artillery  section  officers'  reserve  corps. 

Second  Lieutenants  of  Quartermaster's  Corps. — Florence  A.  Donohue  of  Worces- 
ter in  the  quartermaster's  corps,  new  national  army. 

Second  Lieutenants  of  Adjutant  General's  Dept. — Arthur  G.  Giroux  of  Worcester, 
in  the  statistical  section,  adjutant  general's  department,  national  army. 

For  the  regular  army. — Louis  S.  Stickney  of  Worcester,  in  the  infantry  section, 
officers'  reserve  corps.  •  Richards. 

Nineteenth  Regiment. — Folluwing  is  the  complete  Hst  of  field  and 
staff  officers  of  the  19th  regiment,  Massachusetts  State  Guard,  of  which 
the  three  Worcester  companies  are  a  part: 

Colonel,  Harry  C.  Young,  Worcester ;  lieutenant-  colonel,  Lewis  M.  McCallum, 
Worcester;  major.  First  Battalion,  Delevan  R.  Nichols,  Worcester;  major,  Second  Bat- 
talion, Frank  V.  Gilson,  Fitchburg;  major,  Third  Battalion,  Samuel  H.  Tuttle,  Con- 
cord; captain,  adjutant,  Herbert  L.  Adams,  Worcester;  captain,  supply  officer,  Arthur 
A.  Brigham,  Worcester;  captain,  chaplain,  Rev.  Henry  Stiles  Bradley,  D.  D.,  Worces- 
ter; major,  chief  medical  officer.  Dr.  Curtis  H.  Jennings,  Fitchburg;  captain,  medical 
officer.  Dr.  Charles  A.  Sparrow,  Worcester ;  captain,  medical  officer,  Dr.  Roy  J.  Ward,. 
Worcester ;  lieutenant,  medical  officer.  Dr.  O.  V.  Wells,  Westford ;  lieutenant,  battalion 
adjutant,  First  Battalion,  Clarence  F.  Potter,  Worcester;  lieutenant,  battalion  adjutant. 
Second  Battalion,  Claude  D.  Beadle,  Leominster. 

Headquarters  Company — Sergeant-major,  regimental,  Ralph  H.  Whitney,  Wor- 
cester; sergeant-major.  First  Battalion,  W.  H.  Fletcher,  Worcester;  Sergeant-major, 
Second  Battalion,  Russell  Lowe,  Fitchburg;  color  sergeant,  U.  S.  Colors,  E.  Walter 
Smith,  Worcester ;  first  sergeant,  George  F.  Chambers,  Worcester ;  supply  sergeant, 
Paul  D.  Howard,  Clinton ;  corporal,  Fred  L.  Haven,  Worcester. 

Supply  Company — Lieutenant,  Otis  C.  White,  Worcester ;  supply  sergeant,  Edward. 
J.  Martin,  Worcester;  first  sergeant,  Henry  E.  Morse,  Worcester. 

In  the  year  1917  there  were  18-il  volunteers  in  the  army  at  the 
recruiting  station  in  this  city. 

Financial  Record  of  1917. — Worcester  people  have  contributed,  since 
the  war  began  in  Europe,  through  all  agencies  and  channels,  up  to  the 
present  day,  $35,692,530.  This  is  a  per  capita  contril)Ution  of  $219.33 
based  on  the  state  census  of  1915,  which  gave  Worcester  a  population 
of  163,697  and  a  per  capita  contribution  of  $190.37  based  on  the  present 
municipal  water  census  for  this  year,  which  gave  Worcester's  population 
as  187,492. 

Naturally  the  bulk  of  this  vast  sum  is  represented  in  subscrip- 
tions to  the  two  Liberty  Loan  issues,  which  total  $34,297,900,  showing 
that  $1,394,630  was  otherwise  contributed  by  the  Worcester  public 
through  war  relief  funds  for  various  sufferers  abroad,  including  the  Bel- 
gian, Armenian,  Syrian,  Serbian,  Jewish,  French  and  English,  and  the 
special  war  funds  of  the  Red  Cross  and  agencies  working  for  the  Ameri- 
can soldiers. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE 


655 


Previous  to  the  entry  of  the  United  States  into  the  war  that  April, 
the  people  of  Worcester,  through  the  several  war  relief  funds  raised  for 
war  sufferers  in  Europe,  had  given  approximately  $205,106.  Of  course 
the  great  outpouring  of  wealth  came  when  America  became  ranged 
against  German  autocracy,  and  the  achievements  since  then  have  been 
magnificent  in  the  giving  of  money. 

The  Red  Cross  membership  fund  made  this  city  a  Red  Cross  strong- 
hold with  over  60,000  members.  The  Second  Liberty  Loan  put  the  city 
into  the  highest  class  of  municipalities  of  less  than  200.000.  The  Y.  M. 
C.  A.  war  fund  campaign  was  carried  to  triumph  in  this  city  with  a  swift- 
ness and  generosity  that  stands  out  from  the  common  run.  The  Y.  W. 
C.  A.  campaign  was  most  unique  of  all,  for  the  gifts  in  cash  of  those  inter- 
ested exceeded  the  city's  quota  a  week  before  the  date  for  the  campaign 
to  start. 

Exactly  21  different  channels  of  giving  have  received  the  unreserved 
support  of  Worcester  people  since  the  war  began.  And  this  immense 
wave  of  war  giving  followed  right  on  the  heels  of  a  period  of  less  than 
three  years  in  which  Worcester  lavishly  upheld  other  public  causes, 
including  the  fund  for  the  building  of  the  new  Boys'  Club  house,  the  big 
Y.  M.  C.  A.  new  building  fund,  the  clearing  off  of  the  mortgage  on  the 
G.  A.  R.  memorial  hall  and  the  raising  of  funds  for  the  Girls'  Club. 

The  complete  list  of  war  contribution  through  channels  of  all  sorts 
and  the  total  in  round  numbers  which  Worcester  has  given  throuo-h 
each  in  1817  is  as  follow^s : 


First  Liberty  Loan   $11,543,600 

Second  Liberty  Loan   22,754,300 

Red    Cross,   special    war    fund 

membership     campaign     and 

Christmas   gift    fund    750,000 

Y.   M.   C.   A.   war   fund 390,000 

Armenian    and    Syrian    relief, 

raised   in    city   at   large   and 

among  Armenian   residents.  7^,72>^ 

Jewish  sufferers  fund 50,000 

American     Fund     for     French 

wounded     34,800 

Worcester      branch.     Surgical 

Dressings  Committee   21,535 

Y.  W.   C.  A.   Hostess   Houses 

fund    16,950 

Prince  of  Wales  fund,  amount 

sent  to   England    10,000 

Soldiers'  Library  fund 8,300 

Clark  College  Ambulance  unit  7,000 

Soldiers'  War  Relief  fund.  .  .  .  6,736 


Belgian   Relief    fund    

K.  of  C.  members'  contribu- 
tion to  K.  of  C.  war  fund.  .  . 

Serbian  Relief  fund   

French  and  Belgian  Children's 
fund    

Children  of  America  fund, 
amount  contributed  by  Wor- 
cester public  school  children. 

Guardian  Children's  fund  (in 
box  fund)    

Evening  Post   Tobacco   fund. 

Salvation  Army  War  Relief 
fund    


6,500 

5,000 
3,500 

2,857 


2,046 

1,203 
1,000 

500 


Total     $35,692,530 

Amount  given  outside  Liberty  Loans, 
$1,394,630. 

Per  capita  contribution,  $219,338,  based 
on  state  census ;  $190,373,  based  on  mu- 
nicipal water  census. 


Battery  E,  101st  Field  Artillery,  U.  S.  A.— Battery  E.  the  new  Wor- 
cester command  of  the  Massachusetts  Field  Artillery,  now  of  the  101st 


656 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


was  the  first  unit  of  the  2nd  battalion  to  be  organized,  following  the 
orders  for  the  formation  of  various  batteries  throughout  the  state.  Under 
the  direction  of  Capt.  John  F.  J.  Herbert  of  Battery  B  and  Capt.  Arthur 
P.  Trombley  of  the  new  command,  Battery  E  was  organized  in  seven 
days  to  a  peace  strength  of  126  men.  Later  came  the  orders  to  recruit 
to  a  war  footing  and  within  five  days  the  battery  had  a  roster  of  190,  the 
first  command  of  the  battalion  to  reach  a  war  strength. 

The  battery  was  organized  on  May  12  with  Capt.  Trombley  as  com- 
mander. He  was  a  member  of  Battery  B  for  18  years  and  7  months.  He 
was  appointed  a  corporal  in  1900,  a  sergeant  in  1901,  a  second 
lieutenant  in  1901,  and  a  first  lieutenant  in  1915.  Romeo  A.  Gravel, 
who  was  elected  senior  first  lieutenant,  served  eight  years  in  Bat- 
tery B.,  having  been  appointed  a  corporal  in  1911,  a  sergeant  in  1912 
and  first  sergeant  in  1916.  John  D.  Power,  the  other  first  lieu- 
tenant, was  a  member  of  Battery  B  for  a  year  and  on  July  1,  1916, 
was  named  a  corporal.  On  May  2  of  this  year,  he  was  appointed  a  ser- 
geant. Andrew  W.  Thompson,  the  senior  2nd  lieutenant  was  a  member 
of  Battery  B  for  seven  years.  He  was  appointed  a  corporal  in  1912  and 
a  sergeant  in  1914.  Winslow  S.  Lincoln,  the  other  2nd  lieutenant,  was  a 
member  of  Battery  B  for  a  year  and  was  named  a  corporal  on  April  25. 
Following  is  a  complete  roster  of  the  new  battery : 

Capt.  Arthur  P.  Trombley,  First  Lieut.  Romeo  A.  Gravel,  First  Liept.  John  D. 
Power,  Second  Lieut.  Andrew  W.  Thompson,  Second  Lieut.  Winslow  S.  Lincoln,  First 
Sergt.  S.  Fruendenthal,  Supply  Sergt.  Fred  J.  Fitzgerald,  Privates  Alvin  L.  Abbott,  Al- 
fred R.  Allen,  Harold  G.  Allen,  Edw.  Roy  Anderson,  James  H.  Anderson,  Albert  L 
Arnold,  Valmore  Barbeau,  Harold  W.  Beams,  Alfred  E.  Belanger,  Philip  L.  Belisle, 
A.  J.  Beauregard,  George  L.  Benoit,  Ray  C.  Bezanson,  Peter  Bimeau,  Henry  E.  Bol- 
duc,  Arthur  H.  Boyle,  Fred  J.  Bogle,  William  J.  Brick,  Arthur  J.  Brigham,  Charles  H. 
Brisson,  Daniel  Brocklebank,  Arthur  Broadbent,  John  J.  Bresnihan,  Arthur  W.  Brown, 
Everett  W.  Brown,  Robert  M.  Brown,  James  S.  Brown,  W.  E.  Brown,  Jr.,  S.  P.  Bruin- 
soma,  William  J.  Buckley,  Harold  R.  Burbank,  John  H.  Buckley. 

Lean  J.  Caisse,  William  L.  Carpenetr,  Charles  H.  Carroll,  William  E.  Carroll,  How- 
ard F.  Carson,  E.  J.  Champigny,  William  H.  Clark,  H.  J.  Collette,  John  P.  Connor, 
Henry  A.  Comtois,  Raymond  A.  Copp,  Ralph  L.  Coskey,  Ralph  A.  Corey,  Wilfred  E. 
Cote,  James  Crother. 

Alfred  J.  Demers,  Joseph  R.  Donnais,  Harry  E.  Dow,  John  J.  Dresser,  Peter  F. 
Durkin,  E.  E.  Dursthoff. 

Theo.  R.  Edson,  Harry  Evans. 

Nils  Frostholm,  H.  J.  Fenner,  Edw.  R.  Fenner,  S.  K.  Firmin,  J.  J.  Fitzgerald,  R.  J. 
Fontaine,  Albert  J.  Fortier,  Albert  J.  Fortin,  Alex  J.  Eraser,  Charles  G.  French,  Thom- 
as F.  Furey. 

Joseph  F.  Gaudette,  Harris  A.  Geroux,  George  R.  Giddings,  William  E.  Gilinsky, 
Winslow  H.  Goff,  Luther  F.  Grout,  Francis  W.  Gully,  Fredercik  Grove. 

M.  W.  Hasseltine,  Clio  G.  Haywood,  Enos  A.  Harpcll,  Sandy  L.  Harpell,  Ector 
Heon,  Fred  H.  Hinckley,  William  J.  Horgan,  Edw.  A.  Houghton,  James  H.  Houghton. 

Frank  E.  Ingraham,  James  E.  Irwin. 

Arvid  Johnson,  George  A.  Johnson. 

George  J.  Keating,  John  J.  Kennedy,  William  J.  Kentile,  Walter  F.  Knox. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  657 

Alex  J.  Labossiere,  Henry  J.  LaDuke,  Leo  J.  LaFrance,  Herman  E.  Langson,  Ern- 
est J.  Lalonc,  Jerry  S.  Laporte,  Ernest  E.  LaBranche,  Harold  C.  Lamb,  Harold  E.  Law- 
rence, William  C.  Lavalle,  Gordon  L.  Leary,  George  A.  LeClair,  George  F.  Levsque, 
Carl  A.  Lygdman,  Paul  H.  Lundborg,  Joseph  Lynch,  George  J.  Legasey,  Carl  J.  Lind- 
berg,  Earle  E.  Lovejoy. 

Joseph  R.  Madden,  Joseph  J.  Malone,  Ray  G.  Mansfield,  Frederick  L.  Mayo,  Nel- 
son E.  Mayo,  Floyd  D.  McCutchen,  James  P.  McDonnell,  Edw.  W.  McGee,  Samuel  D. 
McGill,  James  E.  McNamara,  Philip  L.  Millay,  Robert  E.  Miller,  Roland  C.  Millett, 
Charles  E.  Miles,  Charles  Minneym,  Clarence  R.  Mitchell,  Michael  F.  Moore,  John  G. 
Moylan,  Frederick  W.  Munch,  William  P.  Murphy. 

Leon  E.  Newton,  Frederick  W.  Nystrom. 

Walter  N.  Obershaw,  George  F.  Oster. 

Ernest  L.  Paranto,  Henry  J.  Perry,  Willis  C.  Perry,  Gotfried  P.  Person,  William 
H.  Pettis,  William  W.  Phelps,  Charles  M.  Phillips,  Frank  Pickering,  Irwin  G.  Pilet, 
Omer  Potvin,  John  J.  Power,  Arthur  W.  Price,  Theo.  F.  X.  Proulx,  Charles  L.  Pru- 
neau,  Frederick  J.  Putnam. 

Walter  Adams  Rand.  Samuel  E.  Rambo,  Wallace  H.  Redstone,  Edward  J.  Rich- 
ards, Carl  W.  Ringquist,  Rosario  E.  Rochitte,  Evald  C.  Rosene. 

Mesrop  Saragian,  Leon  A.  Sargent,  Guy  Leander  Seeley,  Nathan  Shatsoff,  Ralph 
W.  Sibley,  Cecil  E.  Simpson,  George  N.  Snow,  Samuel  S.  Spencer,  Charles  B.  Stevens, 
Harold  A.  Stevens,  Frederick  E.  Stoddard,  John  E.  Strandberg. 

Charles  F.  Terrill,  Wayne  A.  Thompson,  William  J.  Thompson,  Eric  A.  Thoreen, 
Chetwood  F.  Treen,  Harold  L.  Tyler. 

Charles  M.  Valley,  John  W.  Vandenberg. 

Mathew  J.  Walsh,  David  J.  Walsh,  Thomas  E.  Watson,  Frank  K.  Way,  Arthur  H. 
Whitehead,  George  H.  Whittaker,  Frank  Whitworth,  Samuel  Wentworth,  Norman 
Wills,  William  E.  R.  Witson,  Clarence  D.  Wood,  Harold  S.  Wood,  Edward  B.  Writer. 

Frank  Zinkieweiz. 

Physicians  in  the  Service. — The  following  (revised  May  1,  1918), 
list  includes  not  only  the  doctors  in  service  in  training  camps  in  France, 
but  those  physicians  who  are  examining  for  the  local  and  advisory 
boards.     The  Worcester  district  doctors  in  service  are : 

U.  S.  Army — Medical  Officers'  Reserve  Corps,  (a)  on  active  duty:  Dr.  Howard 
Beal,  Dr.  Edward  B.  Bigelow,  Dr.  Frank  W.  George,  Dr.  Roger  Kinnicutt,  Dr.  E.  B. 
Simmons,  Dr.  Wm.  E.  Denning,  Dr.  Willard  Lemaire,  Dr.  James  J.  Goodwin  of  Clin- 
ton, Dr.  Chester  C.  Beckley  of  Lancaster,  Dr.  Roger  Scofield,  Dr.  Merrick  Lincoln,  Dr. 
George  C.  Lincoln,  Dr.  E.  F.  Phelan  of  North  Brookfield,  Dr.  R.  S.  New^ton  of  West- 
boro,  Dr.  Wm.  J.  Fay,  Dr.  A.  K.  Yoosuf,  Dr.  James  V.  May  (honorably  discharged), 
Dr.  Samuel  C.  Gwynne,  Dr.  Harry  P.  Cahill,  Dr.  Israel  Laurier,  Dr.  Donald  Gilfillan, 
Dr.  D.  F.  O'Connor,  Dr.  Homer  Gage,  Dr.  D.  A.  Thom,  Dr.  Kendall  Emerson,  Dr. 
Frank  E.  Harriman,  Dr.  Elisha  S.  Lewis  of  Princeton,  Dr.  J.  W.  Ledbury  of  Uxbridge, 
Dr.  W.  A.  Maclntire.  Dr.  Frank  T.  Oberg,  Dr,  H.  L.  Simmons,  Dr.  Willard  P.  Staple- 
ton,  Dr.  George  Watt. 

Commissioned  but  not  yet  called  to  active  duty — Dr.  George  T.  Little,  Uxbridge, 
Dr.  Charles  Salmon,  Dr.  David  Bridgewood,  Dr.  Gordon  Berry. 

StafT  officer  104th  Infantry — Dr.  Joseph  O'Connor. 

U.  S.  navy — Dr.  Gilbert  Haigh,  Dr.  Linwood  Johnson,  Dr.  Thomas  Courtney,  Dr. 
Joseph  L.  Lannois,  Northboro,  Dr.  Winthrop  Adams. 

Massachusetts   state  guard — Dr.   Peter  O.   Shea,  Dr.   L.  F.  Woodward,  Dr.   C.  A. 

W.— 1-42. 


658  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Sparrow,  Dr.  Roy  J.  Ward.  Dr.  Frank  L.  Magune.  Dr.  George  F.  H.  Bowers,  Dr.  Edw. 
H.  Mackay,  Clinton. 

English  army  (Harvard  unit)— Dr.  Kendall  Emerson,  now  in  U.  S.  army.  Dr. 
Oliver  Stansfield,  Dr.  Stanley  Bridges,  Dr.  George  Watt,  now  in  U.  S.  army. 

English  hospitals— Dr.  Albert  O.  Raymond,  Dr.  William  H.  AlacKay. 

U.  S.  selection  service  (a)  local  boards— Dr.  James  C.  Austin,  Spencer,  Dr.  Edw. 
W.  Balmer,  Whitinsville,  Dr.  J.  Arthur  Barnes,  Dr.  Frederick  Bryant,  Dr.  John  F. 
Harkins,  Dr.  Ernest  L.  Hunt,  Dr.  William  W.  McKibben,  Dr.  A.  J.  McCrea,  South- 
bridge,  Dr.  George  L.  Tobey,  Clinton. 

(b)   medical  advisory  board  : 

District  15  A— Dr.  F.  H.  Baker,  chairman,  Dr.  B.  T.  Burley.  secretary,  Dr.  C.  D. 
Wheeler,  Dr.  David  Harrower,  Dr.  Philip  H.  Cook,  Dr.  William  J.  Delehanty. 

District  15-B— Dr.  R.  P.  Watkins,  chairman,  Dr.  Philip  H.  Cook,  secretary.  Dr. 
Lester  C.  Miller,  Dr.  C.  A.  Church,  Alillbury,  Dr.  C.  T.  Estabrook,  Dr.  B.  H.  Mason. 

District  16— Dr.  C.  L.  French,  Clinton,  chairman,  Dr.  Irene  M.  Morse,  Clinton, 
secretary,  Dr.  E.  V.  Scribner,  Dr.  J.  Barton,  Fitchburg,  Dr.  Charles  R.  Abbott,  Clinton. 

Additional  examining  physicians — local  boards :  Dr.  L.  P.  Leland,  Dr.  R.  Wil- 
liams, Dr.  Henry  Hartnett,  Dr.  George  F.  O'Day,  Dr.  M.  B.  Fox,  Dr.  R.  J.  Shannahan. 
Dr.  George  T.  Little,  Uxbridge,  Dr.  George  E.  Emery,  Dr.  R.  J.  Ward,  Dr.  John  E. 
Rice,  Dr.  F.  H.  Washburn,  Dr.  Edward  Cooper,  Dr.  Henry  L.  McCluskey,  Dr.  T.  C. 
JtlcSheehy,  Dr.  George  A.  Power,  Dr.  William  Dolan,  Dr.  George  C.  Brown,  Dr.  J.  T. 
Kennedy,  Dr.  J.  W.  McDonald,  Dr.  E.  C.  Pochette,  Dr.  J.  W.  Cahill,  Dr.  Charles  Crois- 
sant, Dr.  Alfred  A.  VvHieeler,  Leominster,  Dr.  G.  L.  Chase,  Clinton,  Dr.  W.  E.  Currier, 
Leominster,  Dr.  T.  A.  Shaughnessy,  Leominster,  Dr.  Charles  Brigham.  Leominster,  Dr. 
Merton  L.  Griswold.  Uxbridge,  Dr.  John  A.  Moynahan,  Clinton,  Dr.  E.  H.  Mackay, 
Clinton. 

(b)   To  advisory  boards— Dr.  Arthur  W.  Marsh,  Dr.  George  H.  Hill,  Dr.  War- 
ren R.  Gilman,  Dr.  C.  A.  Sparrow,  Dr.  Albert  E.  Cross,  Dr.  Albert  C.  Getchell. 
American  ambulance  in  Paris — Dr.  W.  Irving  Clark. 

Fifty  Millions  for  the  War. — Worcester's  war  contributions  have 
actually  gone  well  over  the  $.JO,0()0,000  mark  in  less  than  a  year. 

It  seems  that  w^iile  the  three  Liberty  Loans  have  aggregated  $43,- 
322,100,  which,  with  the  previous  loan  of  $1,500,000  carries  the  total  to 
$44,822,100,  the  banks  alone  have  recently  taken  certificates  in  indebted- 
ness amounting  to  $:, 500,000.  Add  this  to  $44,822,100  and  you  have 
the  grand  total  of  $52,322,100. 

Should  Worcester's  subscriptions  to  the  Third  Liberty  Loan  go  to 
$10,000,000,  as  is  confidently  expected  they  may,  then  the  grand  total  of 
Worcester's  war  work  and  aid  to  the  government  will  be  boosted  to 
$53,297,900. 

Worcester  had  contributed  before  May  T,  1918,  to  the  combined 
Liberty  Loans,  first,  second  and  third  issues,  $43,322,100.  For  the  first 
issue,  Worcester's  allotment  was  $9,690,000.  and  the  subscription  was 
$11,543,000. 

For  the  Second  Liberty  Loan,  Worcester's  minimum  allotment  was 
$13,000,000  and  the  total  of  all  subscriptions,  $22,754,300. 

The  publicity  feature  of  the  campaign  was  in  the  hands  of  William 
Radclifi"e,  the  executive  secretarv  of  the  Worcester  branch  of  the  Ameri- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  659 

can  Red  Cross.  Excellent  work  was  achieved  by  the  Boy  Scouts;  Al- 
hambra  Council,  Knights  of  Columbus,  and  other  organizations. 

Splendid  work  has  been  achieved  by  the  Worcester  employees  of  the 
American  Steel  &  Wire  Co.  in  the  amount  of  subscriptions  to  the  Third 
Liberty  Loan.  The  final  report  in  the  three  Worcester  plants  of  the 
company  gave  each  plant  at  100  per  cent.,  as  all  the  6,098  employes 
bought  bonds,  the  average  subscription  of  each  being  $102.83. 

Li  the  North  Works  the  3,373  employes  subscribed  for  Liberty 
Bonds  to  the  value  of  $341,100;  in  the  South  Works,  3,316  employes  sub- 
scribed for  Liberty  Bonds  to  the  value  of  $339,850 ;  in  the  Central  Works,. 
311  employes  took  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $32,850;  in  the  district  office 
the  members  of  the  office  staff,  198  of  them,  took  Liberty  Bonds  to  the 
amount  of  $33,800;  thus  the  total  subscriptions  from  the  6,098  employes, 
aggregate  to  $637,000. 


SOLDIERS'  MONUMENT. 


CHAPTER  XXXVIII 

Militafy    Memorials — Col.    Timothy    Bigelow    Monument — Civil    War 
Monument — Gen.  Devens  Statue — Spanish  War  Memorials 

The  Col.  Timothy  Bigelow  Monument. — To  the  memory  of  the  most 
prominent  military  figure  of  the  town  during  the  Revolution,  Col.  Tim- 
othey  Bigelow,  a  monument  was  erected  on  the  common  by  Col.  T.  Bige- 
low Lawrence,  of  Boston,  a  descendant  and  formally  dedicated  April  19, 
18C1,  the  86th  anniversary  of  the  battle  of  Lexington.  The  monument 
was  designed  by^  George  Snell  of  Boston.  The  marble  was  imported 
from  Tuscany.  The  remains  of  Col.  Bigelow  were  reinterred  under  the. 
monument. 

The  past  mayors  of  the  city  and  many  distinguished  guests  were 
present  at  the  dedication.  Capt.  D.  Waldo  Lincoln  was  marshal  of  the 
parade,  wdiich  moved  through  the  principal  streets.  Col.  Lawrence  him- 
self made  the  sp>eech  of  presentation,  expressing  his  pleasure  at  the  mag- 
nificent cooperation  of  citizens  and  city  in  dedicating  the  monument.  In 
behalf  of  the  city  Mayor  Isaac  Davis  responded.  The  feature  of  the  day 
was  the  address  of  the  venerable  Ex-Governor  Levi  Lincoln.     He  said  :  ' 

"It  may  be  expected  of  me,  one  of  the  few,  the  very  few,  of  the  living,  who  have 
ever  looked  upon  the  person  of  Colonel  Bigelow,  that  I  should  give  such  reminiscences, 
of  him  as  1  have,  imperfect  and  unimportant  though  they  be.  I  well  recollect  as  though 
it  were  yesterday  lis  tall,  erect  and  commanding  figure,  his  martial  air,  his  grave  and 
rather  severe  countenance,  his  dignified  and  earnest  address.  I  cannot  doubt  the  re- 
spect and  deference  with  which  he  was  universally  regarded;  for  it  was  among  the 
most  positive  injimetions  of  the  antiquated  district  schoolmistress  to  the  boys  o'f  my 
day,  enforced  even  hy  the  fear  of  the  rod,  that  we  should  always  'pull  off  our  hats  to 
Parson  Bancroft  and  Colonel  Bigelow.'  At  the  time  of  his  death  and  for  many  years 
after,  I  often  heard  him  spoken  of  as  a  gallant  old  soldier  and  the  thoroughly  accoml 
plished  officer;  and  now  after  the  lapse  of  seventy-one  years  from  his  burial  in  the 
same  vernal  season  of  the  fragrance  of  the  budding  flower  and  the  gushing  melody  of 
birds,  I  stand, ^an  aged  man,  again  at  his  grave,  to  remember  and  to  honor  him." 

Rev.  Dr.  Andrew  Bigelow  and  Hon.  John  P.  Bigelow  both  of  Bos- 
ton, descendants,  also  spoke.  The  latter  presented  a  dozen  ball  cart- 
ridges made  for  Col.  Bigelow's  regiment  in  this  town,  and  said  he  had 
tried  some  of  the  powder  that  morning  and  it  flashed  brilliantly  after 
being  kept  8-1  years.  Hon.  Benjamin  F.  Thomas,  grandson  of  "^Isaiah 
Thomas,  and  Tyler  Bigelow  a  nephew  of  the  colonel,  were  the  last  speak- 
ers..    (Lincoln's  History,  p.  399  Hersey's  addition). 

The  Soldiers  Monument.— In  his  inaugural  address  in  January,  1866 
Mayor  James  B.  Blake  suggested  the  erection  of  a  monument  to' those 
who  lost  their  lives  in  the  War  for  the  Union.     A  special  committee  con- 


662  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


sisting  of  the  Mayor,  Aldermen  O.  K.  Earle.  Jerome  Marble;  Coimcil- 
men  \V.  E.  Starr.  John  S.  Baldwin,  Edward  L.  Davis  and  Samuel  E. 
Hildreth,  was  appointed  to  consider  the  subject,  and  this  committee 
called  a  public  meeting  in  Mechanics  Hall,  held  Feb.  10,  186G. 

A  canvassing  committee  committee  of  twenty-eight,  of  which  George 
W.  Richardson  was  treasurer,  was  appointed,  and  the  mayor,  two  alder- 
men and  seven  councilmen  were  subsequently  added.  The  fund 
amounted  to  $11, -^42.40,  according  to  the  treasurer's  report.  Sept.  5,  1867, 
and  with  some  changes  in  the  committee  the  work  of  raising  funds  con- 
tinued. Ah  executive  committee  was  appointed  Sept.  28th.  18GG,  to  pro- 
cure i)lans  and  select  a  site  for  the  monument.  The  committee  consisted 
of  James  B.  Blake,  E.  B.  Stoddard,  George  Crompton,  Oliver  K.  Earle, 
David  M.  Woodward,  R.  M.  Gould.  M.  S.  McConville,  Charles  A.  Chase 
and  Joseph  Chase.  The  design  of  Gambrill  &  Richardson,  architects,  of 
New'York,  was  accepted.  Edward  L.  Davis  and  Henry  A.  Marsh  were 
added  to  the  executive  committee.  June  25,  1871,  and  George  Crompton 
elected  chairman  of  the  general  committee  in  place  of  ]\Iayor  Blake, 
deceased.  The  model  in  clay  by  Randolph  Rogers  was  accepted  Nov. 
8,  1871.  Post  No.  10,  G.  A.  R.,  approved  of  the  action  of  the  committee. 
To  the  sum  of  $15,000  then  in  hand,  the  city  added  an  appropriation  of 
$35,000  Nov.  20,  1871.  The  site  on  the  Common  was  granted  by  the  city 
council,  March  30,  1874. 

The  monument  was  dedicated  with  imposing  ceremony,  July  15, 
1874.  Addresses  were  made  by  Chairman  George  Crompton,  Hon.  Alex- 
ander H.  Bullock,  Gen.  Charles  Devens,  Mayor  Davis  and  Gen.  Burn- 
side.  These  are  printed  in  a  book  subsequently  published  by  the  monu- 
ment committee,  giving  a  full  account  of  the  dedication.  Gen.  Josiah 
Pickett  was  chief  marshal  of  the  day.  Other  guests  were:  Vice-presi- 
dent Henry  Wilson,  Hon.  George  S.  Boutwell,  Congressmen  Alvah 
Crocker,  Ginery  Twitchell,  J.  M.  S.  Williams,  George  F.  Hoar  and  La- 
fayette S.  Foster;  Gen.  John  W.  Kimball,  Gen.  A.  B.  Underwood  and 
Hon.  George  B.  Loring,  president  of  the  Massachusetts  Senate. 

The  monument  is  65  feet  high,  its  base  nineteen  feet  and  a  half; 
of  Westerly  granite.  Four  bronze  statues  representing  infantry,  artil- 
lery, cavalry  and  navy,  adorn  the  four  corners ;  the  names  o'f  398  soldiers 
and  sailors,  to  whom  the  memorial  was  erected,  are  inscribed  on  bronze 
tablets  on  the  four  sides.  On  the  west  side  is  another  inscription: 
"Erected  by  the  people  of  Worcester  in  Memory  of  Her  Sons  who  Died 
for  the  Unity  of  the  Republic."  The  monument  also  has  a  medallion  of 
Gov.  John  A.  Andrew;  a  bas-relief  of  a  dying  soldier,  and  another  of 
Lincoln.  On  the  third  section  there  are  bronze  plates  bearing  the  seal 
of  the  city,  the  coat-of-arms  of  the  Commonwealth,  a  wreath  of  laurel 
and  crossed  swords,  and  the  national  coat-of-arms.  The  statue  of  Vic- 
tory surmounts  the  monument. 

Battle  Flags. — The  original  flags  carried  by  the  Worcester  Regi- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE 


663 


ments— the  loth,  21st,  25th,  34th,  36th,  51st  and  57th  in  the  War  for  the 
Union,  are  preserved  in  a  cabinet  in  City  Hall. 


Wdi-  0/  mt  Fltbslliori. 


ri>-who  Ud  ttiV  Wijr<tjrf.rj 


'     Battle  of^ 
atHKiViry 

•■Dedication 
-  armt^ 

Wtrt/oin^  0(1 

"thfe 
WORCtJTeR 

LKtHT 

IriFANTRy 

on-ffTtir 
WAy  to 

WA)H!r((iTort 


The  General  Devens  Statue.— An  equestrian  statue  to  honor  Gen. 
Charles  Devens  and  the  soldiers  who  went  from  Worcester  county  in  the 
War  of  the  Union,  was  erected  in  front  of  the  county  court  house  in  this 
city,  and  unveiled  with  appropriate  ceremony  July  4,  1906.  Gen.  Devens 
was  the  most  distinguished  officer  from  this  city  in  the  war.  (See 
biography). 

The  movement  to  erect  this  memorial  began  in  1891  at  the  sugges- 
tion of  Senator  George  F.  Hoar.  Ten  years  later  an  act  was  passed  by 
the  legislature  authorizing  towns  and  cities  of  the  county  to  contribute 
funds  toward  the  erection  of  this  monument,  and  appointing  as  a  com- 
mission under  the  act:  George  F.  Hoar,  J.  Evarts  Greene,  Herbert 
Parker,  Nathaniel  Paine,  Emerson  Stone,  Rufus  B.  Dodge,  Daniel  Mer- 
riman  and  Edward  J.  Russell.  The  places  of  Senator  Hoar,  Postmaster 
Greene  and  County  Commissioner  Stone,  removed  by  death,  were  filled 
by  Gen.  William  F.  Draper  of  Hopedale,  Major  Edward  T.  Raymond, 
and  County  Commissioner  George  W.  Cook.  The  county  gave  the  sum 
of  $5,000,  and  a  majority  of  the  towns  contributed.  Large  sums  were 
given  by  various  residents  of  the  county,  and  smaller  contributions  from 
thousands  of  citizens  swelled  the  total.  The  sculptors  were  D.  C.  French 
and  E.  C.  Potter.  George  D.  Webb  executed  the  base.  The  total  cost 
was  $40,000. 

At  the  dedication,  July  4,  1906,  Gov.  Curtis  Guild  Jr.  represented 
the    Commonwealth.     The   speech   of   presentation    to   the    countv    was 


664 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


made  by  Gen.  W.  F.  Draper,  and  that  of  acceptance  by  County  Com- 
missioner Warren  Goodale.  Gen.  Stewart  L.  Woodford  delivered  an 
oration.  Previous  to  the  dedication  a  military  parade  under  Chief  Mar- 
shal Maj.  Edward  T.  Raymond  included  the  militia,  the  veterans  of  the 
Civil  War  under  Gen.  Charles  W.  Wood.  There  were  140  men  in  line 
in  Gen.  Devens's  old  regiment  (the  loth)  under  Gen.  John  W.  Kimball, 
of  Fitchburg.  There  were  190  men  in  the  Devens  brigade  under  Col.  M. 
W\  Taylor  of  Plainfield.  N.  J.  Among  the  distinguished  guests  were 
Secretary  of  War  William  H.  Taft  and  Lt.  Gov.  Eben  S.  Draper. 

The  inscriptions  on  the  monument  give  the  number  of  soldiers  fur- 
nished by  each  town  and  city  in  the  Civil  War;  the  names  of  the  princi- 
pal organizations  in  the  service  from  this  county;  a  summary  of  the 
public  service  of  Gen.  Devens.  It  is  inscribed  also:  "To  General  Dev- 
ens and  the  Men  of  Worcester  County  in  the  War  for  the  Union  1861- 

1865." 

Spanish  War  Memorials. — Com- 
mander Daniel  E.  Denny  of  Post 
10,  G.  A.  R.,  assisted  by  Senator 
George  F.  Hoar  and  Gov.  John  L. 
Bates,  succeeded  in  getting  for  me- 
morial purposes,  the  grant  of  a 
Spanish  cannon  from  the  govern- 
ment. This  bronze  gun,  taken  at 
Santiago,  is  11  >4  feet  in  length, 
with  a  61^2  inch  bore.  It  was  cast 
at  Sevilla,  Spain.  May  5,  1T98,  and 
is  inscribed  with  the  royal  mono- 
gram, etc.  It  was  mounted  in  the 
triangle  at  Armory  Square,  the  car- 
riage being  given  by  George  D. 
Webb,  and  was  dedicated  Dec.  9, 
liX)-!-.  When  the  new  bronze  me- 
morial was  erected  on  this  site  in 
1911,  the  gun  was  moved  to  a  suit- 
al)lc  location  at  the  side  of  the  ar- 
mory. 

The  bronze  statue  in  memory  of 
the  Spanish  war  soldiers,  now  oc- 
cupying the  triangle,  was  designed 
and  wrought  by  O'Conner  of  this 
city.  It  represents  a  soldier  in  ac- 
SPAXISH   WAR   MEMORIAL,  tion.  and  is  perhaps  the  most  artis- 

Army    Square.  ^j^,   memorial    in    the    city.      It   was 

dedicated  with  elaborate  exercises,  .\]iril  IT.  191 :. 


CHAPTER  XXXIX 

Independence  Day 

The  following  paper  by  Mrs.  Ada  S.  Nutt,  enttiled  "Fourth  of  July 
Celebrations  in  Worcester,"  was  read  at  a  meeting  of  Col.  Timothy 
Bigelow  Chapter,  D.  A.  R.,  Nov.  3,   lUO!) : 

The  object  of  this  paper  is  to  give  in  condensed  form  the  story  of  the  celebration 
of  Independence  Day  in  Worcester  from  the  birth  of  our  nation  up  to  1850.  Of  neces- 
sity the  celebrations  were  similar  in  many  respects,  but  as  time  went  on  the  display  in- 
creased, and  the  festival  grew  in  importance  in  the  public  mind.  The  character  of 
the  celebrations  since  1850  is  familiar  to  us  all.  The  parades  have  grown  longer,  the 
firecrackers  have  increased  tremendously  in  size,  and  the  noise  has  grown  all  out  of 
proportion  to  the  population,  according  to  the  belief  of  the  lovers  of  quiet.  The  small 
boy  of  to-day  would  hardly  be  satisfied  with  the  single  bunch  of  infinitesimal  firecrack- 
ers allowed  his  grandfather  in  1850. 

The  antique  or  horrible  parade  is  a  comparatively  new  departure,  inaugurated  since 
that  date,  and  was  at  first  called  "the  studlefunk  procession."  It  was  usually  held  at  a 
very  early  hour  in  the  morning,  and  probably  all  of  us  can  remember  the  anticipation 
with  which  we,  as  children,  looked  forward  to  the  mysteries  of  that  feature  of  the 
festival.  It  is  still  the  chief  delight  of  the  youth  whenever  a  town  decides  to  have  a 
public  celebration.  To-day,  in  addition  to  the  military  display,  we  have  the  merchants' 
or  trades  procession,  sometimes  athletic  tournaments,  and  always  the  sport  which  ap- 
peals to  all  good  Americans,  the  ball-game.  In  other  respects,  our  forefathers  spent 
the  Fourth  of  July  a  great  deal  as  we  do,  with  more  regard,  probably,  to  the  meaning 
of  the  celebration,  especially  in  those  first  years,  during  the  war,  and  later,  before  the 
gallant  survivors  of  the  fight  were  gone. 

The  Declaration  of  Independence  was  heard  for  the  first  time  in  Massachusetts, 
in  our  own  city  of  Worcester.  Every  one  is  familiar  with  the  story  of  the  messenger 
who  was  speeding  toward  Boston  with  the  startling  news,  who  was  intercepted  at  Wor- 
cester, July  14,  1776,  and  his  message,  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  read  by  Isaiah 
Thomas  from  the  west  porch  of  the  Old  South  Church.  It  was  heard  by  a  few  who 
had  hurriedly  assembled,  and  for  the  benefit  of  the  others  it  was  read  again  the  fol- 
lowing Sunday  by  Rev.  Thaddeus  Maccarty,  at  the  close  of  his  sermon.  By  Monday  of 
the  following  week,  July  22,  1776,  the  proper  arrangements  had  been  made  to  give  it  a 
fitting  public  reception,  and  it  was  read  again  with  great  rejoicing.  The  occasion  was 
so  notable  that  I  will  read  the  whole  account  as  printed  in  the  Massachusetts  Spy  of 
July  24  following : 

On  Monday  last  a  number  of  patriotic  gentlemen  of  this  town,  animated  with  a 
love  of  their  country  and  to  show  their  approbation  of  the  measures  lately  taken  by 
the  Grand  Council  of  America,  assembled  on  the  green  near  the  liberty  pole  where, 
having  displayed  the  colors  of  the  thirteen  Confederate  colonies  of  America,  the  bells 
were  set  a  ringing  and  the  drums  a  beating.  After  which  the  Declaration  of  Independ- 
ence of  the  United  States  was  read  to  a  large  and  respectable  body  (among  whom 
were  the  selectmen  and  committee  of  correspondence  assembled  on  the  occasion), 
who  testified  their  approbation  by  repeated  huzzas,  firing  of  musketry,  and  other  dem- 
onstrations of  joy.  When  the  arms  of  that  tyrant  in  Britain,  George  the  III  of  ex- 
ecrable memory,  who  in  former  reigns  decorated,  but  of  late  disgraced  the  Court 
House  in  this  town,  were  committed  to  the  flames  and  consumed  to  ashes  ;  after  which 
a  select  company  of  the  Sons  of  Freedom  repaired  to  the  Tavern  lately  known  by  the 


666  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Sign  of  King's  Arms,  which  odious  signature  of  despotism  was  taken  down  by  order 
of^he  people  which  was  cheerfully  complied  with  by  the  inn-keeper,  where  the  follow- 
ing toasts  were  drank,  and  the  evening  spent  with  joy  on  the  commencement  of  the 
happy  area:  i.  Prosperity  and  perpetuity  to  the  United  States  of  America.  2.  The 
President  of  the  Grand  Council  of  America.  3.  The  Grand  Council  of  America.  4. 
His  Excellency.  General  Washington.  5.  All  the  Generals  in  the  American  Army.  6. 
Commodore  Hopkins.  7.  The  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  American  Army.  8.  The 
officers  and  seamen  of  the  American  Navy.  9.  Patriots  of  America.  10.  Every  Friend 
of  America.  11.  George  rejected  and  liberty  protected.  12.  Success  to  the  American 
Arms.  13.  Sore  eyes  to  all  the  Tories,  and  a  chestnut  burr  for  an  eyestone.  14.  Per- 
petual itching  without  the  benefit  of  scratching,  to  the  enemies  of  America.  15.  The 
Council  and  representatives  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay.  16.  The  officers  and  soldiers  in 
the  Jklassachusetts  service.  17.  The  memory  of  the  brave  General  Warren.  18.  The 
memory  of  the  magnanimous  Gen.  Montgomery.  19.  Speedy  redemption  to  all  the 
officers  and  soldiers  who  are  now  prisoners  of  war  among  our  enemies.  20.  The  state 
of  Massachusetts  Bay.  21.  The  town  of  Boston.  22.  The  selectmen  and  committee  of 
correspondence  for  the  town  of  Worcester.  23.  May  the  enemies  of  America  be  laid 
at  her  feet.  24.  May  the  freedom  and  independence  of  America  endure  till  the  Sun 
grows  dim  with  age  and  this  earth  returns  to  chaos.  The  greatest  decency  and  good 
order  was  observed  and  at  a  suitable  time  each  man  returned  to  his  respective  home 
after  drinking  24  toasts. 

The  tavern  spoken  of  was  kept  by  Captain  Thomas  Sterne,  on  nearly  the  spot  where 
the  Lincoln  House  now  stands.  He  died  in  1772,  and  the  inn  was  kept  by.  his  widow. 
It  was  a  favorite  meeting  place  for  the  tories,  and  their  famous  protest  of  1774  was 
signed  here.  Later  two  committees  of  correspondence  also  met  here.  There  seems  to 
have  been  no  formal  celebration  in  1777-78. 

In  I77Q  the  Fourth  fell  on  a  Sunday,  and  the  celebration  was  postponed  by  the 
Sons  of  Freedom  until  the  Thursday  following.  The  morning  was  ushered  in  by 
the  ringing  of  bells  and  the  firing  of  cannon  and  a  display  of  the  Continental  flag.  At 
noon  thirteen  cannon  shots  were  fired,  and  in  the  evening  the  Court  House  was  illum- 
inated with  candles,  thirteen  rockets  were  fired,  and  there  was  a  display  of  other  fire- 
works, as  the  Spy  said,  "greatly  to  the  satisfaction  of  many  respectable  and  staunch 
friends  to  the  common  cause  of  our  nation,  who  were  assembled  at  the  Court  House 
from  this  and  adjacent  towns."  This  was  the  first  time  that  fireworks  were  used  in  the 
town  to  celebrate  the  day,  and  the  public  demonstration  must  have  had  a  special  signifi- 
cance, as  the  war  was  not  yet  over. 

The  next  public  celebration  occurred  in  1789,  when  the  custom  of  having  proces- 
sions was  inaugurated.  Major  Phineas  Jones  was  in  command  of  a  parade  consisting 
of  a  company  of  horse  under  Captain  Denny  of  Leicester;  the  Worcester  train  of  ar- 
tillery under  Captain  Stanton;  two  companies  of  militia  under  Captains  How  and 
Heywood.  They  were  reviewed  on  the  Common,  and  in  the  evening  the  officers  and  a 
number  of  other  "private  gentlemen  (said  the  paper)  sat  down  to  an  elegant  enter- 
tainment, at  which  toasts  suitable  to  the  occasion  were  drank." 

Beginning  with  the  year  1789,  there  were  annual  celebrations  for  several  years,  al- 
though they  were  not  conducted  by  the  town  authorities.  In  1790,  the  Fourth  falling 
on  Sunday,  Monday  was  celebrated  by  the  Worcester  Artillery  Company,  which  pa- 
raded before  Mr.  Mower's  tavern,  which  stood  at  the  present  location  of  the  Walker 
building,  corner  of  Mechanic  street.  At  one  o'clock  they  fired  a  national  salute  in  front 
of  the  Court  House,  then  returned  to  the  tavern  and  partook  of  a  handsome  enter- 
ment. 

The  next  year  (179O  i"  addition  to  the  parade,  there  was  an  oration  by  Edward 
Bangs,  and  an  original  ode  was  sung.  The  banquet  was  at  Captain  Heywood's  inn,  on 
the  site  of  the  Bay  State  HoUse,  where,  according  to  the  report,  a  "very  handsome  but 
economical  entertainment  was  provided,  of  which  they  heartily  but  sociably  partook." 
There  were  fireworks  in  the  evening.  In  1792  and  1793  this  program  was  duplicated, 
with  fourteen  cannons  fired  and  fourteen  toasts  drunk,  to  signify  the  fourteenth  year 
of  independence,  and  in  1793  with  fifteen.     The  account  of  this  latter  celebration  ap- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  667 


peared  in  the  Spy  as  follows:    "Drank  a  number  of  patriotic  toasts  under  the  discharge 

of  cannon;  and ;  and  went  home."    It  said  also  that  a  spirit  of  manly  iiidc- 

pcndcncc  prevailed. 

In  1795,  Mr.  Joseph  Allen,  Jr.,  was  the  orator,  and  the  company  dined  at  Masons' 
Hall.  The  next  year,  after  the  usual  parade,  a  procession  was  formed  at  Mower's 
tavern,  and  proceeded  to  the  South  Meeting  House  to  listen  to  an  oration  by  Francis 
Blake.  After  a  dinner  at  Mower's,  toasts  were  drunk  and  cannon  fired.  The  following 
year  (1797)  according  to  the  Spy,  "as  Aurora  rose  smiling  she  was  saluted  by  16  dis- 
charges from  the  cannon  of  the  x\rtillery  Company."  The  oration  was  delivered  by 
Dr.  Oliver  Fiske  at  the  South  Aleeting  House,  followed  by  a  dinner.  The  artillery 
Company  supped  at  Heywood's  tavern,  and  the  seventeenth  toast  read :  "Republicanism 
triumphant;  and  bridles,  whips  and  rods  of  scorpions  for  the  correction  of  tyrants. 
May  their  horses  stumble  at  the  sound  of  the  trumpet  and  their  ships  turn  pale  at  the 
sight  of  an  enemy."  The  last  toast  was  to  the  "gallant  General  Bonaparte."  The  anni- 
versary was  closed  with  "decent  hilarity." 

The  South  Church  saw  the  celebration  of  1798  also,  with  divine  blessing  invoked  by 
Rev.  Joseph  Sumner  of  Shrewsbury,  and  an  oration  by  Rev.  Samuel  Austin.  The 
celebrated  song,  "Adams  and  Liberty,"  succeeded  the  oration,  and  the  custom  pre- 
vailed for  some  years  of  having  original  odes  read  or  sung  as  a  part  of  the  exercises. 
Of  the  sixteen  toasts  proposed  at  the  dinner,  this  was  one:  "Money,  money,  money; 
may  his  hand  be  blasted  with  a  deadly  leprosy  who  should  give  or  take  it  in  barter  for 
his  country.     Three,  cheers. 

In  1799,  in  addition  to  the  procession  under  escort  of  Captain  Healy's  artillery  com- 
pany, the  press  says,  "a  select  band  performed  a  number  of  appropriate  pieces  of  mu- 
sic. A  large  number  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  were  unhappily  disappointed  of  an  ex- 
pected oration.  Mr.  Peletiah  Hitchcock,  the  orator  of  the  day,  on  his  way  from 
Brookfield  to  Worcester,  was  suddenly  seized  with  a  bilious  colic  and  was  unable  to 
reach  town."  There  were  probably  many,  however,  who  were  not  as  sorry  as  they 
should  have  been,  to  forego  the  long  oration.  The  Worcester  Patriotic  Song,  of  seven 
long  verses,  written  hy  William  Charles  White,  was  sung  to  the  tune  of  "Adams  and 
Liberty."    One  verse  will  serve  to  show  the  sentiment  of  the  song. 

"Let  patriot  ardor  distinguish  the  day 
Which  granted  Columbia  a  charter  immortal. 

Illumin'd  her  reign  with  Freedom's  mild  ray 
And  rais'd  in  her  center  bright  liberty's  portal. 
The  song  of  loud  cheer 
Bid  sound  far  and  near 
And  let  our  swelling  concord  toward  the  stars  veer. 

Since  nobly  disdaining  with  chains  to  agree 
We  spurn'd  at  all  bondage  and  dared  to  be  free." 

For  the  next  five  years  (1801-05)  the  celebrations  differed  only  in  the  orator  of 
the  day.  In  this  list  were  Edward  Bangs  in  the  North  Aleeting  House ;  Isaac  Story  of 
Sterling,  Rev.  Zephaniah  Swift  Moore  of  Leicester ;  John  William  Caldwell  at  the  South 
Church;  William  Charles  White  of  Rutland;  and  Daniel  Waldo  Lincoln,  brother  of 
Gov.  Levi  Lincoln. 

In  1801  the  Spy  prints  a  little  paragraph,  stating  that  hereafter  the  accounts  of 
the  celebrations  would  be  omitted,  "inasmuch  as  the  day  was  observed  in  many  towns, 
that  unless  full  reports  were  given  of  all,  which  was  manifestly  impossible,  all  would 
be  omitted  that  they  might  not  be  accused  of  partiality."  Then  followed  a  short  ser- 
mon of  thankfulness  for  liberty  and  prosperity,  with  an  appeal  for  the  continuation  of 
those  blessings. 

About  this  time  the  political  situation  became  interesting.  Jef¥erson  and  Madison 
became  leaders  of  the  Democratic-Republican  party,  generally  called  the  Republican 


668 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


party;  and  Hamilton  and  Adams  of  the  Federal  party,  which  supported  the  administra- 
tion. The  Spy  supported  the  Federal  party,  and  the  feeling  was  very  intense.  The 
national  holiday  was  chosen  for  political  demonstrations.  In  1808  the  Spy  says,  with 
f^ne  sarcasm:  "The  Democrats  formed  a  great  procession  of  such  as  they  were,  and 
had  a  very  magnificent  oration  delivered  by  Major  Estes  How,  who  two  years  since 
delivered  as  magnificent  a  Federal  one  in  Sutton.  Thus  we  go  up,  up,  up,  and  thus  we 
go  down,  down,  down."    That  was  the  entire  "report  of  the  occasion. 

The  orations  in  1810  and  1811  were  by  Levi  Heywood  and  John  \V.  Hubbard,  the 
latter  year  young  men  between  the  ages  of  sixteen  and  twenty-one  having  charge  of 
the  exercises.  In  1812  the  Washington  Benevolent  Society  of  the  county  conducted  the 
celebration,  with  an  oration  by  Francis  Blake,  and  dinner  in  a  building  erected  for  the 
purpose.  The  Federal  Republicans  also  had  a  demonstration,  with  an  oration  by 
Enoch  Lincoln  and  an  ode  by  Edward  D.  Bangs,  and  fireworks  in  the  evening.  A  cou- 
ple of  toasts  will  serve  to  illustrate  the  length  to  which  party  feeling  was  carried.  They 
were  offered  by  the  president  of  the  day,  thus :  "Mr.  Jefferson :  We  consent  that  the 
surplus  he  left  in  the  treasury  be  appropriated  to  the  erection  of  his  own  monument." 
And  this :  "The  Massachusetts  Senate :  may  its  members  be  turned  from  the  crooked 
paths  of  party  policy  to  the  straight  lines  of  justice,  and  its  head  no  longer  be  found 

scattering." 

In  1814  the  Federal  party  had  a  procession,  escorted  by  the  Light  Infantry,  with 
an  oration  by  Edwin  A.  White  in  Dr.  Bancroft's  church..  Their  opposition  to  the  War 
of  1812  is  expressed  in  this  toast :  "The  authors  of  a  disgraceful  and  calamitous  war. 
They  have  done  their  country  much  evil.  The  Lord  reward  then  according  to  their 
works."     Three  cheers. 

Peleg  Sprague  and  John  Davis  were  the  orators  the  next  two  years,  and  in  the  lat- 
ter year  an  ode  of  eight  verses  was  sung  with  taste  and  spirit  by  Lieutenant  Hamilton, 

of  the  infantry. 

An  era  of  good  feeling  was  inaugurated  with  President  Alonroe's  administration, 
and  the  political  hatchet  was  buried.  In  1817  there  was  a  large  military  parade,  and  an 
oration  in  Old  South  Church  by  Pliny  Merrick,  with  an  ode  composed  by  Edward  D. 
Bangs,  and  sung  by  Captain  Sewall  Hamilton.  Isaiah  Thomas  presided  at  the  din- 
ner, of  which  three  hundred  partook,  which  was  served  in  a  bower  opposite  Air.  Hath- 
away's  tavern. 

In  1819,  however,  party  feeling  was  again  prominent,  and  the  Saturday  preceding 
the  Fourth  the  Republicans  had  a  celebration.  The  Spy  speaks  of  it  thus:  "Edward  D. 
Bangs,  Esq.,  a  gentleman  whom  his  fellow  citizens  generally  would  have  been  gratified 
to  hear  on  such  an  occasion,  had  it  not  been  publicly  announced  that  the  celebration  in 
which  he  was  engaged  was  designed  exclusively  for  the  gratification  of  a  party."  After 
dismissing  the  Worcester  report  with  this  small  paragraph,  there  follows  a  long  de- 
scription of  the  Charlton  celebration  where  as  I  said  "the  usual  ample  number  of  toasts 
were  drunk  with  more  than  usual  hilarity,  and  the  most  lively  good  humor  manifested 
during  the  whole  of  the  festivities  ;  and  the  company  afforded  convincing  proof  that 
party  division  is  not  so  much  the  result  of  a  difference  of  sentiment  among  the  people 
as  of  the  efforts  of  restless  partisans  assisted  by  the  magic  of  names." 

The  forty- fourth  anniversary  of  Independence  in  1820  was  the  occasion  of  a 
parade  and  an  oration  by  Charles  H.  Warren.  At  that  time  there  were  but  four  sur- 
vivors of  the  Congress  of  1776;  John  Adams.  Thomas  Jefferson,  William  Floyd  and 
Charles  Carroll. 

A  tea  party  on  the  lawn  at  Hon.  Levi  Lincoln's  was  the  great  event  on  July  4,  1821, 
according  to  the  Spy.  The  National  Aegis,  however,  gives  an  elaborate  account  of  a 
Republican  celebration  at  which  the  oration  was  delivered  by  its  editor,  Henry  Rogers. 

In  1822,  at  the  dinner  following  a  religious  gathering  in  Old  South  Church,  the  Spy 
said  it  was  "highly  gratifying  to  witness  at  the  table  a  number  of  those  veterans  who 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  669 


were  in  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  some  of  whom  bore  the  honorable  scars  of   the 
wounds  then  received. 

The  Democratic  celebration  in  1823  was  not  generally  attended,  says  the  opposition 
paper,  Francis  R.  Stebbins  was  orator;  William  Lincoln  was  orator  in  1824,  and  the 
next  year,  1825,  the  Light  Infantry  had  an  oration  by  Richard  Hampton  Vose,  a  mem- 
ber of  the  company. 

The  first  celebration  under  the  auspices  of  the  town  authorities  was  in  1826.  After 
a  fine  procession  of  all  the  military  companies  of  Worcester,  with  an  oration  by 
Charles  Allen,  there  was  a  dinner  in  the  town  hall,  presided  over  by  Isaiah  Thomas, 
who'  had  read  the  Declaration  of  Independence  for  the  first  time  in  Worcester  fifty 
years  before.  Music  was  furnished  by  the  Worcester  Harmonic  Society,  of  which 
Emory  Perry  was  president,  and  the  fiftieth  anniversary  was  one  long  to  be  remem- 
bered.    In  1827  the  Odd  Fellows  had  charge,  Thomas  Kennicutt,  orator. 

Following  the  report  of  the  celebration  of  1829,  this  original  anecdote  appeared, 
and  I  leave  it  to  you  to  find  the  point.  "On  the  Fourth  of  July  that  inveterate  joker, 
Squire  B.,  put  on  his  best  ruffled  shirt  and  walked  down  street.  Meeting  with  a  French- 
man who  resides  in  the  neighborhood,  he  entered  into  conversation  with  him,  in  the 
course  of  which  Monsieur  stepped  up  to  him  and,  taking  hold  of  his  ruffle,  said,  'Sare, 
dat  be  one  French  fashion  vat  you  have  got.'  'Oh  no,  it  is  not,'  replied  the 
Squire,  'for  it  has  a  shirt  attached  to  it.'"  John  Davis  was  orator.  In 
1830  Peter  C.  Bacon  was  orator.  In  1831  and  1832  both  political  parties 
made  merry,  and  in  1833  the  exercises  were  in  charge  of  the  town.  This  year 
seems  to  have  been  the  first  when  any  special  notice  of  accidents  had  been  taken  by  the 
press.  A  half  column,  a  great  deal  for  that  day,  was  devoted  to  a  resume  of  the  acci- 
dents which  had  occurred  in  various  parts  of  the  country,  with  comments  from  other 
papers.  The  orators  of  the  day  were  Edward  Everett,  and  Samuel  M.  Burnside,  and 
an  oratorio  was  given,  and  also  a  grand  ball  at  Estabrook's  hotel. 

In  1833  there  were  two  celebrations,  with  orations  by  George  Fol- 
som  to  the  anti-Jackson  party  in  Old  South  Church;  by  Benjamin  F. 
Thomas  in  North  Church.  In  1834  the  Whigs  celebrated,  Franklin  Dex- 
ter, orator;  in  1836,  Benjamin  F.  Thomas,  orator;  in  1837  the  Jackson 
Democrats  celebrated,  Robert  Rantoul  Jr.,  of  Gloucester,  orator. 

In  1838,  a  temperance  festival  was  held;  Dr.  Walter  Channing  of 
Boston,  Hon.  Mr.  Hoard  of  Concord  and  Hon.  Mr.  Lawrence  spoke.  In 
1839  William  Lincoln  was  orator  at  New  Worcester.  Anti-slavery  meet- 
ing was  held.  In  18-10,  Democratic  celebration ;  oration  by  Rev.  Ores- 
tes A.  Brownson.  Another  temperance  festival  took  place  in  1841. 
Wendell  Phillips  spoke  in  the  Town  Hall  in  the  morning,  in  Brinley  Hall 
in  the  evening,  July  4,  1842.  In  1843  the  exercises  were  devoted  to  the 
temperance  movement. 

In  1844  there  were  two  celebrations ;  the  Whigs  had  a  dinner  with 
toasts;  the  Democrats  had  an  oration  by  George  Bancroft  in  the  First 
Baptist  Church,  and  a  dinner  in  Brinley  Hall.  In  1845  and  1846  the  day 
was  devoted  to  temperance.  There  were  fireworks  in  1846  and  1847; 
parade  and  dinner,  1850.  In  1851  the  Free  Soil  party  celebrated,  John 
P.  Hale,  orator ;  in  1852  the  Whigs  had  their  inning,  and  erected  a  large 
tent  on  the  Coinmon,  in  which  speeches  were  made  by  Gov.  Lincoln, 
Emory  Washburn  and  Col.  Lee  of  Templeton. 


6/0  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  city  government  in  1853  appropriated  $1,500.  The  Jackson 
Guards  appeared  for  the  first  time  in  the  military  parade.  An  oration 
by  Francis  Wayland  was  dehvered  in  Old  South  Church ;  dinner  in  the 
City  Hall.  In  1S56  the  Continentals  paraded  ;  dinner  was  served  in  a 
tent  on  the  common;  Homer  B.  Sprague  was  orator.  There  were  three 
parades.  In  185T  there  were  two  free  fights;  nothing  more.  In  1859 
Hersey's  Minutemen  celebrated ;  Lucian  Prince  acted  the  part  of  mes- 
senger very  realistically,  it  is  said.  In  1860  the  cornerstone  of  the  Free 
Public  Library  was  laid,  with  addresses  by  Mayor  Rice  and  others; 
a  military  procession  :  dinner  in  ^Mechanics  Hall ;  balloon  ascension.  In 
1862  there  was  a  burlescjue  parade. 

During  tfie  war.  the  old  time  celebrations  came  to  an  end.  In  1865 
the  day  was  devoted  to  a  reception  to  returning  soldiers,  with  military 
and  trades  processions.  In  1866  the  bell  in  Central  Church  was  broken 
by  the  ringers,  at  a  cost  of  $500  to  the  city.  There  was  a  parade  in  1868, 
including  the  militia  and  firemen.  In  18T2  and  18T3  studlefunk  parades 
were  the  only  attractions.  In  18T()  there  was  an  elaborate  centennial 
celebration,  with  studlefunk  and  military  parades.  The  oration  was 
delivered  in  [Mechanics  Hall  by  Benjamin  F.  Thomas.  In  1883  another 
studlefunk  parade  was  held. 

Gradually  the  firecracker  and  the  toy  pistol  came  into  use,  and  the 
day  was  given  up  entirely  to  noise  and  athletic  sports.  The  crackers 
grew  larger  and  noisier  year  by  year,  the  pistols  more  deadly.  The  night 
before  the  Fourth  became  a  veritable  nightmare  of  noise  and  mischief, 
fires  and  accidents.  The  newspapers  had  a  frightful  list  of  accidents  to 
report  after  the  annual  orgy  of  gunpowder  was  over. 

A  movement  for  a  safe  and  sane  celebration  began  here  in  1911.  The 
sale  of  dangerous  fireworks  was  prohibited,  and  provision  was  made  by 
the  city  for  a  more  suitable  celebration  of  the  day.  There  was  a  military 
parade ;  the  Declaration  of  Independence  was  read.  Sports  were  pro- 
vided in  the  public  parks.  Displays  of  fireworks  were  given  in  the  even- 
ing. Since  then  the  Fourth  has  been  celebrated  in  a  similar  fashion.  The 
city  has  made  a  liberal  appropriation  for  expenses,  and  the  mayor  has 
appointed  a  committee  from  the  city  council  and  citizens  to  take  charge. 
Hon.  Alfred  S.  Roe  was  chairman  and  Donald  Tulloch  secretary  of  the 
committee  in  charge  for  several  years.  At  first  the  movement  was  sup- 
ported by  voluntary  subscriptions.  The  return  to  parades  and  similar 
forms  of  celebrating  has  been  accepted  with  favor  by  old  and  young. 
In  1912  there  were  in  line  in  the  parade  about  2.000;  in  1913  about  6,500. 
The  change  in  the  character  of  the  celebration  during  the  past  six  years 
has  eliminated  fatal  accidents  and  reduced  others  to  a  minimum  that 
causes  no  anxiety. 


CHAPTER  XL 
Armory — Rifle   Range 

The  Armory. — The  present  armory  was  erected  at  Armory  Square 
in  1S88,  Cutting  &  Bishop  being  the  contractors,  Fuller  &  Delano,  the 
architects,  at  a  cost  of  $131,991.;39.  The  commissioners  in  charge  were 
Gen.  Joseph  Pickett,  John  Leighton  of  Boston,  and  Joseph  N.  Peterson, 
for  many  years  mayor  of  Salem.  Recently  the  state  took  over  the  prop- 
erty and  it  was  remodelled  at  a  cost  of  about  $35,000.  The  building  is 
spacious,  four  stories  high  with  a  good  drill-hall.  Until  the  changes 
involved  by  the  European  War  and  the  federalizing  of  the  militia,  the 
armory  was  occupied  by  Companies  A,  C  and  H,  2d  Infantry;  Co.  G, 
Ninth  Infantry;  Battery  B,  First  Field  Artillery,  all  of  the  Massachu- 
setts militia  or  national  guard. 

Rifle  Range  at  Shrewsbury. — The  old  rifle  range  at  Jamesville  was 
too  small  for  modern  firearms  and  conditions,  and  in  1912  it  gave  place 
to  a  new  range  located  near  the  western  line  of  Shrewsbury,  about  five 
miles  from  City  Hall.  The  property  comprises  151  acres  in  rectangular 
form,  a  mile  in  length  in  the  longest  diameter.  The  land  was  bought  in 
1907  and  1908  at  a  cost  of  $4,160,  and  work  began  in  1908,  the  rifle  and 
revolver  butts'being  completed  the  following  year.  The  range  is  lighted 
by  electricity.  The  range  house  was  built  in  1908  at  a  cost  of  $4,962.04. 
The  main  building  has  a  large  assembly  room.  Two  large  wings  con- 
tain lockers  and  toilet  rooms.  Another  building  provides  a  home  for  the 
custodian  of  the  buildings  and  grounds. 

The  targets  are  set  at  distances  ranging  from  200  to  100  yards.  The 
butts  are  of  stone  and  cement.  The  target  frames  are  operated  by  pul- 
leys ;  two  targets  are  set  in  each  section  and  operated  alternately.  When 
one  is  set  up,  the  other  comes  down  automatically  and  the  records  are 
made  and  a  new  paper  target  pasted  to  the  frame.  A  telephone  connects 
the  firing  line  with  the  targets.  The  revolver  butts  for  the  officers  have 
targets  at  from  25  to  100  yards  from  the  firing  line.  They  are  arranged 
like  the  rifle  targets.  The  range  is  supplied  with  the  water  from  a  spring, 
whence  the  water  is  pumped  to  a  distributing  reservoir. 

On  this  range  the  Worcester  companies  have  made  excellent  prog- 
ress in  shooting,  and  their  marksmanship  has  wonderfully  improved  in 
the  past  five  years.  The  range  was  built  for  the  Worcester  City  Guards, 
Worcester  Light  Infantry,  Wellington  Rifles,  the  Emmet  Guards  and 
Battery  B,  the  Worcester  companies.  It  cost  the  city  about  $35,000.  Its 
value  and  importance  has  been  highly  appreciated,  especially  since  this 
country  entered  into  the  European  War. 


CHAPTER  XLI 

Civil  War  Organizations — Grand  Army  of  the   Republic — Union  Vet- 
erans' Legion — Woman's  Relief  Corps 

Grand  Army  of  the  Republic. — Colonel  George  H.  Ward  Post,  No. 
10,  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  was  organized  in  Brinley  Hall  April  13, 
1867.  The  eleven  charter  members  were  Arthur  A.  Goodell,  Harlan 
Fairbanks,  Robert  H.  Chamberlain,  David  M.  Woodward,  Joseph  A. 
Titus,  J.  Stewart  Brown,  R.  Elliott  Blake,  James  M.  Drennan,  George 
Woodward,  J.  M.  Woodward  and  Charles  E.  Simmons.  For  a  short 
time  Waldo  Hall  was  the  meeting  place,  then  Brinley  Block  was  the 
home  of  the  post  until  shortly  before  it  was  demolished  in  1895  to  make 
way  for  the  State  Mutual  building.  The  new  rooms  and  hall  built  for 
the  post  in  the  building  erected  on  Walnut  Street  were  occupied  June 
17,  1895.  In  the  fire  the  post  lost  all  its  property.  Quarters  were  then 
occupied  in  the  Odd  Fellows  Hall,  Pearl  Street.  Here  the  post  remained 
until  the  present  building  on  Pearl  Street  was  occupied. 


G.  A.  R.  H.JiLL. 


The  commanders  of  the  Post  have  been:     Arthur  A.  Goodell  and 

David  M.  Woodward,  1867;  Joseph  A.  Titus,  1867-68;    R.  Elliot  Blake, 

1869 ;  Amos  M.  Parker,  1869 ;   George  F.  Thompson,  1869 ;   A.  C.  Soley 

and  James  E.  Dennis,  1870  ;  Edward  P.  Halstead,  1871 ;  Joseph  A.  Titus, 

W.-I-43. 


6/4  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

18T3;  James  F.  Meech,  18T3-4 ;  Jairus  B.  Lamb,  18T5-TT ;  James  K. 
Churchill,  18T8-;9;  Justin  B.  Willard,  1880;  William  H.  King  and 
Theodore  M.  Remington,  1881-2 ;  William  L.  Robinson,  1883-5 ;  Cephas 
N.  Walker,  1886;  Charles  H.  Benchley,  1881;  Josiah  N.  Jones  and 
Clarendon  W.  Putnam,  1888;  Amos  M.  Parker,  1889-90;  Charles  H. 
Pinkham,  1890-1;  John  B.  Lepire,  1892;  William  H.  Bartlett,  1893; 
Charles  M.  Smith,  189-1;  Harvey  T.  Buck,  1895;  Alfred  S.  Roe,  1896-7; 
Daniel  E.  Burbank,  1898;  Robert  B.  Edwards,  1899-1900;  George  H. 
Hathorn,  1901;  George  W.  Barnes,  1902;  Woodbury  C.  Smith.  1903; 
Daniel  E.  Denney,  1904-5;  Fordis  O.  Bushnell,  1906-T  ;  William  B.  Dow- 
ney, 1908-9;  James  Armstrong,  1910-11;  George  W.  Hubbard,  1912-3; 
Henry  A.  Winn,  1914-5;  William  H.  Sherman,  1916;  Genery  T.  Darl- 
ing, 191T — . 

Past  Department  Commanders  from  this  city  have  been:  Augustus 
B.  R.  Sprague,  1868;  James  K.  Churchill,  1892;  Alfred  S.  Roe  and 
Daniel  E.  Denny,  \W.  H.  Bartlett. 

For  several  years  Post  10  was  the  largest  in  the  country.  Among  its 
members  were  soldiers  who  had  fought  in  every  important  engagement 
on  land  and  sea  in  the  Civil  War.  Among  the  organizations  represented 
by  members  of  the  Post  were  39  different  regiments  of  cavalry,  2?8  of 
infantry,  twenty-four  of  heavy  artillery,  three  of  sharp-shooters,  two  of 
engineers,  one  signal  corps  and  twenty-nine  light  batteries. 

Trustees  for  the  Post :  James  Armstrong,  chairman ;  Charles  F. 
Read,  secretary;  Charles  E.  Abbey,  treasurer;  Charles  H.  Pinkham, 
Orlando  W.  Norcross,  George  W.  Hubbard. 

The  present  quarters  of  George  H.  Ward,  Post,  No.  10,  G.  A.  R.,  on 
Pearl  street,  were  bought  in  1912  of  W.  D.  Hobbs  at  a  great  bargain, 
for  $21,000.  The  granite  building  was  formerly  the  Bull  mansion,  said 
to  have  cost  $125,000,  and  admirably  adapted  for  the  purposes  of  the  post. 
William  Hart  and  Commander  James  Armstrong  made  the  contract,  Mr. 
Hobbs  contributing  by  the  price  given  at  least  $10,000.  Additions 
and  alterations  cost  $16,000  more.  The  quarters  were  formally  ded- 
icated Jan.  30,  1913.  Funds  were  immediately  raised,  reducing  the  debt 
on  the  home  to  about  $16,000.  The  home  has  a  hall,  smoking  rooms, 
apartments,  kitchen,  dining  room  and  every  convenience  of  a  club  house. 
The  feature  of  Memorial  Hall  is  the  record  on  bronze  tablets  of  every 
member  of  the  Post,  over  3,300.  It  is  used  by  the  Post,  United  Span- 
ish War  Veterans,  Sons  of  Veterans  and  Daughters  of  \'eterans, 
the  Worcester  Continentals,  the  Woman's  Relief  Corps,  and  kindred 
organizations  for  social  purposes  and  entertainments.  It  is  said  to  be 
the  most  attractive  Post  building  in  the  country.  Steps  were  taken 
in  December,  191T,  to  deed  the  property  to  the  city. 

The  clearing  of  the  debt  in  April,  1916,  was  a  fine  example  of  the 
liberality  and  patriotism  of  a  number  of  the  leading  citizens  of  Worces- 
ter.    George   F.  Booth,  editor  of  the  Gazette,  was  the  prime  mover  in 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  675 

securing  the  funds  needed.  Daniel  E.  Denney,  former  commander,  had 
secured  from  David  H.  Fanning  a  pledge  of  $1,000,  provided  the  balance 
were  raised  in  a  year.  He  secured  the  services  of  Maurice  F.  Reidy  as 
secretary;  Edwin  F.  Seaward,  treasurer;  Louis  H.  Buckley  and  Rev. 
Vincent  E.  Tomlinson.  The  Boys'  Club,  the  Y.  W.  C.  A.  and 
Girls'  Club  raised  generous  sums.  But  at  this  point  George  F. 
Fuller  offered  the  generous  sum  of  $5,000  in  memory  of  his  father,  who 
served  in  the  Civil  War,  was  a  prisoner  in  Libby,  and  re-enlisted  when 
he  got  out.  At  a  dinner  of  influential  and  well-to-do  citizens  given  by 
Mr.  Booth,  the  sum  of  $10,000  more  was  raised  in  twenty  minutes.  The 
Post  was  overwhelmed  with  gratitude,  as  the  debt  had  seemed  to  them  a 
burden  that  could  not  be  removed  during  their  lives.  At  a  banquet 
April  13,  1916,  the  mortgage  was  burned.  The  late  Hon.  Alfred  S.  Roe 
was  toastmaster.  Hon.  James  Logan,  Hon.  Charles  G.  Washburn, 
Mayor  George  M.  Wright;  Hon.  Daniel  E.  Denny,  Charles  M.  Thayer 
and  Harry  G.  Stoddard,  all  generous  contributors  to  the  fund,  were 
speakers.  The  spirit  of  rejoicing  ran  high  ;  wit  and  patriotism  abounded, 
Charles  F.  Reade  read  a  brief  history  of  the  Post.  He  said  :  "The  Post 
has  played  'The  Drummer  Boy'  2T  times,  thus  earning  for  the  charity 
fund  about  $45,000.  The  Post  has  distributed  about  $90,000  in  relief  of 
the  needy  comrades  and  their  families,  certainly  a  record  of  credit.  The 
Post  has  had  2,297  members.  Among  these  were  four  generals,  Devens, 
Sprague,  Pickett  and  Doubleday.  The  last  report  to  the  department 
headquarters  gave  415  as  the  membership  of  the  Post." 

Union  Veteran  Legion. — Encampment  No.  83,  Union  Veteran  Le- 
gion, was  established  in  1890  in  this  city.  The  qualification  for  mem- 
bership was  enlistment  as  soldier,  sailor  or  marine,  prior  to  July  1,  1863, 
for  three  years.  The  objects  were  similar  to  those  of  the  G.  A.  R.  The 
encampment  also  had  a  woman's  auxiliary.  At  one  time  the  local  organ- 
ization numbered  over  a  hundred.  Among  the  commanders  were :  Henry 
M.  Green,  Thomas  A.  Halpine,  Joseph  B.  Knox,  Charles  E.  Simmons, 
Thomas  A.  Halpin,  1896;  Jerome  M.  Stone,  1897;  Carl  C.  T.  Thomas, 
1898;  Owen  McCann,  1899;  Frederick  D.  Bliss,  1900-01;  Jo.  B.  Knox, 
1902;  W.  F.  Miller,  1903;  J.  B.  Knox,  1904;  Dwight  R.  Scott,  1905-08. 
The  Encampment  disbanded  in  1908. 

Union  Veterans'  Union. — General  William  S.  Lincoln  Command, 
No.  18,  Department  of  Massachusetts,  Union  Veterans'  Union,  was 
organized  in  the  Grand  Army  Hall,  June  33,  1893.  This  organization, 
fouonded  in  1886,  is  composed  of  Union  soldiers,  sailors  or  marines  who 
served  at  least  six  months  in  the  Civil  War,  unless  sooner  discharged  on 
account  of  wounds  received  in  action,  part  of  which  service  was  at  the 
front.  The  local  officers  of  the  Department  of  Massachusetts  in  that 
year  (1895)  were:  Commander,  Major  Gen.  Charles  W.  Wood;  Ad- 
jutant General,  Col.  J.  Brainerd  Hall;  Quartermaster  General,  Col.  Ed- 
win D.  McFarland ;    headquarters,  Burnside  Building. 


676  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  National  Command  had  at  one  time  20  departments.  The  entire 
membership  was  at  one  time  about  35,000,  but  is  now  very  small.  The 
button  is  in  colors. 

The  National  Headquarters  was  in  Worcester,  1896.  Charles  W. 
Wood,  the  commanding  officer.  In  1905  the  headquarters  again  came  to 
Massachusetts.  Daniel  W.  Gould  of  Chelsea,  a  one  armed  veteran 
was  elected  general  commanding. 

At  one  time  this  command  numbered  nearly  200.  At  this  period  not 
more  than  25  survive. 

Its  colors  were  presented  it  in  old  G.  A.  Hall  by  the  family  of  Gen. 
Lincoln.  The  colors  were  recently  given  to  its  first  colonel  who  now 
keeps  them.  The  flag  will  for  a  time  remain  an  heirloom  and  ultimately 
become  the  property  of  some  historical  or  patriotic  organization. 

At  this  meeting  a  banquet  was  served.  The  hall  and  tables  were 
crowded  by  the  mayor  and  many  of  the  leading  citizens,  (honorary 
members). 

The  first  officers  of  the  Ladies  of  the  U.  V.  U.  (in  1895)  were  composed 
of  wives  and  daughters  of  members :  President,  Mrs.  Sarah  A.  Towle ; 
Vice-Pres.,  Mrs.  Kate  E.  Wilder;  Treas.,  Mrs.  Lizzie  Wood;  Chaplain, 
Mrs.  Amelia  A.  Trow;  Sec,  Mrs-.  Abby  A.  Hall.  For  many  years  this 
auxiliary  was  active  in  aiding  the  command. 

Sons  of  Veterans. — Willie  Grout  Camp,  No.  25,  Div.  of  Mass.,  S.  of 
v.,  was  organized  in  Horticulture  Hall  Feb.  26th,  1894,  by  Division  Com- 
mander A.  C.  Blaisdell.  The  first  officers  were  Capt.  Chas.  A.  Bur- 
banks;  1st  Lieut.  Edw.  A.  Gleason;  2nd  Lieut.,  Frank  H.  Leach,  and 
Camp  Council,  C.  E.  Farrington,  R.  R.  Simonds  and  J.  F.  Armstrong. 

The  first  meeting  after  organization  was  in  G.  A.  R.  Hall,  or  what 
was  known  as  Old  Brinley  Hall,  Mar.  2,  1894.  The  Camp  met  here  until 
April  1st,  1895,  when  it  had  to  vacate  as  the  building  was  torn  down  to 
give  place  to  what  is  now  known  as  the  State  Mutual  Building.  From 
April  1st,  1895,  to  July  8th,  1895,  the  Camp  met  in  U.  V.  L.  Hall  at  which 
time  it  secured  quarters  in  the  Day  Building  where  it  stayed  until  driven 
out  by  fire  Feb.  22,  1897.  At  this  time  nearly  everything  was  lost. 
The  Camp  met  in  various  places  until  April  14,  1897,  when  it  again  met 
in  U.  V.  L.  Hall  until  Sept.  27th,  1897,  when  it  went  into  G.  A.  R.  Hall, 
35  Pearl  street,  remaining  there  until  Feb.  10th,  1913,  when  it  went  into 
the  present  quarters  in  the  G.  A.  R.  Building,  55  Pearl  street. 

The  Wellington  Rifles  or  H  Co.,  2nd  Regt.,  was  started  from  Willie 
Grout  Camp  May  2nd,  1895.  About  30  or  35  of  our  members  going  into 
it,  and  our  first  captain  was  the  first  captain  of  the  Wellington  Rifles, 
Capt.  Chas.  E.  Burbank.  Corp,  Marvin  Ames  was  in  this  company  and 
went  to  the  Spanish  American  War  in  1898,  where  he  died  in  Cuba  of  the 
yellow  fever  in  August,  1898.  His  body  was  brought  to  Worcester  and 
given  a  military  burial  in  charge  of  the  Camp  and  Wellington  Rifles,  a 
squad  being  sent  with  the  body  to  New  York,  where  he  was  buried. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  677 


The  Camp  has  been  fortunate  in  losing  only  five  members  by  death, 
the  last  the  late  Thomas  H.  Burton  was  a  charter  member  and  never 
missed  more  than  five  or  six  meetings  in  all  the  33  years  he  belonged  to 
the  Camp. 

The  Worcester  County  Association,  Sons  of  Veterans,  was  organized 
in  1917  with  A.  J.  Whitney  of  this  city,  president;  A.  Chester  Dixie  of 
this  city,  secretary,  and  other  officers  from  various  towns  in  the  county. 

Gen.  A.  A.  Goodell  Camp,  No.  2,  S.  of  V.,  was  organized  May  8, 
1883,  with  George  W.  Ward  as  its  first  commander.  The  Camp  has 
since  its  organization  assisted  Post  10,  G.  A.  R.,  in  its  Memorial  Day 
work,  and  so  long  as  wreaths  were  made,  supplied  a  good  share  of 
evergreen. 

The  Camp  quarters  were  burned  out  in  1895,  but  the  Sons  went  to 
work  and  soon  had  a  better  headquarters  than  ever  before  and  all  debts 
paid.  The  Camp  has  an  interesting  collection  of  relics,  including  the 
uniform  of  the  late  Sergeant  Thomas  Plunket,  and  a  rebel  flag.  The 
Camp  has  at  present  a  membership  of  thirty  loyal  and  hard  workers 
among  which  one  is  a  charter  member.  The  personnel  of  the  Camp  is  of 
the  best,  and  although  few  socials  are  managed  by  them,  they  are  ever 
ready  for  any  call  of  the  G.  A.  R.  or  Relief  Corps  for  work. 

The  Camp  has  for  the  past  six  years  had  the  care  of  making  the  bou- 
quets and  getting  both  flowers  and  wreaths  to  the  respective  cemeteries, 
and  has  a  committee  for  the  work  of  marking  the  graves  of  Veterans  in 
the  three  of  the  city's  cemeteries — Hope,  St.  John's,  and  Notre  Dame, 
and  also  sends  a  squad  to  Rural  to  assist  there. 

Of  late  years,  the  Camp  has  not  participated  in  the  parade  on  Me- 
morial Day,  on  account  of  these  duties,  which  allow  several  ablebodied 
veterans  to  parade,  who  would  otherwise  be  so  employed  that  they  could 
not  appear  with  the  Post  at  the  ceremonies  at  the  Soldiers'  Monument. 

The  Commanders  of  Camp  No.  3  since  organization  have  been : 
George  W.  Ward,  son  of  the  late  Gen.  George  H.  Ward;  Elmore  F. 
Johnson,  D.  A.  Gleason,  G.  H.  Cleaveland,  C.  S.  Knight,  W.  H.  Carrico, 
Robert  L.  Ward,  another  son  of  Gen.  George  H.  Ward;  J.  A.  Get- 
tings,  H.  N.  Leach,  G.  H.  Hill,  R.  R.  Simmonds,  J.  D.  Lepire,  J.  J.  Tor- 
pey,  Chas.  F.  Lamberton,  J.  J.  O'Grady,  Chas.  H.  Edgerton,Geo.  E.  Love- 
joy,  William  E.  Rice,  E.  A.  Willard,  Arthur  M.  Warren,  C.  S.  Mero, 
Arthur  B.  White,  Charles  E.  Kinney,  John  M.  Warner,  Dr.  J.  Francis 
Potter,  Henry  W.  Lamberton,  and  Ralph  M.  Warren  is  now  the  present 
commander  of  the  Camp. 

The  Sons  of  Veterans'  Auxiliary,  No.  18,  of  Gen.  A.  A.  Goodell 
Camp,  No.  3,  S.  of  V.,  was  organized  in  Worcester,  Mass.,  May  13th, 
1893,  in  S.  of  V.  Hall,  413  Main  street.  The  Order  was  then  known 
as  the  Ladies'  Aid  Society,  No.  18,  the  name  being  changed  to  S.  of  S. 
Auxiliary  at  the  National  Encampment  held  in  Boston,  1901.  This  Aux- 
iliary was  organized  by  the  late  Mrs.  Sarah  A.  Davis  who  was  a  Past 


678  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Division  president,  and  the  first  president  of  the  Division.  She  being  a 
member  of  the  Brookfield  Society  at  the  time  of  our  organization,  became 
a  member  of  this  Auxiliary  Nov.  3d,  1893.  At  the  time  of  its 
organization  its  charter  showed  a  membership  of  twenty-five  members. 
Today  there  are  only  four  of  the  charter  members'  names  in  the  roll 
book.  They  are  Miss  Nellie  A.  Sibley  who  is  a  Past  Division 
president  as  well  as  a  Past  Auxiliary  president;  Mrs.  Sara  M. 
Sibley,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  M.  Chase  and  Mrs.  Edna  A.  Ware  a  Past 
Auxiliary  president.  There  have  been  sixteen  presidents  of  the  Aux- 
iliary. The  first  president  was  Mrs.  Mary  E.  Parker  who  served  one 
year  and  eight  months,  then  followed  by  Mrs.  Helen  F.  Jewell  who 
served  one  year;  Miss  Nellie  A.  Sibley  who  served  six  diflferent  years; 
Mrs.  Edna  A.  Ware,  one  year;  Mrs.  Lillie  E.  Stone,  one  year;  Mrs. 
Sarah  A.  Davis  two  years;  Mrs.  Mina  L.  Bassett,  two  years;  Mrs.  Alice 
E.  Putnam,  one  year;  Mrs.  Anna  J.  Willard,  two  years;  Mrs.  Olivette 
Fenner,  eight  months ;  Mrs.  Cora  J.  Mofifatt,  four  months ;  Mrs.  Lucy 
L.  Francis,  ten  months;  Miss  Sadie  M.  Hays,  one  year,  two  months; 
Mrs.  M.  Elizabeth  Kinney,  two  years;  Mrs.  Mary  Hale,  one  year.  At 
the  present  time  Mrs.  Addie  M.  Moynihan  is  the  president.  At  the 
present  time  seven  past  presidents  still  remain  in  the  Order.  They  are 
Sisters  Nellie  A.  Sibley,  Edna  A.  Ware,  Alice  E.  Putnam,  Cora  J.  Mof- 
fatt,  Sadie  M.  Hays,  M.  Elizabeth  Kinney  and  Mary  Hale. 

Some  of  these  sisters  have  received  high  honors  both  in  the  National 
body  and  also  in  the  Division.  Mrs.  Sarah  A.  Davis  and  Miss  Nellie  A. 
Sibley  have  both  been  members  of  the  National  Council.  Mrs.  Sarah 
A.  Davis  has  held  the  office  of  Div.  President,  has  been  a  member  of 
the  Div.  Council.  Mrs.  Nellie  A.  Sibley  has  held  the  office  of  Division 
President,  Div.  Vice-President,  Div.  Inspector,  and  a  member  of  the 
Division  Council  three  diflferent  years,  and  has  served  on  the  Soldiers' 
Home  dormitory  committee  at  Chelsea  for  ten  years.  Other  members 
of  Auxiliary  No.  18  who  have  received  honors  in  the  Division  are  Mrs. 
Eva  M.  Sibley,  Div.  Secretary,  and  Mrs.  Alice  E.  Putnam,  Div.  Treas- 
urer. These  sisters  were  Miss  Nellie  A.  Sibley's  secretary  and  treasurer 
while  she  was  Division  President. 

The  eligibility  of  the  Order  is  as  follows:  First,  the  mothers, 
wives  and  sisters  of  deceased  or  honorably  discharged  soldiers,  sailors 
or  marines,  w^ho  served  in  the  Union  Army  or  Navy  during  the  Civil 
War  of  1861-1865;  second,  female  lineal  descendants,  not  less  than  six- 
teen years  of  age  of  soldiers,  sailors  or  marines  ;  third,  wives  of  Sons  of 
Veterans  in  good  standing;  fourth,  nieces  of  veterans;  fifth,  mothers  of 
soldiers'  sons. 

The  objects  of  the  Order  are  to  assist  the  Sons  of  Veterans  in 
their  principles  and  objects,  financially  and  otherwise.  To  aid  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic  in  caring  for  their  helpless  and 
disabled   veterans,   to   extend   aid    and   i)rotection   to   their   widows   and 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  679 

orphans ;  to  perpetuate  the  memory  and  history  of  the  heroic  dead  and 
the  proper  observance  of  Memorial  Day.  To  inculcate  true  patriotism 
and  love  of  country,  not  only  among  the  membership,  but  all  the  people 
of  our  land  and  to  spread  and  sustain  the  doctrine  of  equal  rights,  uni- 
versal liberty  and  justice  to  all. 

Woman's  Relief  Corps,  No.  11. — This  organization  is  an  auxiliary 
to  the  G.  A.  R.  It  was  organized  in  1883  and  since  then  has  been  asso- 
ciated in  the  social  and  relief  work  of  the  G.  A.  R.  in  the  observance  of 
Memorial  Day  and  other  occasions.  The  membership  comprises  women 
of  the  families  of  members  of  the  Post.  The  officers  in  191T  were  :  Mrs. 
Mabel  M.  Hutchins,  pres. ;  Mrs.  Flora  A.  Sisson  and  Mrs.  Mary  L. 
Newton,  vice-prests. ;  Julia  F.  Bemis,  treas. ;  Mrs.  S.  Elmira  Dickinson, 
sec. ;  Mrs.  J.  Victoria  Simmons,  chaplain.  Meetings  are  held  in  the 
G.  A.  R.  building. 

Ladies  of  the  G.  A.  R. — General  Charles  Devens  Circle,  No.  30; 
organized  for  purposes  similar  to  the  Relief  Corps  but  differing  in  con- 
ditions of  membership.  Mrs.  Ethelyn  Jaquith  was  president  in  1917. 
The  circle  meets  in  Red  Men's  Hall. 

Daughters  of  Veterans. — Clara  Barton  Tent,  No.  3,  was  organized 
on  Oct.  20,  1890,  with  TO  members  and  has  been  active  in  aiding  the 
Grand  Army  and  kindred  organizations.  The  meetings  are  held  in  G. 
A.  R.  Hall.  In  1917  Nellie  E.  Worth  was  president.  Mrs.  Ellen  M. 
Walker,  afterward  national  president  of  the  Order,  was  first  president, 
succeeded  by  Mrs.  Minnie  E.  Babbett,  Mrs.  R.  Evelyn  Monroe,  Miss 
Celia  Lepire.     It  has  been  the  largest  tent  in  the  state. 

Union  Veterans'  Union. — Gen.  Wm.  S.  Lincoln  Command,  No  18. — 
Col.  Waldo  H.  Vinton;  Lieut.  Col.,  Jotham  E.  Bigelow;  Quartermaster, 
Noel  E.  Converse.  Meets  second  Monday  of  each  month  at  homes  of 
members. 

United  Spanish  War  Veterans. — Col.  E.  R.  Shumway  Camp,  No.  28. 
— Org.  1901.  Com.,  John  C.  Ware;  Senior  V.  Com.,  Michael  F.  Garrett; 
Junior  V.  Com.,  John  E.  Fitzpatrick ;  Adjt.,  William  L.  Lowe  ;  Quar- 
termaster, Benjamin  Cooper.  Meets  third  Wednesday  of  each  month  at 
55  Pearl  street. 


CHAPTER  XLII 

Patriotic  Societies — Col,  Timothy  Bigelow  Chapter,  D.  A.  R. — Worcester 

Chapter,  S.  A.  R. — Bancroft  Chapter,  D.  R. — Sons  of  the 

Revolution 

Sons  of  the  American  Revolution. — The  beginning  of  this  organiza- 
tion is  dated  Oct.  23,  1875,  though  the  national  body  was  not  organized 
until  April  30,  1889.  The  Massachusetts  body  was  instituted  April  19, 
1889.  The  Worcester  Chapter  was  organized  April  2,  1897,  and  holds  its 
annual  meeting  each  year  on  May  23,  the  anniversary  of  the  town  meet- 
ing at  which  in  1776  the  voters  pledged  their  lives  and  property  to 
secure  Independence.     Alfred  Pavers  was  president,  1917. 

The  Sons  of  the  Revolution  dates  from  Febuary  26,  1876.  The 
National  organization  was  effected  at  Washington,  April  19,  1890,  and 
the  Massachusetts  Society,  Oct.  1,  1891.  For  many  years,  however, 
Eben  Francis  Thompson  of  this  city  has  been  on  the  board  of  managers 
of  the  state  society. 

Bancroft  Chapter,  Daughters  of  the  Revolution. — The  General 
Society,  Daughters  of  the  Revolution,  organized  Aug.  2Q,  1891,  and  Ban- 
croft Chapter  June  24,  1896,  through  the  instrumentality  of  Mrs.  C.  Van 
D.  Chenoweth,  who  was  made  its  regent.  The  Chapter  was  reorganized 
May  3,  1898,  and  named  for  George  Bancroft  the  historian.  The  follow- 
ing have  been  regents:  Miss  Catherine  M.  Bent,  1898-09-1900-01-02; 
Miss  Edith  J.  Norcross,  1903-04-05 ;  Mrs.  Henry  J.  Gross,  1906 ;  Mrs.  F. 
H.  Bigelow,  1907;  Miss  Angelyn  Jefferds,  1908;  Miss  Mary  M.  Goes, 
1909-10-11;  Mrs.  Howard  E.  Sumner,  1912-13-14-15-16-17;  Mrs.  F.  H. 
Bigelow,  1918. 

In  1917  Mrs.  Ernest  P.  Bennett  was  vice-regent;  Mrs.  B.  Austin 
Coates,  treasurer;  Catherine  M.  Bent,  historian.  Meetings  have  been 
at  the  homes  of  members.  The  Chapter  has  shared  in  the  work  of  the 
General  and  State  Society,  such  as  contributing  to  the  Memorial  Shaft  at 
Valley  Forge,  the  Washington  Elm  Gateway,  the  Paul  Revere  House 
and  others.  Also  in  the  placing  of  numerous  tablets,  as  the  one  in  the 
Boston  Public  Library  to  the  "writers  of  patriotic  verse  and  song."  The 
Chapter  has  assisted  the  Society  of  the  Cincinnati  in  some  of  its  research. 
It  has  taken  part  in  Worcester  charity  and  patriotic  work  and  has  shared 
in  the  celebration  of  certain  days  and  occasions. 

At  the  time  of  the  Spanish  War  it  did  especially  assigned  work  and 
now  has  contributed  to  the  General  Society's  fund  for  present  war  work. 

Col.  Timothy  Bigelow  Chapter. — The  first  regent  was  Mrs.  C.  Van 
D.  Chenowith  who  resigned  after  three  years  to  become  the  founder  of 
Col.  Henshaw  Chapter  of  Leicester. 


682  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Mrs.  Daniel  Kent  was  regent  from  May,  1901,  to  May,  1903,  and  at 
the  expiration  of  her  term  of  office  she  was  made  Honorary  Regent  for 
life.  From  May,  1903,  to  May,  1905,  Mrs.  William  T.  Forbes  was 
regent.  From  May,  1905,  to  May,  1906,  Mrs.  Theodore  C.  Bates ;  :\Irs. 
John  H.  Orr,  May,  1906-May,  1908;  Mrs.  M.  P.  Higgins,  May,  1908- 
May,  1910;  Miss  Isabel  W.  Gordon,  May,  1910-May,  1912;  Mrs.  Frank 
B.  Hoe,  May,  1912-May,  1914;  Mrs.  Albert  E.  Fan,  1914-15;  Mrs.  An- 
drew P.  Haworth,  1915-17. 

The  Chapter  has  had  five  real  daughters :  Mrs.  Daniel  R.  Cady,  Mrs. 
James  M.  Randall,  Mrs.  Nathaniel  Johnson  of  Milford,  Mrs.  Israel  Taft 
of  Spencer,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Brown  Morse  of  Westborough,  and  an  hon- 
orary real  daughter.  Mrs.  Joanna  White  Beamm  Fletcher,  of  the  Old 
South  Chapter. 

The  Colonel  Timothy  Bigelow  Chapter  was  founded  by  Mrs.  Caro- 
line Van  Dusen  Chenoweth  of  Leicester,  and  was  formally  organized 
June  7,  1899,  with  a  membership  of  fourteen.  The  Chapter  took  the 
name  of  "Colonel  Timothy  Bigelow,"  a  valiant  patriot  and  soldier,  who 
drilled  the  minutemen  on  Worcester  Common  and  led  them  to  Cam- 
bridge when  the  call  came  April  19,  1775. 

Beside  placing  a  marker  on  the  site  of  the  Colonel  Timothy  Bigelow 
house,  the  Chapter  has  marked  the  John  Hancock  house,  corner  of  Grove 
and  Lexington  streets,  the  Isaiah  Thomas  house  on  Court  Hill,  has 
placed  a  tablet  on  the  site  of  the  first  school  house  in  Worcester,  where 
John  Adams,  the  second  President  of  the  United  States,  once  taught, 
and  placed  a  tablet  marking  the  graves  of  the  seven  Revolutionary  sol- 
diers buried  on  the  Common.  The  Chapter  has  published  the  results 
of  the  historical  research  for  this  first  school  house  location  and  held 
public  exercises  in  the  Unitarian  church  on  Court  Hill.  May  23,  1903, 
dedicating  the  tablet ;  has  published  a  complete  record  of  Revolutionary 
soldiers  from  Worcester  and  held  public  exercises  in  the  City  Hall.  May 
30,  1901,  in  memory  of  them. 

It  has  published  an  essay  on  "Old  Age  and  Immortality."  written 
and  read  by  Senator  Hoar  before  the  Worcester  Fire  Society.  Each  Me- 
morial Day  the  Timothy  Bigelow  monument  on  the  Common  and  all  the 
Revolutionary  soldiers'  graves  are  decorated  by  members.  The  Chapter 
has  been  accumulating  a  fund  for  the  purpose  of  maintaining  perpetual 
care  for  all  uncared  for  soldiers'  graves ;  for  several  years  has  paid  $50 
annually  to  the  Worcester  Boys'  Club  for  the  support  of  a  mechanical 
drawing  class,  and  has  contributed  nearly  $1,000  toward  Memorial  Con- 
tinental Hall  in  Washington. 

This  Chapter,  like  many  other  i)rosperous  and  progressive  societies, 
took  advantage  of  an  unusual  opportunity  to  purchase  the  Dr.  William 
Paine  house,  at  140  Lincoln  street,  called  in  history  "The  Oaks." 

This  house  was  begun  in  1774  by  Hon.  Timothy  Paine,  one  of  the 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  683 


foremost  citizens  of  Worcester,  but  owing  to  troublesome  times,  building 
operations  were  suspended  until  1777-78. 

The  house  was  remodeled,  furnished  in  colonial  style,  and  has  since 
been  a  most  attractive  social  center.  The  Chapter  has  held  its  meet- 
ings and  social  gatherings  here.  Similar  organizations  have  found  the 
Oaks  a  most  convenient  and  suitable  place  for  teas,  receptions,  meetings 
and  all  kind  of  gatherings.  The  home  of  the  Chapter  has  been  described 
as  one  of  the  model  Chapter  houses  of  the  country  in  the  magazine  of  the 
D.  A.  R. 

The  Chapter  has  an  auxiliary  called  the  Junior  Daughters. 

Other  Patriotic  Bodies. — The  Daughters  of  1812;  the  Descendants 
of  Colonial  Governors,  the  Society  of  Colonial  Dames,  the  Society  of 
Colonial  Wars,  the  Society  for  the  Preservation  of  New  England  An- 
tiquities, the  New  England  Historic  Genealogical  Society,  the  Society 
of  Mayflower  Descendants  and  the  Military  Order  of  the  Loyal  Legion 
have  no  legal  organizations,  but  all  of  them  have  a  considerable  member- 
ship in  this  city. 

Red  Cross  Work  in  Worcester.— Worcester  County  Sub-Division 
of  the  American  National  Red  Cross  was  organized  October  31,  1905, 
with  the  following  officers:  Chairman,  Mr.  Charles  G.  Washburn; 
Treasurer,  Dr.  Homer  Gage ;  Secretary,  Mrs.  Lincoln  N.  Kinnicutt,  who 
with  Miss  Isabel  M.  Crompton  and  Stephen  Salisbury  were  the 
organizers. 

In  February,  190G,  an  appeal  came  for  the  relief  of  the  starving  peo- 
ple in  northern  Japan,  and  $251.51  was  collected.  In  April,  1906,  came 
the  call  to  aid  the  sufferers  from  the  San  Francisco  earthquake.  A  room 
at  12  Foster  street  was  kept  open  for  a  week  to  receive  contributions 
of  clothing,  with  the  result  that  26  large  cases  w^ere  sent  to  Dr.  E.  T. 
Devine.  Red  Cross,  San  Francisco.  A  call  from  the  famine  stricken 
district  of  China  and  for  Italian  relief  did  not  pass  unheeded,  each  hav- 
ing received  a  small  contribution. 

In  December,  1906,  the  following  representative  men  and  women 
from  the  different  parts  of  the  county  were  added  to  the  executive  com- 
mittee:  Mrs.  George  Crocker  of  Fitchburg;  Dr.  W.  P.  Bowers  of  Clin- 
ton; Mr.  Josiah  Lasell  of  Whitinsville ;  Mr.  Lewis  Prouty  of  Spencer; 
Dr.  George  A.  Brown  of  Barre ;   and  Dr.  F.  W.  George  of  Athol. 

At  the  annual  meeting  in  1907,  Mr.  John  W.  Pearl  was  elected  as 
secretary  of  the  Worcester  County  Branch,  as  this  organization  was 
then  called. 

In  1916  Red  Cross  classes  in  First  Aid  and  Home  Care  of  the  Sick 
were  conducted  under  the  direction  of  the  Young  Woman's  Christian 
Association.  During  that  year  $250.68  was  contributed  for  European 
War  Relief  and  the  sum  of  $34.14  for  military  relief  to  El  Paso,  Texas. 

In  1917  it  was  decided  that  the  organization  previously  known  as  the 
Worcester  Countv  Branch  should  be  known  as  the  Worcester  Chapter, 


684  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

■with  the  city  of  Worcester  and  such  towns  in  the  county  not  included  in 
Other  chapters,  to  be  under  its  jurisdiction,  namely:  Auburn,  Barre, 
So.  Barre,  Barre  Plains,  White  Valley,  Brookfield,  East  Brooktield, 
North  Brookfield,  West  Brookfield,  Charlton,  Dodge,  Douglas,  East 
Douglas,  Grafton,  North  Grafton,  Farnumsville,  Fisherville,  Saunders- 
ville,  Hardwick,  Gilbertville,  Wheelwright,  Holden,  Jefferson, Hubbards- 
ton,  Leicester,  Rochdale,  Cherry  Valley,  Milford,  Braggsville,  Hopedale, 
Mendon,  Millbury,  New  Braintree,  Northbridge,  Oakdale,  Oakam,  Cold- 
brook,  Coldbrook  Springs,  Oxford,  North  Oxford,  Paxton,  Princeton, 
East  Princeton,  Rutland,  West  Rutland,  Sutton,  West  Sutton,  Man- 
chaug,  Wilkinsonville,  Sturbridge,  Spencer,  Shrewsbury,  Southbridge, 
Fiskdale,  Sandersdale,  Uxbridge,  North  Uxbridge,  Upton,  West  Upton, 
Warren,  West  Warren,  Webster,  Dudley,  Perryville,  Whitinsville,  Lin- 
wood,  Rockdale,  West  Boylston. 

The  following  officers  were  elected :  Chairman,  Charles  G.  Wash- 
burn;  Vice-chairman,  Frank  H.  Marshall;  Treasurer,  Alfred  R.  Brig- 
ham;  Secretary,  Mrs.  Lizzie  L.  Bullock;  Asst.  Secretary,  Miss  Alice 
Gordon  Merrill ;  and  the  following  as  an  executive  committee :  Mrs. 
Alfred  L.  Aiken,  Mrs.  Lizzie  L.  Bullock,  Mr.  George  F.  Booth,  Mr.  Louis 
H.  Buckley,  Mrs.  Homer  Gage,  ]\Irs.  William  Harrington,  Mrs.  C.  F. 
Marble,  Mr.  Frank  H.  Marshall,  Mr.  Maurice  F.  Reidy. 

On  June  4,  1917,  a  membership  campaign  was  begun,  lasting  through 
the  week,  which  increased  the  membership  from  2,662  to  70,895.  On 
Sunday,  June  17,  a  mass  meeting  was  held  in  Mechanics  Hall  to  open  the 
country  wade  campaign  to  raise  $100,000,000,  Judge  PhiUp  J.  O'Connell 
presiding.  The  speakers  were:  Sir  Herbert  B.  Ames  of  Canada;  Hon. 
Chas.  G.  Washburn,  Hon.  James  Logan,  Geo.  A.  Gaskill,  general  chair- 
man. The  campaign  closed  Monday,  June  22.  There  was  raised  $517,- 
677.07  in  the  city  of  Worcester  and  $137,876.37  in  the  towns,  making 
the  total  contribution  from  the  Worcester  Chapter  $655,553.44. 

On  Sunday,  December  16,  1917,  a  mass  meeting  was  held  in  Mechanics 
Hall  to  inaugurate  a  Christmas  Membership  Campaign.  The  speak- 
ers were :  Dr.  Eugene  A.  Crockett,  Hon.  Chas.  G.  Washburn,  chair- 
man of  Worcester  Chapter,  George  A.  Gaskill,  chairman  of  Red  Cross 
administration  committee,  and  David  W.  Armstrong,  chairman  of  cam- 
paign committee.  Chief  Justice  Arthur  P.  Rugg  presided.  Prayer  was 
offered  by  Rev.  Dr.  Lewis  Morris,  rector  of  All  Saints'  Church.  38,544 
additional  members  were  obtained,  increasing  the  total  membership  of 
the  Chapter  to  117,921,  March  1,  1918.  In  July,  1917,  work  rooms  were 
started  in  the  Salisbury  Mansion,  generously  offered  for  the  purpose  by 
the  Worcester  Art  Museum. 

LTnder  date  of  September  5,  1917,  an  Administration  Committee  was 
appointed,  consisting  of  Mr.  George  A.  Gaskill,  chairman,  Mr.  Geo.  F, 
Booth,  Mr.  Louis  H.  Buckley,  Mr.  Harlan  T.  Pierpont,  Mr.  Maurice  F. 
Reidy.     Auxiliaries  were  started  in  the  different  towns,  and  in  different 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  685 

sections  of  the  city,  amounting-  March  1  to  9T  Branches  and  Auxiliaries. 

Since  the  war  work  began,  $121,983.50  have  been  expended  in  supplies. 
The  different  articles  made  have  been :  Sweaters,  9459 ;  socks,  pairs,  7699 ; 
helmets,  4645 ;  wristlets,  7243  ;  mufflers,  3965  ;  afghans,  237;  trench  and 
sleeping  caps,  5502  ;  face  cloths  and  other  knitted  articles,  1944 ;  mittens, 
60;  gauze  dressings,  298,516;  pads,  3457;  bandages,  82,501;  special 
dressings,  33,109;  surgical  shirts,  6352;  pajamas,  4092;  convalesecent 
robes,  1998;  shoulder  wraps,  1026;  flannel  socks,  1087;  army  slings, 
776;  comfort  pillows,  5547;  scrub  cloths,  1106;  wash  cloths,  744;  hand- 
kerchiefs, 4134;  bath  towels,  216;  hospital  supplies,  3550;  napkins, 
648;   trench  candles,  2232. 

The  department  of  Civilian  Relief  was  started  May  1,  1917,  under  the 
charge  of  Lt.  Henri  V.  Baril.  In  November  the  duties  performed  by 
this  department  became  so  great  that  Miss  Edith  Billings  was  engaged 
as  a  Home  Service  worker.  The  duties  performed  by  the  Civilian  Re- 
lief have  been  to  give  relief  to  soldiers'  families,  and  through  its  Infor- 
mation Bureau  to  give  any  information  desired  by  soldiers  and  their  fam- 
ilies at  any  and  all  times. 


CHAPTER  XLIII 
The  First  Schools — Public  and  Private 

The  First  Schools. — It  was  evidently  the  intention  of  the  founders 
of  the  town  to  provide  suitable  schools  as  well  as  a  church,  when  they 
reserved  lands  for  the  support  of  both.  No  record  has  been  left,  how- 
ever, of  schools  or  schoolhouses  in  the  first  two  settlements. 

The  town  had  been  incorporated  three  years  when  an  ineffective 
attempt  was  made  at  a  town  meeting  in  December,  1725,  to  make  an 
appropriation  "to  provide  a  writing  master  to  instruct  the  youth."  The 
first  free  public  schools  was  established  the  next  year,  in  accordance 
with  a  vote  of  the  town,  April  4,  1726,  when  Jonas  Rice  was  engaged 
"to  teach  such  children  and  youth  as  any  of  the  inhabitants  should  send 
to  him  to  read  and  write  as  the  law  directs,  and  to  keep  such  school 
until  the  15th  day  of  December  next  ensuing  to  date  hereof,  said  school 
to  be  supported  at  the  town's  expense."  The  Commonwealth,  as  the 
people  generally  called  the  colonial  government,  deserves  credit  for  this 
action,  not  the  town.  The  settlers  themselves  were  pretty  well  edu- 
cated in  the  schools  of  the  older  towns,  as  the  writing  of  early  records, 
the  spelling  and  construction  of  various  documents,  demonstrate.  But 
the  Worcester  planters  were  too  busy  with  clearing  land  and  making 
both  ends  meet  to  give  much  consideration  to  schools.  At  the  meet- 
ing Dec.  19,  1726,  the  school  was  discontinued  and  the  town  was  "pre- 
sented," the  costs  of  presentment  (fees  and  costs  Dec.  12,  1727),  and 
fined  for  violating  the  colonial  laws  requiring  a  free  school  in  every  town. 
In  January,  1727-8  the  town  voted  money  to  pay  the  fine  and  16  pounds, 
10  shillings  for  teaching. 

In  May,  1727,  the  town  appointed  a  committee  to  provide  a  school- 
master for  one  year,  and  after  that  time  annual  appropriations  were 
made.  Occasionally  the  names  of  the  schoolmasters  are  mentioned  in 
the  town  records,  in  records  of  contract  or  payment  of  salary,  or  in  direc- 
tions to  keep  school  in  certain  dwellings.  The  teacher  lived  at  the 
houses  in  which  he  taught.  After  the  schoolhouses  were  erected  it  was 
customary  for  the  teacher  to  "board  'round,"  moving  from  one  dwelling 
to  another,  as  arranged  by  the  town  officers  in  charge  of  the  schools. 

In  1731,  there  being  a  hundred  householders,  the  town  voted  to 
employ  not  only  the  schoolmaster  but  "not  exceeding  five  school  dames, 
at  the  charge  of  the  town  for  the  teaching  of  small  children  to  read,  etc." 
The  town  had  reached  the  limit  prescribed  by  the  General  Court  for 
maintaining  a  grammar  school,  but  neglected  to  take  action.  It  was 
again  presented  for  failure  to  obey  the  law. 

As    the    town    increased    in    size,    the    appropriations    increased,    of 


688  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

course.  In  1745  the  school  appropriation  was  £110,  equivalent  to  much 
more  than  the  sum  measured  in  the  purchasing  power  of  labor  or  food 
at  present  rates.  The  school  committee  of  that  year  consisted  of  Jonas 
Rice,  Daniel  Hey  wood,  Benjamin  Flagg  and  Ephraim  Curtis,  and  they 
presented  a  new  plan  of  the  school  system,  giving  to  families  outside  the 
village  the  school  money  they  contributed,  and  providing  that  the  fam- 
ilies in  the  center  should  make  up  by  subscription  or  otherwise  a  sum 
which  with  their  taxes  would  maintain  a  grammar  school.  It  was  also 
proposed  that  families  outside  the  village  might  send  pupils  to  the  gram- 
mar school  free  of  charge.  The  town  outside  was  divided  into  rows 
and  quarters.  No  action  w^as  taken  however,  on  the  report,  but  two 
years  later  some  of  the  recommendations  were  adopted,  the  school  money 
of  those  outside  the  village  being  allowed  in  the  districts  for  school  pur- 
poses, if  schools  are  kept.  In  1718  a  committee  appointed  for  the  pur- 
poses reported  several  localities  in  the  outskirts  where  school  houses 
might  be  suitably  built.  From  time  to  time  the  records  show  leases  or 
sales  of  the  school  lands.  The  proceeds  were  or  should  have  been 
devoted  to  school  purposes. 

In  the  summer  of  1755,  Rev.  Thaddeus  Maccarty  was  commissioned 
to  secure  a  teacher  for  the  grammar  school  here.  He  went  to  Harvard 
Commencement,  and  at  that  time  engaged  John  Adams,  afterward  pres- 
ident of  the  United  States,  to  teach  the  new  school.  Adams  was  not 
twenty  years  old  when  he  set  out  for  his  task  here.  He  was  sent  by  the 
selectmen  to  board  with  Major  Nathanael  Greene.  His  diary  gives  vari- 
ous details  of  his  life  and  experience  in  this  town.  He  was  received  in 
polite  society,  took  tea  with  the  Chandlers  and  Putnams,  and  talked 
politics  and  religion.  He  remained  three  years,  but  teaching  was  not 
congenial.  He  began  to  read  law  here  in  the  office  of  James  Putnam, 
and,  when  admitted  to  the  practice  of  law,  removed  to  Boston.  His  con- 
nection with  the  Worcester  grammar  school  gave  it  in  later  years  historic 
distinction.  A  committee  of  Col.  Timothy  Bigelow  Chapter,  D.  A.  R., 
after  an  investigation  by  its  research  committee,  of  which  Mrs.  Annie 
Russel  Marble  was  chairman,  Mrs.  Harriette  M.  Forbes,  Florence  Waite 
Smith,  Mary  Jillson  Parker,  Mary  E.  Whipple  and  Emma  F.  Waite, 
members,  proved  the  exact  spot  where  the  school  house  stood  near  the 
court  house,  and  a  bronze  marker  was  affixed  near  the  spot. 

In  1752  the  town  voted  "that  the  inhabitants  of  the  Center,  extend- 
ing one  mile  and  a  half  around  the  school  house,  should  have  allowed 
them  their  proportion  of  money  for  the  support  of  teaching  provided 
they  do,  bona  fide,  keep  a  grammar  school  the  whole  year ;  and  of  their 
proportion  of  money  will  procure  a  master  more  than  12  weeks,  the 
usual  time  they  have  of  late  had  schooling,  then  any  person  may  have 
liberty  to  send  children  afterwards."  This  vote  with  no  reference  to 
any  school  house,  excused  the  inhabitants  of  the  immediate  center  of  the 
town  from  contributing  to  the  general  support  of  the  district  schools, 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  689 

provided  they  would  maintain  a  grammar  school — not  a  moving  school, 
but  one  teaching  Latin  and  other  subjects  necessary  then  for  preparation 
for  college,  in  the  center  of  the  town  for  the  entire  year.  There  is  some 
doubt  as  to  whether  John  Adams  was  the  first  grammar  school  teacher. 

There  was  a  committee  for  the  center  and  another  for  the  other  dis- 
tricts. In  November,  1759,  the  people  at  Pakachoag  asked  for  the  privi- 
lege of  hiring  a  schoolmaster  so  that  they  might  have  school  kept  the 
whole  year,  but  the  request  was  refused  by  the  town. 

First  Private  School. — Evidently  the  public  grammar  school  was 
not  highly  successful,  for  in  1769  came  a  proposal  to  the  town  to  provide 
for  instruction  required  in  a  private  school  previously  established.  It 
was  in  1759,  shortly  after  Adams  left,  that  the  town  went  back  to  the 
old  "moving  school,"  "to  be  kept  in  the  same  way  and  manner  that  the 
school  used  to  be  kept  in  before  May,  1752,"  and  voted  that  "the  sum 
of  £43  be  granted  for  the  support  of  schools  the  present  year  and  that  the 
parts  of  the  town  commonly  called  Smith's  and  Parker's  rows  have  the 
sum  allowed  to  them  as  usual  to  be  laid  out  in  schooling  as  they  used 
to  have  before  March,   1752." 

The  same  spirit  of  economy  was  in  force  until  1763,  when  James 
Putnam  and  others  petitioned  fgr  the  privilege  of  erecting  at  their  own 
expense  a  school  house  on  the  common.  It  is  presumed  that  the  peti- 
tioners had  already  kept  a  private  grammar  school  for  their  own  children. 
They  offered  to  pay  for  the  land,  but  the  town  simply  voted  "that  James 
Putnam  and  others  have  liberty  to  set  up  a  school  house  on  such  part 
of  the  Town's  Land  as  the  Selectmen  shall  think  proper."  As  already 
stated,  the  town  took  action  in  March,  1769,  appointing  William  Young 
and  others  to  treat  with  the  proprietors  of  this  new  school,  "and  to  agree 
with  them  upon  what  terms  they  will  allow  said  school  to  be  considered 
as  the  Town's  Grammar  School  for  the  benefit  of  such  persons  in  town  as 
shall  incline  to  send  their  children  there  and  also  to  consult  some  plan 
for  keeping  English  schools  in  said  town."  The  committee  reported  as 
follows : 

1769,  March  17th.  A  Com.  on  Schools  report:  That  they  have  proposed  to  the 
proprietors  of  the  Grammar  School  that  the  town  allow  said  proprietors  16  pounds 
the  current  year,  said  proprietors  engaging  that  the  said  Grammar  School  shall  be 
free  for  all  persons  in  said  town  desirous  of  learning  the  languages  (who  shall)  be 
admitted  by  said  proprietors  to  have  the  same  privileges  and  upon  the  same  terms  in 
said  school,  as  the  children  of  said  proprietors,  which  proposals  the  said  proprietors 
have  accepted.  And  your  committee  are  of  opinion  that  the  method  of  keeping  Eng- 
lish school  in  said  town  (should  be)  each  part  of  the  town  draw  the  money  they  pay 
toward  the  whole  sum  raised  the  current  year,  and  each  have  their  proportion  of  the 
interest  money  belonging  to  said  school — to  be  kept  in  the  several  parts  of  the  town  in 
such  season  of  the  year  as  shall  be  agreed  upon  by  the  major  part  of  said  quarter. 
Your  committee  have  divided  the  town  into  eight  parts:  Center  of  town;  Tatnuck; 
Smith's  quarter;  Pakachoag;  Sone's  quarter;  Stowell's  quarter;  Capt.  Curtis's  quarter; 
Capt.  Flagg's  quarter. 

W.— 1-44. 


690  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  grammar  school  was  never  popular,  and  the  law  requiring  it 
was  derided  and  condemned  by  a  considerable  part  of  the  people.  In  a 
way  it  was  undemocratic,  for  it  was  designed  solely  at  first  to  begin  the 
training  of  Congregational  ministers  and,  until  Harvard  College  became 
something  more  than  a  school  to  educate  clergymen,  the  feeling  was 
strong.  In  1766  the  Worcester  representative  in  the  General  Court  was 
instructed  to  endeavor  "that  the  law  requiring  a  Latin  School  be  repealed 
and  that  no  more  than  one  such  school  be  kept  in  a  county,"  and  in  1767 
"to  use  his  exertions  to  relieve  the  people  from  the  great  burden  of  sup- 
porting so  many  schools  of  this  description,  whereby  they  are  prevented 
from  attaining  such  degree  of  English  learning  as  is  necessary  to  retain 
the  freedom  of  any  state."  But  the  Latin  or  grammar  school  held  on 
until  the  present  high  school  system  with  its  admirable  provision  for  the 
general  education  of  youth  of  both  sexes — education  broader,  higher  and 
deeper,  except  as  to  ancient  languages,  than  Harvard  College  maintained 
in  earlier  days. 

In  this  year  (1769),  the  school  appropriation  was  £79,  17s.,  of  which 
the  center  district  had  a  fourth,  the  other  seven  about  an  eighth  part 
each  of  the  remainder,  Tatnuck  being  the  largest  of  the  outside  districts. 
It  is  useless  to  state  the  appropriations  for  schools,  however,  as  the  fluc- 
tuations in  the  value  of  currency  were  so  great  that  it  is  impossible  now 
to  give  an  estimate  of  the  actual  value  of  the  sums  spent.  The  records 
show  that  among  the  teachers  of  the  Worcester  schools  before  the  Rev- 
olution were  the  following:  Jonas  Rice,  beginning  in  1726;  Benjamin 
Flagg,  1729;  James  Wyman,  1732;  Richard  Rogers,  1732;  Samuel 
Boutelle,  1733;  Nathaniel  Williams,  1733;  Samuel  Marsh,  1738;  James 
Durant,  1739;  James  Varney,  1744;  Henry  Gardner,  1752 ;  John  Adams, 
1755;  John  Young,  1757;  William  Crawford,  1758;  Micah  Lawrence, 
1760. 

The  district  school  system  continued  and  the  funds  were  divided 
from  this  time  until  the  city  was  incorporated.  Each  district  had  its 
commitee.  Under  the  conditions  of  travel  and  for  other  reasons,  the 
district  system  was  probably  the  most  efficient  possible.  The  graded 
schools  were  a  natural  outgrowth  of  other  conditions,  of  more  ample  pub- 
lic means,  of  higher  standards  of  education  and  better  trained  and  bet- 
ter-paid teachers.  It  is  true  today  that  school  teachers  are  underpaid 
in  comparison  with  men  and  women  of  the  same  ability  and  education  in 
other  callings,  but  there  has  been  some  advance.  As  late  as  1834  the 
teachers  here  were  paid  $17  a  month  in  winter  and  $9  1-3  a  month  in  sum- 
mer (women  teachers).  Board  was  $2.50  a  week  for  males.  There  were 
20  women  and  12  men  teachers,  instructing  more  than  a  thousand  pupils. 

After  the  Revolution,  in  1785  and  1788,  the  town  was  presented  by 
the  grand  jury  for  the  neglect  of  its  grammar  school,  and,  when  it  was 
maintained,  it  appears  to  have  traveled  around  the  center  in  the  circle  of 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  691 

districts   until    18US   when   it   became    stationary.     Apparently    the    con- 
tract with  the  private  school  was  not  kept  many  years. 

The  high  standard  of  the  public  schools  maintained  for  nearly  a 
century  past,  had  its  real  beginning  in  a  movement  led  by  the  l)est  edu- 
cated and  most  influential  men  of  the  center  district  of  the  town  in  1833, 
when  the  following  committee  was  elected  to  report  on  the  needs  of  the 
schools:  Samuel  M.  Burnside,  a  lawyer;  Rev.  Aaron  Bancroft;  Gov. 
Levi  Lincoln  ;  Otis  Corbett  and  Samuel  Jennison.  The  essence  of  their 
recommendations   was : 

Your  committee  recommend  that  a  board  of  twelve  overseers  be  chosen  annually 
by  ballot,  whose  duty  it  shall  be  in  conjunction  with  the  selectmen  to  determine  upon 
the  qualifications  of  instructors  and  to  contract  with  them  for  their  services ;  to  de- 
termine upon  the  attainments  of  scholars  to  be  admitted  into  said  schools  respectively; 
to  prescribe  the  course  of  instruction  therein  and  all  necessary  rules  and  regulations 
for  the  government  thereof;  to  determine  upon  all  complaints  of  instructors,  of  parents 
or  of  scholars,  which  may  arise  in  relation  to  said  schools,  or  either  of  them  ;  to  visit 
and  examine  said  schools  respectively  at  stated  periods  during  the  year;  to  encourage 
in  every  suitable  manner  both  instructors  and  scholars  in  the  performance  of  their 
relative  duties;  and  to  make  a  report  in  writing  annually  to  the  District  of  the  con- 
dition of  said  schools  during  the  period  of  their  office. 

Mr.  Burnside,  finding  the  recommendations  when  put  into  effect  to 
be  highly  beneficial  and  practical,  embodied  them  in  an  Act  of  the  legis- 
lature to  govern  the  school  districts  of  the  state,  and  laid  the  foundation 
of  the  present  admirable  school  system  of  the  Commonwealth.  The 
members  of  the  preliminary  committee  became  with  one  exception  mem- 
bers of  the  new  board  of  overseers.  For  a  number  of  years  members  of 
this  board — the  school  committee — made  addresses  at  the  annual  exer- 
cises at  the  end  of  the  term,  and  such  men  as  Rev.  Alonzo  Hill,  Isaac  Da- 
vis, Alfred  D.  Foster,  John  S.  C.  Abbott,  Stephen  Salisbury,  Judge  Ira 
M.  Barton  and  William  Lincoln  were  speakers  on  these  occasions.  The 
custom  continued  until  1836. 

The  Centre  School  Building  was  advertised  for  sale  May,  1799,  by 
the  Proprietors'  Committee — Oliver  Fiske,  Theophilus  Wheeler  and  John 
Green,  Jr. 

During  the  period  after  the  Revolution  dowm  to  183(),  the  following 
were  among  the  teachers  employed  here  :  Dr.  Amasa  Dingley ;  Rev. 
Thaddeus  M.  Harris,  a  distinguished  minister  and  author  in  later  life; 
Thomas  Payson  ;  Roger  Vose,  afterward  a  lawyer  of  Walpole,  N.  H.; 
Silas  Paul,  afterward  a  lawyer  of  Leominster ;  Andrew  Morton,  lawyer, 
Hampden,  Me. ;  Calvin  Park,  afterward  professor  in  Brown ;  Isaac 
Gates,  afterward  in  the  U.  S.  Army ;  Samuel  Swan,  afterward  a  lawyer  in 
Hubbardston ;  Rev.  Nathan  Parker;  Dr.  Jason  Bigelow;  Rev.  John 
Nelson  of  Leicester ;  Nathan  Guilford  of  Cincinnati,  O. ;  Ebenezer  D. 
Washburn  of  Mobile,  Ala. ;  Levi  Heywood  ;  Rev.  Jonathan  Going,  N. 
Y.  City;    Jonathan  Smith,  Bath.  Me.;    John  Reed,  Worcester;    Thomas 


692  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Fiske;  Benson  C.  Baldwin,  Milford;  Leonard  Worcester,  Newark,  N. 
J.;  George  Folsom,  N.  Y.  City;  Charles  Thurber;  Warren  Lazell  of 
Mendon;    Albion  P.  Peck. 

Second  Private  School. — In  1784  another  private  school  was  organ- 
ized by  Elijah  Dix,  Joseph  Allen,  Levi  Lincoln,  Nathan  Patch,  John 
Green,  John  Nazro,  Palmer  Goulding  and  others,  and  a  building  erected 
on  the  west  side  of  Main  street,  on  land  leased  in  1784,  bought  Sept.  29, 
1787.  The  elementary  branches  were  taught  in  one  school  here  under 
Mr.  Brown;  the  higher  branches  in  "The  Seminary,"  by  Thomas  Pay- 
son.  The  school  bgean  auspiciously.  Dramatic  exhibitions  added  to  the 
attractions  of  the  public  examinations.  The  pupils  presented  the  trag- 
edy of  Cato  in  August,  1787.  But  as  in  the  case  of  its  predecessor,  when 
the  children  of  the  founders  left  the  school  to  go  to  college  or  into  busi- 
ness, the  school  languished.  In  May,  1799,  the  building  was  advertised  for 
sale,  the  school  having  been  discontinued,  and  in  July,  1801,  was  bought 
by  the  Center  district  for  $950.  A  public  school  was  afterward  main- 
tained there.  These  private  grammar  schools  are  mentioned  because  of 
their  connection  in  one  way  or  another  with  the  public  schools  system. 

First  School  Houses. — The  town  voted  Oct.  7,  1739,  not  to  build  a 
school  house.  The  supporters  of  the  movement  to  build  a  school  house 
tried  again  in  1783,  and  at  the  meeting  IMay  15  it  was  voted  "that  there 
be  a  school  house  built  at  the  charge  of  the  town  and  placed  in  the  center 
of  the  south  half  of  the  town  as  near  as  may  be  with  conveniency,  having 
regard  to  suitable  ground  for  such  a  house  to  stand  on  and  where  land 
may  be  purchased  in  case  it  falls  in  men's  particular  property,  provided 
the  purchase  may  be  on  reasonable  terms.  The  length  was  to  be  24 
feet,  the  width  16  feet,  one  story,  of  7-foot  studding,  with  a  good 
chimney,  glass,   etc. 

Col.  John  Chandler  was  given  the  job  of  finding  the  center  of  the 
south  half  of  the  town.  Evidently  he  failed  to  find  a  satisfactory  lot, 
for  there  was  an  article  in  the  warrant  of  the  meeting  in  May,  1735,  call- 
ing for  reconsideration  of  the  vote,  "and  in  lieu  thereof  build  one  where 
the  center  line  may  strike  the  country  road  or  as  near  there  as  land  will 
allow  of  for  a  convenient  spot  as  may  be  reasonably  purchased  for  that 
end."  After  the  survey,  it  was  voted  "that  the  committee  or  those  that 
still  live  in  the  town  formerly  appointed  to  build  a  school  house,  to  as 
soon  as  may  be,  erect  and  finish  a  school  house  of  dimensions  formerly 
voted  at  or  near  the  northward  corner  6i  the  land  of  John  Chandler  Jr. 
where  he  now  dwells  and  as  his  fence  now  stands  and  that  the  charge 
thereof  be  paid  out  of  the  overplus  money  now  lying  in  the  hands  of  the 
town  treasurer  as  appears  by  the  settlement  of  the  treasurer's  last 
accounts  and  the  selectmen  are  directed  to  give  order  accordingly." 

Evidently  the  objections  of  some  of  the  inhabitants  held  up  the 
project  for  two  years  more.  In  the  warrant  for  the  meeting  of  June  21, 
1738,  it  is  stated  that  petitioners  suggest  "that  more  proper  place  may  be 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  693 

found  between  the  court  house  and  the  bridge  below  the  fulling  mills." 
The  town  meeting  then  voted  again  to  reconsider  and  to  locate  the  school 
house  between  the  court  house  and  the  bridge.  The  building  had  been 
started  before  November,  1738,  and  was  finished  in  a  short  time.  It  was 
the  only  school  house  for  many  years.  Here  John  Adams  taught  school 
three  years. 

In  1748  an  attempt  was  made  to  have  district  school  houses,  but  it 
failed.  Another  attempt  in  1753  also  failed  in  the  town  meeting.  A 
third  effort  at  a  meeting,  Oct.  17,  1757,  met  the  same  fate.  The  town 
reduced  its  expenditures  for  schools  instead  of  providing  new  school 
houses. 

The  second  school  house  was  erected  by  the  proprietors  of  the  pri- 
vate school  already  mentioned,  James  Putnam  and  others.  It  was  fin- 
ished in  1765;  located  at  the  northwest  corner  of  the  school  land  Main 
Street,  near  Mechanic. 

Not  until  1800  were  the  houses  built  in  the  school  districts,  and 
none  of  them  cost  over  $300.  Fine  buildings  they  must  have  been,  18  to 
25  feet  square — mere  shanties.  The  little  red  school  house  of  the  orator 
was  not  in  evidence  in  the  districts  of  this  town.  The  old  names  were 
discarded  for  numbers  in  1800,  viz :  Tatnuck,  No.  3 ;  Jones,  No.  3 ;  Bur- 
banks's.  No.  5;  Baird's,  No.  6;  Gates,  No.  7;  Fisk's  Corner,  No.  7; 
Burntcoat  Plain,  No.  9 ;  Thaxter's,  No.  10.  Provision  was  also  made  for 
two  new  houses  in  the  center;  one  at  the  corner  of  the  old  burial  place, 
and  the  other  opposite  the  then  Unitarian  Church,  later  the  Franklin 
House.  In  1801  the  center  district  bought  the  second  private  'school 
building,  already  mentioned,  located  on  Main  Street  at  the  head  of  Cen- 
tral, on  the  present  site  of  the  Chadwick  building. 

Between  1818  when  the  city  was  incorporated  and  1855,  nine  school 
houses  were  built — Pine  street ;  in  Quinsigamond  village ;  Sycamore 
street;  Adams  square;  in  the  Pond  district;  Blithewood  avenue;  at 
South  Worcester  and  Thomas  street,  making  a  total  of  35  schools  at  a 
cost  of  $58,000.  The  15  older  school  houses  were  valued  at  $57,000. 
There  were  3,300  pupils  at  that  time,  56  female  and  seven  male  teachers. 
In  1855  the  school  appropriation  was  $23,500. 

In  1856  the  school  house  at  Burncoat  Plain  was  built  and  that  on 
Providence  street.  In  1859,  the  schools  at  Tatnuck  and  Northville ;  in 
1861,  the  brick  school  in  Salem  square,  in  1863  E.  Worcester  and  Masoon 
street.  In  1865  there  were  76  schools  and  93  teachers.  The  first  truant 
school  was  opened   in   1863. 


D 

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pi; 


CHAPTER  XLIV 


The  Public  Schools 


The  School  Committee. — Under  the  original  city  charter  the  schools 
were  in  charge  of  the  mayor  and  a  committee  of  24,  each  ward  electing 
three  members  annually,  their  terms  being  after  1857  three  years.  At 
first  one  member  was  elected  from  each  of  the  eight  wards ;  when  the 
wards  were  increased  to  ten,  the  committee  was  thus  enlarged  by  six 
more  members.  The  work  of  the  committee  from  the  beginning  was 
largely  assigned  to  sub-committees,  the  number  of  which  increased 
from  time  to  time  as  the  duties  of  the  committee  multiplied  by  reason 
of  the  growth  of  the  city  and  by  the  development  of  the  school  system, 
such  as  the  evening  schools,  the  free  school-books,  etc.  From  1848  to  51  the 
mayor  was  ex-officio  chairman,  and  again  from  1866  to  1893  inclusive. 
Since  then  the  board  has  elected  its  chairman.  The  names  of  the  mayors 
are  not  included  in  the  list  given  below.  (See  Mayors).  From  1853  to 
1856  eight  members  were  elected  at  large,  two  from  each  ward.  War- 
ren Lazell  was  secretary  and  prudential  agent  from  1848  to  1852.  From 
1872  to  75  Samuel  V.  Stone  was  secretary,  afterward  the  superintendent 
was  secretary  of  the  board  for  many  years. 

After  years  of  agitation,  the  charter  was  amended  in  1916  by  decreas- 
ing the  school  board  to  one  elected  by  the  people  from  each  ward  and 
one  at  large.  The  first  board  under  this  law  came  into  form  in  1917. 
Albert  H.  Inman,  "at-large"  was  chairman;  Rev.  Charles  B.  Elder,  vice- 
chairman.  The  other  members :  Prof.  U.  Waldo  Cutler,  Francis  Un- 
derwood, James  F.  Timon,  Thomas  F.  McGauley,  John  A.  Clough, 
Thure  Hanson,  Michael  B.  Fox,  Walter  J.  Cookson,  John  E.  Rice.  The 
clerk,  Joseph  Beals,  elected  by  the  committee,  annually  has  served  many 
years. 

Superintendents  of  schools  have  been:  Rev.  George  Bushnell,  1857- 
58;  J.  D.  E.  Jones,  1858-65;  B.  P.  Chenoweth,  1865-67;  Albert  P.  Mar- 
ble, 1868-94;  Clarence  F.  Carroll,  1894-1903;  Homer  P.  Lewis,  1904 — . 
The  committeemen  follow  (years  inclusive)  : 


Charles  F.  Adams,  1887-90; 
John  G.  Adams,   1854-55; 
George   I.   Alden,    1893-1903 ; 
P.  Emory  Aldrich,  1869-74; 
Alvan  Allen,  1859; 
Benjamin  D.  Allen,  1862-3; 
James  F.  Allen,  1849; 
J.  A.  Andrews,  1852; 
Nahum   H.  Andrews, '1859-60; 
Calvin  W.  Angier,  1857; 


J.   M.   C.  Armsby,   1858; 

George  F.  Balcom,  1889-94; 

John  S.   Baldwin,   1862-64; 

George   H.   Ball,   1882-83; 

Helen  A.  Ball,  1897; 

Charles  Ballard,  i86o-6r ;    1870-75 ;    1887- 

89; 
Samuel   Bannister,    1853 ; 
Forrest  E.  Barker,  1881-86; 
Levi  Barker,  1861-63 ; 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE 


697 


Isaac  R.  Barbour,   1848; 

Rebecca  Barnard,  1880-82;    1885-90; 

Jonas  Bartlett,   1856-62; 

J.  M.  Bassett,  1876-81 ; 

Edwin   Batty,    1914-16; 

Merrick  Bemis,  1860-64;    1870; 

Reuben  Bemis,  1849; 

Nathaniel  T.  Bent,  1851-53; 

George  W.  Bentley,  1853; 

Irving  E.   Bigelow,  1896; 

Julian  F.  Bigelow,  1890-95 ; 

Walter  Bigelow,  Jr.,   1851  ; 

William   Blom,    1907-12; 

Joseph   E.   Bond,    1852 ; 

Benjamin  F.  Bowles,  1868; 

Louis  E.  Bragg,  1911-16; 

Calvin   M.   Brooks,   1853-54; 

George  F.  Brooks,  1890-1905; 

John  H.  Brooks,  1851-53  and  i860; 

Alzirus  Brown,  1876-90; 

Alexander  H.  Bullock,  1855;    i860; 

Alexander  H.  Bullock,  1902-08 ; 

Amanda    C.    Bray,    1899-90; 

Peter  H.  Breen,   1907-09; 

Freeman   Brown,   1886-88 ; 

Asa  L.   Burbank,   1855-60 ; 

John  F.   Burbank,   1849-53; 

William   H.   Burke,   1911-16; 

C.   C.   Burnett,   1850 ; 

L.  AI.  Burrington,  1861-62 ; 

George  Bushnell,  1850;    1853-55  and  1857: 

Daniel  P.  Callahan,  1911-14; 

Samuel  P.  Capen,  1908-14; 

Ariel  B.  Capron,   1861  ; 

Patrick  J.  Carney,  1910-16; 

John  J.   Casey,   1880-85 ; 

Joseph  M.  Cassidy,  1915-16; 

Ephraim  F.  Chamberlain,  1857-59; 

Daniel  E.  Chapin,  1854-55  ; 

Jason  Chapin,  1872-73;    1875-77; 

Anthony  Chase,   1855 ; 

Charles  A.  Chase,   1873-75 ! 

James  K.  Churchill,   1879; 

Frederick  A.  Clapp,  1874-75  ; 

Samuel    Clark,    1863-65 ; 

Henry  Clarke,   1854;    1856-57; 

George  S.  Clough,  1901-03; 

John  A.   Clough,   1913-18; 

Levi  L.  Conant,  1901-09; 

Thomas  J.  Conaty,   1874-86 ; 

Owen  H.  Conlin,  1880-82 ; 

Peter  A.  Conlin,   1885; 

Andrew  A.  Conlon,   1894; 

John  B.  Cosgrove,  1880-84; 


William  H.  Cook,  1904-08; 

Walter  J.   Cookson,   1908-17; 

Phineas   Crandell,   1852  ; 

Austin  P.  Cristy,  1882-84; 

Edward    I.    Comins,    1897-1902; 

William  H.  Crawford,  1894-96; 

Albert  E.  Cross,  1916; 

James   E.   Cunnigham,   1905-07; 

Albert  W.  Curtis,  1848;    1858-60; 

Ebenezer  Cutler,  1858;    1867-68; 

U.  Waldo   Cutler,    1914-18; 

Appleton  Dadman,  1858; 

David  F.  Daley,  1915-16; 

Caleb  Dana,  1848-52 ; 

John  A.  Dana,  1853-58 ; 

Joseph  D.  Daniels,   1856;    1863-68; 

Thomas   M.    Daniels,    1900-02; 

William  S.  Davis,  1857-58; 

Henry  E.  Dean,  1912-16; 

John    Dean,    1865-70 ; 

Thomas  F.  Dean,  1889-91  ; 

A.  B.  Deland,  1854; 

Arthur  E.  Dennis,  1889-92 ; 

Wilton  H.  Desper,  1890-95 ; 

John  B.  Dexter,  Jr.,  1857 ; 

William  H.  Dexter,  1886-88; 

William  Dickinson,  1856;    1867-69; 

John   F.   DonnoUy.    1904-07 ; 

Jeremiah  J.  Donohue,  1910-12; 

Samuel  W.  Dougherty,  1878-79; 

James    Draper.    1871-72; 

John  B.  Drenna,  1886-87; 

George  A.  Dresser,   1852-54 ; 

John  T.  Duggan,   1891-1902; 

Dana    M.    Dustan,    1906-15; 

George   W.    Fames,    1891-99; 

Ann  B.   (Mrs.  Edward)   Earle,  1869-72; 

Edward  Earle,  1862-70 ; 

John   M.   Earle,   1853; 

Oliver   K.   Earle,   1859-60; 

Sarah  B.   Earle,   1874-82 ; 

Thomas    Earle,    1861-66; 

Timothy  K.  Earle,  1855-66; 

Andrew  K.   Eckstrom,   1900-1914; 

Andrew  W.  Edson,  1897 ; 

Charles  B.  Elder,  1909-18; 

John  W.   Emerspn,  1884; 

James   Estabrook,   1852 ; 

James  E.  Estabrook,  1854  and  1856; 

Alichael  J.  Fallon,  1891-93 ; 

Daniel  W.  Faunce,  1857-59; 

Appleton  Fay,    1851  ; 

M.   P.  Finnegan,   1873-74; 

Abraham  Firth,   1863-64; 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE 


699 


John  Firth,  1862-64; 

George   P.   Fisher.    1849; 

Seth  Fisher,  1848; 

Austin  G.  Fitch,   1849 ; 

John  A.   Fitzgerald,    1901-03; 

Benjamin  Flagg,   1849; 

Samuel  Flagg,  1849-51 ; 

Joseph  E.  Flanigan,  1908-10; 

M.  Bonner  Flinn,  1894-1906; 

James  Forstedt,  1889-98; 

Alfred  D.  Foster,   1848; 

Calvin  Foster,  1857; 

Dwight  Foster,  1856;    1858-59; 

Emma  A.  Foster,  1897-98; 

Emily  F.  Foster,  1915-16; 

Michael  B.   Fox,   1917-18; 

George  E.  Francis,  1880-82; 

Homer  T.  Fuller,  1889-91  ; 

George  W.  Gale.  1861 ;    1863-74; 

John    E.    Gallagher.    1895-99; 

P.  J.  Garrigan,  1872 ; 

W.  Arthur  Garrity,   1916; 

Austin    S.   Garver,    1889-01 ; 

Samuel  F.  Gates,   1863 ; 

Simon   S.  Gates,   1849 ; 

Orrin  P.  Gilbert,  1850-52;    1858-59; 

Edward  B.  Glasgow,  1883-85 ; 

John  F.  Gleason,  1855  ; 

Delano  A.  Goddard.  1858-63; 

Dorrance  S.  Goddard,  1867-71 ; 

Samuel  B.  Goddard,   1848; 

John   S.   Gould,   1903-05 ; 

Frank  P.  Goulding,  1872-83 ; 

George  B.   Gow,   1871  ; 

Eric  O.  Granberg,  1910-12; 

Louis  P.  Grandpre,  1904-05  ; 

Charles   H.  Grout,   1896; 

Stephanie  Grant,   1911-13; 

John  Gray,  1851  ; 

Meltiah   B.  Green,   1854; 

William  N.  Green,   1848; 

William  S.  Green,  1858-59; 

Henry  Grififin,  1851 ;    1856-57; 

Thomas  Griffin,   1871-73 ; 

Samuel  Griggs,   1849; 

James   F.  Guerin,   1887-92; 

Henry  Hague,  1898-03 ; 

Edward  H.  Hall,  1870-75  ;    1879-81 ; 

Franklin  Hall,  1853  and  1856; 

Charles  Willard  Hamilton,  1863-65; 

T.  W.  Hammond,  1858; 

Thure   Hanson,    1913-18; 

Samuel  D.  Harding.  1856-63; 

Levi  Hardy,   1850; 


George  H.  Harlow,  1855-56; 

William   T.    Harlow,    1873-78; 

Laommi   Harrington,   1872-73 ; 

Henry  F.  Harris.  1897-99; 

William    H.    Harris,    1851  ;     1855;     1857; 

1859; 
Thomas  J.  Hastings,  1877-79; 
Samuel  Hathaway,   1859 ; 
Samuel  F.  Haven,   1864-65  ; 
Frank  H.  Hankins,  1915-16; 
Frank  R.    Hayden,    1896-99; 
John  J.  Heron,  1896-99; 
Frank  D.   Hickey,   1892-97; 
David  Higgins,  1853 ; 
Thomas  Wentworth  Higginson,  1854; 
Alonzo  Hill,  1849-51;    1857; 
Hamilton  A.  Hill,  1857; 

E.  H.  Hill,  1883-84; 
Terrance  J.  Hines,  1873-75 ; 

David    Hitchcock,    1849;     1851 ;     1855-56; 

1865; 
Samuel  E.  Hildreth,  1888-93; 
George  Frisbie  Hoar,   1858; 
Clifton  F.  Hodge,  1898-01 ; 
George  Holmes,  1863-65  ; 
Pitt  Holmes,  1848;    1852; 
William  R.  Hooper,  1849-50; 
James   Houghton,   i860; 
Henry  W.  Howland,  1848-49;    1851 ; 
Joseph  A.   Howland,   1888; 
John   J.   Hughes,   1886-88; 
Andrew    Hutchinson,    1850-52;     1855; 
Albert  H.  Inman,  1910-18; 
George  Jaques,  1848-50;    1866-72; 
Horace  James,  1854-55 : 
Frederick  Janes.   1848 ; 
Gustavus  A.  Jenks,  1855 ; 
Clark  Jillson,    1891-93; 
Charles  R.  Johnson,  1877-78;    1896-15; 
John  D.  E.  Jones,  1856-57 ;    1859-60 ; 
Lewis  Joy,  1850 ; 
Daniel  J.  Kelley,  1885-90; 

F.  H.  Kelley,  1857  ; 
James  P.  Kelly,  1877-78; 
Joseph  H.  Kelley,  1885-90 ; 
Francis  L.  King,   1866-68; 
Charles   B.  Knight,   1876-78; 

Henry  S.  Knight,  1883-85;    1891-94;    1906- 

09; 
Calvin   Knowlton,   1852; 
John  S.  C.  Knowlton,  1849  and  1856; 
Thomas  M.  Lamb,  1861-67; 
William  M.  Lamb,  1852; 
Timothy  F.  Larkin,  1910-12 ; 


y:^  m 


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O 

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c/2 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE 


701 


Charles  M.  Lamson,  1879-84; 

Warren  Lazell,  1840-50;    1854; 

Daniel  Waldo  Lincoln,  1856; 

Nellie  Weber  Lincoln,  1897-01  ; 

William    Sever    Lincoln,    1853 ; 

Joseph  F.  Lovering,  1884-89; 

Thomas  Magennis,  1849-56;    1858-67; 

Charles  F.  Marble,  1904-15; 

Edwin   T.   Marble,   i860;    1873-80; 

Frank  J.  Marlowe,   1906; 

Asaph  R.   Marshall,   1880-82; 

Joseph  Mason,   1848;    1850; 

James  J.  McCafferty,  1875-77 ; 

M.  J.  McCafferty,  1871-73  ; 

Matthew  J.  P.  McCafferty,  1884-85 ; 

M.  S.  McConville,  1861  ;    1864-65; 

John  J.  McCoy,  1881-84; 

James  McDermott,   1872-74; 

Thomas  E.  McEvoy,  1896 ; 

Edward  D.  McFarland,  1858;    1866-68 

Thomas  F.  McGauley,  1917-18; 

John  T.   McGillicuddy,   1897-03; 

William  W.  McKibben,  1907-09; 

James   McMahon,    1874-76; 

F.  J.  McNulty,  1875-76 ; 

GAL.  Two  Hun  &  Fifty-seven— Lewis. 

S.  J.  McNully,  1872-75  ; 

James  Melanefy,   1867-69 ; 

Rufus  N.  Merriam,  1868-70; 

Helen  B.  Merriam,  1885-86; 

Caleb  B.  Metcalf,  1865-67;    1869-80; 

P.  Reinhold  Meyer,  1913-16; 

Samuel  P.  Miller,   185 1  ; 

Seth  P.  Miller,  1855; 

Philip  L.  Moen,  1854-55 ; 

John  N.  Moore,  1874; 

Eugene  M.  Moriarty,  1876-78;    1881-96; 

Helen  A.  B.  Morse,  1897-1900; 

C.  M.  Murray,  1875  ; 

John  F.  Murray,  1870-71  ; 

T.  Edward  Murray,  1873-75 ; 

Jeremiah  L.  Murphy.  1874  to  83 ; 

John   Murphy,    1892-96 ; 

John  L.  Murphy,  1868-70; 

Timothy  H.  Murphy,  1878-80; 

Natan   M.   Muzzy,    1856; 

Benjamin  F.  Newton,   1852; 

Calvin  Newton,  1848-49;    1851-52; 

John  C.   Newton,   1849-55 ;    1860-71 ; 

Thomas  L.  Nelson,  1858;    1867-68; 

L.  B.  Nichols,   1855; 

Peter  J.  Nihill,   1886-91; 

Timothy  J.  O'Connor,   1904-05  ; 

Richard  O'Flynn,   1877-80;    1883-84; 


Michael  J.  O'Meara,  1893-96;    1900-08; 

Daniel   H.   O'Neill,   1874; 

Michael   J.    O'Reilly,    1903-08; 

Patrick  T.  O'Reilly,  1866-70; 

George  F.   Orr,   1895-96; 

Melvin  G.   Overlock,   1901-05; 

Thomas  J.  O'Sullivan,  1878; 

Henry  L.  Parker,  1882-87 ; 

Levi  Parker,  1862:  • 

H.  K.  Pervear,  1867-69 ; 

Edward  H.  Peabody,  1872-73; 

Francis  M.  Phelan.  1898-1900; 

George  W.  PhiUips.  1881-83; 

Levi  Pierce,  1853; 

Francis  Plunkett,  1876-78; 

George  A.  Power,  1911-16; 

John  J.  Power,  1859-70; 

Calvin  E.  Pratt,  1852-53; 

Joseph  Pratt,  1854  and  1858 ; 

Charles  G.  Prentiss,  1848; 

Samuel  Putnam,  1861 ;    1863-69; 

Joseph  T.   Quinlan,  Jr.,   1913-15; 

John  B.  Ratigan,  1887-89; 

Deering  L  Rawson,  1850 ; 

E.  T.  Raymond,   1900-02; 

Werden  Reynolds,  1859; 

George   C.   Reidy,   1882-85; 

Maurice  F.  Reidy,  1909-10; 

Benjamin   P.   Rice,   1852; 

Frank  H.  Rice,  1861 ;    1863-66 ; 

George  H.  Rice,  1905-10; 

Henry  C.  Rice,  1857; 

John   E.   Rice,    1910-18; 

William  W.  Rice,  1853-54;    1856-57; 

Benjamin  F.  Robinson,  1893; 

Anna  B.  Rogers,  1875-80; 

George  W.  Russell,  1849 ;    i860 ;   1862 ; 

Thomas  E.  St.  John,  1861 ;    1863-66 ;  1877- 

79; 
Herbert  C.  Sanborn,  1914-15; 
William  H.  Sanford,   1865-66; 
George  L.   Sanford,   1887-92; 
L.  M.   Sargent,   1865; 
Emil    Sauer,    1906-07 ; 
Edward  M.  Saunier,  1906-10 ; 
Daniel  J.  Savage,  1888-96; 
John  L.  Savage,  1912-14; 
Dennis  Scannell,  1881-86; 
Dennis  J.  Scannel,  1873 ; 
John  E.  Scofield,  1916; 
Peter  O.  Shea,  1906-09; 
Rush  R.   Shippen,   1860-68; 
Henry  Y.   Simpson,  1871 ; 
Nicholas  J.  Skerrett,  1907-09; 


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33 

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AND  ITS  PEOPLE 


703 


William  T.  Sleeper,   1855; 

George  A.  Slocomb,  1903-11; 

Elam   Smalley,    1848;     1850-51; 

Albert  L.  Smith,   1897-16; 

E.  Walter  Smith,  1911-13; 

George  P.  Smith,  1849; 

Joseph  A.  Smith,  1903-04  ; 

Robert  L.  Smith,  1860-62; 

William  A.  Smith,  1876; 

William    T.    Souther,    1885-92; 

Moses   Spooner,   1853  ; 

Homer  B.  Sprague,  1855-56; 

Samuel  E.  Staples,  1869-71  ; 

E.  S.  Stebbins,  1857 ; 

Elijah  B.   Stoddard,  1868-79; 

Samuel  V.  Stone,  1854;    1858-62-64-72; 

Benjamin  F.  Stowell,  1853  and  1856; 

Samuel  B.   Swain,   1848;    1850-51;    1853; 

Eugene  E.   Sullvian,  Jr.,   1906-16; 

John  H.   Sullivan,   1897-03; 

John    N.    Sullivan,    1909-14; 

Oscar  S.  Svenson,  1906-09 ; 

George  Swan,  1879-90 ; 

Seth  Sweetser,  1848;    1853-54; 

Kate  C.  Taft,  1881-89; 

Putnam  W.  Taft,  1851-55; 

Marvin  M.  Taylor,  1902-04; 

Charles  A.  Tenney,  1865-67; 

Adin  Thayer,  1856; 

Charles  M.  Thayer,  1895-97 ; 

Eli  Thayer,   1852; 

Charles  O.  Thompson,  1874-76  ; 

George  F.  Thompson,  1883-84;    1885-88; 

George  Thrall,  1871  ; 

O.  H.  Tillotson,  1850-51  ; 

James  F.  Timon,  1913-18; 

John    Timon,    1876-81 ; 

Edward  F.  Tolman,  1885-88; 

Vincent  E.  Tomlinson,  1904-12; 

John  Toomey,  1858; 


Edward  H.  Trobridge,  1908-10; 

Augustus  Tucker,  1855; 

Elmer  G.  Tucker,  1910-11  ; 

Thomas  Tucker,  1850  and  1855; 

James  P.  Tuite,  1879-80; 

George  R.  Tuson,  1906-16; 

J.  H.  Twombly,  i860; 

William   H.   Tylee,   1902-07; 

Francis  A.  Underwood,   1897-1918; 

George  R.  Warfield,  1893-95; 

J.   Henry  Walker,   1874-75; 

Willard   Ward,    1856-59; 

Justin  A.  Ware,   1891-96; 

Emerson  Warner,  1869-87; 

Henry  W.  Warren,  1856 ; 

Charles   Washburn,    1848-50; 

Francis  Wayland,  Jr.,  1857  ; 

Ephraim  D.  Weatherbee,  1852 ; 

John  W.  Wetherell,  1850  and  1853; 

Loring  Wetherell,    1857; 

Charles  A.  Wheeler,  1850-51;    1865;  1869- 

71; 
O.  O.  Wheeler,  1869-71  ; 
James  A.  Whipple,  1855; 
G.  Henry  Whitcomb,   1871-73; 
Franklin  B.  White,  1876-79; 
George  H.  White,  1894-96  ;    1898-1900 ; 
Henry  E.  Whyman,  1897  ; 
Edward  W.  Wilder,  1912-16; 
Hartley  Williams,   1849;     1866-73; 
James  O.  Williams,  1854; 
William  A.  Williams,  1852-54 ;    1862-63  ; 
Herbert  M.  Wilson,   1899-16; 
Ephraim  D.  Witherbee,  1854; 
Pliny  W.  Wood,   1909-11  ; 
Rufus  Woodward,   1869-72;    1875-83; 
James  S.  Woodworth.  1861-65; 
William  Workman,   1849-51;    1859-62; 
Willie  C.  Young,  1884-86 ;    1893-95- 


The  Public  Schools  in  1917.— The  following  were  the  schools  in  1917 : 


The  Public  Schools  in  /p//.— Classical  High  School,  Chatham  St.  Principal,  Ed- 
ward R.  Goodwin;  assistant  principal,  Chester  T.  Porter;  an  assistant  and  thirty- 
two  other  teachers;    811  pupils. 

High  School  of  Commerce  (formerly  the  English  High).  Maple  St.  Calvin  H. 
Andrews,  principal;  Robert  T.  Elliott,  assistant  principal;  three  assistants  and  54 
other  teachers ;    1,460  pupils. 

South  High  School,  Richards  and  Freeland  streets.  Edward  M.  Woodward,  prin- 
cipal;  Thomas  F.  Power,  assistant  principal;  two  assistants  and  29  other  teachers; 
832  pupils. 

North   High    School,   Salisbury    St.     Charles   E.   Burbank,   principal;    George   H. 


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Boyden,  assistant  principal ;   two  assistants  and  33  other  teachers ;   824  pupils. 

Graded  Schools.— Abbott  St.  School.     Grades  8  to  K.     Alice  M.  Belding,  princi- 
pal ;    12  other  teachers ;   443  pupils. 

Adams    Square    School.     Grades    8    to    i.     Burncoat    street,    opposite    Millbrook. 
Mary  Drake,  principal.     Eight  other  teachers;    312  pupils. 

Adams  Street  School.     Grades  4  to  K.     Adams  street.     Ellen  E.  Moynihan,  prin- 
cipal ;    nine  other  teachers ;    320  pupils. 

Andover   Street   School.     Grades   6  to    i.     Alma   A.    Bacon,   principal,   and   sevet 
other  teachers;    208  pupils. 

Ash   Street  School.     Grades  6  to   i.     Ash  street.     Joseph  J.   Kiley,  principal,  and 
six  other  teachers  ;    227  pupils. 

Belmont    Street   School.     Grades   8   to    i.     Belmont    street,   corner    Clayton.     Ben- 
jamin E.  Martin,  principal,  and  18  other  teachers;    665  pupils. 

Blithewood  School.     Grades  7  to  i.     Blithewood  avenue.     Abbie  C.  Knight,  prin- 
cipal, and  four  other  teachers;    139  pupils. 

Bloomingdale   School.     Grades  6  to    i.     Plantation   street.     Louise   M.   Beaumont 
and  six  other  teachers ;    216  pupils. 

Burncoat  Plain  School.     Grades  7  to  i.     Burncoat  street,  near  Mountain.       Kath- 
arine T.  Kennedy,  principal,  and  four  other  teachers;    113  pupils. 

Cambridge    Street    School.     Grades    8    to    K.     Cambridge    street,    corner    Middle 
River  road.     William  A.  Tierney,  principal,  and  19  other  teachers  ;    642  pupils. 

Canterbury  Street  School.     Grades  8  to  K.     Canterbury  and  South  Bridge  streets. 
Thomas  J.  Higgins,  principal,  and  23  other  teachers  ;   836  pupils. 

Chandler    Street    School.     Grades    8   to    K.     Chandler    street,   opposite    Newbury. 
Cora  A.  Baldwin,  principal,  and  nine  other  teachers ;   372  pupils. 

Columbus  Park  School.     Grades  6  to  i.     Helen  F.  Walker,  principal,  and  six  other 
teachers ;    201  pupils. 

Dartmouth  Street  School.     Grades  7  to  K.     Frank  A.  Andrews,  principal,  and  17 
other  teachers ;    593  pupils. 

Dix  Street  School.     Grades  8  to  K.     Home  and  Dix  streets.     Frederick  W.  Ver- 
mille,  and  18  other  teachers ;    621  pupils. 

Downing    Street   School.     Grades   7   to    K.     Downing   street,   near    Park   avenue. 
Kate  E.  Smith,  principal,  and  13  other  teachers ;    506  pupils. 

East  Kendall  Street  School.     Grades  8  to  K.     East  Kendall  street.     Edith  M.  Rol- 
ston,  principal,  and  17  other  teachers;    606  pupils. 

Edgeworth   Street   School.     Grades  8  to   K.     William   F.    Butler,  principal,   and   17 
other  teachers  ;   615  pupils. 

Elizabeth  Street  School.     Grades  8  to  K.     Elizabeth  street,  near  Reservoir.     Emma 
M.  Plimpton,  principal,  and  13  other  teachers  ;    473  pupils. 

Freeland  Street  School.     Grades  7  to  i.     Freeland  street,  near  Lowell.     Jennie  L. 
Dearborn,  principal,  and  eight  other  teachers;    311  pupils. 

Gage  Street  School.     Grades  6  to  K.     Gage  street,  near  Eastern  avenue.     George  F. 
McCauley,  principal,  and  19  other  teachers ;    644  pupils. 

Gates  Lane  School.     Grades  8  to  K.     Main  street,  corner  Holland  road.     Anna  W. 
Newell,  principal,  and  14  other  teachers ;    529  pupils. 

Grafton  Street  School.     Grades  8  to  K.     Grafton  street,  corner  Wall.    Joseph  E. 
Underwood,  principal,  and  25  other  teachers;    899  pupils. 

Greendale  School.     Grades  8  to  K.     Leeds  street,  corner  Fairhaven  road.    Anna 
M.  Johnson,  principal,  and  11  other  teachers;    403  pupils. 

Harlow  Street  School.     Grades  7  to   i.     Harlow  street,  corner  Paine.     Annie  J. 
Butterfield,  principal,  and  eleven  other  teachers ;   420  pupils. 

Jamesville    School.     Grades    5    to    i.     James    street,    near    Ludlow.     Florence    St. 
Arnour,  principal,  and  two  other  teachers ;    82  pupils. 

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Lake  View  School.  Grades  8  to  K.  Lake  View  street.  Wilfred  E.  L.  Todd, 
principal,  and   six  other  teachers ;    241   pupils. 

Lamartine  Street  School.  Grades  8  to  K.  Lamartine  street,  corner  Scott.  Rich- 
ard H.  Mooney,  principal,  and  30  other  teachers ;   937  pupils. 

Ledge  Street  School.  Grades  8  to  K.  Ledge  street.  Thomas  F.  O'Flynn,  prin- 
cipal, and  23  other  teachers ;    758  pupils. 

Lee  Street  School.  Grades  6  to  K.  Institute  road,  corner  Lee  street.  Annie  Y. 
Milliken,  principal,  and  three  other  teachers ;    141  pupils. 

Ludlow  Street  School.  Grades  6  to  K.  Ludlow  street,  near  Main.  Emma  S. 
Barrett,  principal,  and  three  other  teachers;    115  pupils. 

Malvern  Road  School.  Grades  8  to  K.  Malvern  road,  near  Southbridge  street. 
Carrie  A.  Hildreth,  principal,  and  eight  other  teachers ;    285  pupils. 

Mason  Street  School.  Special  school  for  backward  children.  Mason  street,  near 
Pleasant.     Margaret  V.  Kirby,  principal,  and  one  other  teacher  ;   20  pupils. 

Midland  Street  School.  Grades  7  to  K.  Midland  street.  Mary  E.  Latchford, 
principal,  and  nine  other  teachers ;    331  pupils. 

Millbury  Street  School.  Grades  8  to  K.  Millbury  strtct,  opposite  Cambridge. 
G.  Milton  Fisher,  principal,  and  26  other  teachers ;    846  pupils. 

North  Pond  School.  Grades  6  to  i.  Holden  street,  near  Chester.  Harriet  E. 
Wheeler,  principal ;    one  other  teacher ;    68  pupils. 

North  Worcester  School.  Grades  4  to  i.  Ararat  street.  Catherine  M.  McKenna, 
teacher ;    18  pupils. 

Oxford  Street  School.  Grades  7  to  i.  Pleasant  street,  corner  Oxford.  Alice 
G.  Draper,  principal,  and  eight  other  teachers ;   296  pupils. 

Providence  Street  School.  Grades  7  to  K.  Providence  street,  corner  Grafton. 
Henry  H.  Kendall,  principal,  and  20  other  teachers ;   675  pupils. 

Quinsigamond  School.  Grades  8  to  K.  Millbury  street,  corner  Falmouth.  George 
Ruff,  principal,  and  20  other  teachers ;    823  pupils. 

Rice  Square  School.  Grades  7  to  I.  Massasoit  road,  near  Grafton  street.  John 
B.  Crowley,  principal,  and  15  other  teachers;    396  pupils. 

Salem  Street  School.  Grades  4  to  i.  Salem  street,  near  Myrtle.  Mary  A.  Mc- 
Gillicuddy,  principal,  and  three  other  teachers  ;    165  pupils. 

Sever  Street  School.  Grade  8  and  7.  Sever  street,  near  Pleasant.  Edgar  E. 
Thompson,  principal,  and  eight  other  teachers  ;    239  pupils. 

Tatnuck  School.  Grades  8  to  K.  Pleasant  street,  opposite  Willard  avenue.  Mary 
E.  Cunnigham,  principal,  and  seven  other  teachers ;    247  pupils. 

Thomas  Street  School.  Grades  7  to  K.  Thomas  street,  corner  Summer.  Kath- 
arine T.  Butler,  principal,  and  12  other  teachers ;   434  pupils. 

Trowbridgeville  School.  Grades  7  to  i.  Webster  street,  corner  Bernice.  Mabel 
E.  Burrage,  principal,  and  three  other  teachers ;    137  pupils. 

Union  Hill  School.  Grades  5  to  K.  Dorchester  street,  near  Penn  avenue.  Etha 
M.  Stowell,  principal,  and  11  other  teachers;    392  pupils. 

Upsala  Street  School.  Grades  8  to  K.  Upsala  street.  Mary  C.  Henry,  principal, 
and  17  other  teachers;  667  pupils. 

Ward  Street  School.  Grades  7  to  K.  Ward  street,  corner  Richaldn.  A.  Teresa 
Timon,  principal,  and  12  other  teachers ;    441  pupils. 

Webster  Square  School.  Grades  4  to  K.  Webster  street,  near  Main.  Florence 
D.  Gilbert,  principal,  and  three  other  teachers ;    128  pupils. 

West  Boylston  Street  School.  Grades  7  to  i.  West  Boylston  street.  Grace  E, 
Oliver,  principal,  and  eight  other  teachers  ;    289  pupils. 

Winslow  Street  School.  Grades  7  to  K.  Edgar  E.  Thompson,  principal,  and  12 
other  teachers ;  450  pupils. 

(New)  Woodland  Street  School.  Grades  8  to  7.  Woodland  street.  John  E. 
Lynch,  principal,  and  eight  other  teachers ;    305  pupils. 


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Woodland  Street  School.  Grades  6  to  K.  Woodland  street,  corner  Claremont 
John  E.  Lynch,  principal,  and  17  other  teachers ;   641  pupils. 

Preparatory  Gravimar  Schools.— ¥rtnch,  three  teachers ;  German,  three  teachers. 
Cooking  Schools,  Jessica  Scott,  director,  and  seven  other  teachers.  Drawing  Schools, 
Edward  H.  Thornhill,  director,  and  six  other  teachers.  Kindergarten,  Mary  H.  Bar- 
ker, director.  Manual  Training,  Arthur  J.  Bean,  director,  and  18  other  teachers.  Mu- 
sic, Charles  I.  Rice,  director,  and  two  other  teachers.  Physical  Training,  Edward  W. 
Wilder,  director,  and  seven  other  teachers.  Sewing,  Clara  M.  Gore,  director,  and  six 
other  teachers.     Writing,  Margaret  B.  Toole.     Salesmanship,  Anjenette  Newton. 

Evening  Schools.— R\g\i  School  (Walnut  street,  corner  Maple).  Daniel  F. 
O'Regan,  principal ;  856  pupils.  Belmont  Street  School,  William  F.  Butler,  principal ; 
149  pupils.  Canterbury  Street  School,  George  F.  McCauley,  principal;  38  pupils. 
Chandler  Street  School,  Thomas  F.  O'Flynn,  principal;  128  pupils.  Gage  Street 
School,  James  M.  Daley,  principal;  in  pupils.  Grafton  Street  School,  John  B.  Crow- 
ley, principal,  73  pupils.  Greendale  School,  Thomas  F.  Donovan,  principal ;  50  pupils. 
Lamartine  Street  School,  Mark  N.  Skerrett,  principal;  50  pupils.  Millbury  Street 
School,  E.  A.  D.  AIoss,  principal;  75  pupils.  Providence  Street  School,  William  I. 
McLaughlin,  principal;  163  pupils.  Quinsigamond  Street  School,  Joseph  M.  Tracy, 
acting  principal;  35  pupils;  Webster  Square  School,  Joseph  J.  Kiley,  acting  princi- 
pal;   14  pupils. 

Drawing  (architectural),  Charles  R.  Hoyle ;  (freehand),  Frank  J.  Darrah  and 
Ethel  M.  Smith;  (mechanical),  Geo.  E.  Marble;  Manual  Training,  Arthur  H.  Atkins 
and  Daniel  P.  Dyer;    Pattern  Making,  Frank  E.  Jones;    Cooking,  five  teachers. 

Worcester  Trade  5"c/joo/.y.— Trustees,  Louis  H.  Buckely,  president;  George  L 
Alden,  vice-president;  Charles  F.  Marble,  clerk;  John  M.  Buckely,  Cornelius  J. 
Carmody,  George  N.  Jeppson,  Thomas  J.  Lynch,  John  B.  Moss,  William  Wattie.  Boys' 
Trade  School,  Armory  square,  established  1909.  Albert  J.  Jameson,  director;  Anna 
L.  Metcalf,  registrar;  29  other  teachers.  Girls'  Trade  School,  2  State  street,  estab- 
lished 1911.     Helen  R.  Hildreth,  director;    and  25  other  teachers. 

Superintendent  of  Schools,  Homer  P.  Lewis;  assistant  superintendents,  Alice  L. 
Harris,  Walter  S.  Young,  John  F.  Gannon. 

Qualifications  of  Teachers. — To  obtain  a  position  as  teacher  in  the 
grade  schools  the  applicant  must  have  passed  an  examination.  She  must 
be  a  high  school  graduate,  or  its  equivalent;  must  have  attended  the  full 
three  years'  Normal  School  course,  and  have  served  one  year's  appren- 
ticeship, and  her  examination  mark  must  be  75%  or  better.  After  being 
put  upon  the  list— the  applicants  being  taken  from  the  top  of  the  list  in 
all  cases — her  position  advances  according  to  her  experience  as  a  teacher 
in  the  meantime.  All  high  school  teachers  must  be  college  graduates, 
no  examination  is  required,  and  no  college  is  given  preference.  The 
transfer  of  a  teacher  is  made  by  the  superintendent  subject  to  the 
approval  of  the  School  Committee.  This  is  the  same  method  required 
to  obtain  a  leave  of  absence. 

School  Grades. — In  the  list  of  schools  given  in  this  chapter  mention 
is  made  of  the  kindergarten  (K— )  and  grades  1  to  8.  Worcester  schools 
had  for  many  years  nine  grades ;  since  1911  there  have  been  but  eight. 
The  change  was  effected  without  confusion  or  lowering  of  standards. 
The  minimum  age  for  entrance  was  raised  from  five  to  six.  Children 
may  enter  the  kindergarten  not  younger  than  five  years.     The  course 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  711 

of  instruction  is  prescribed  by  law  and  is  uniform  throughout  the  state. 
Since  1908  the  school  year  has  been  divided  so  that  graduations  are  held 
in  February  as  well  as  June,  saving  many  pupils  a  half  year  of  time. 

Medical  Inspection. — In  recent  years  the  health  of  school  children 
has  been  guarded  more  and  more,  and  under  the  laws  of  the  state  con- 
stant medical  supervision  is  exercised  by  the  school  committee.  In  1917 
the  school  medical  inspectors  are:  Doctors  Edward  B.  Bigelow,  Philip 
H.  Cook,  George  E.  Deering.  George  E.  Emery,  Timothy  J.  Foley, 
Thomas  F.  Kenney,  William  E.  Laughlin,  Edwin  R.  Leib,  Charles  A. 
Lussier,  Frank  L.  Magnus,  John  T.  McGillicuddy,  Lester  C.  Miller, 
George  F.  O'Day,  John  E.  Rice,  George  O.  Ward,  Roy  J.  Ward. 

Attendance  Officers. — The  appointment  of  the  first  truant  officer  of 
the  town  has  been  mentioned.  From  year  to  year  a  constable  or  several 
officers  were  appointed  to  enforce  the  compulsory  education  laws.  This 
duty  has  been  performed  of  late  years  by  attendance  officers  appointed  by 
the  committee.  Richard  J.  Kerwick,  the  chief,  has  three  assistants : 
Michael  j.  English,  W^illiam  J.  McCleary  and  James  P.  Foley  (191?) . 
There  is  also  a  supervisor  of  attendance  elected  by  the  committee.  Miss 
Edith  M.  Dixon  fills  the  position  at  the  present  time. 


fejLO.. 


'^.i. 


CHAPTER  XLV 
The  High  Schools— Trade  Schools 

Worcester  Classical  High  School. — It  is  not  granted  to  every  school 
to  have  as  one  of  its  earliest  masters  a  man  who  afterwards  became  pres- 
ident of  the  United  States;  this  distinction  belongs  to  the  Worcester 
Classical  High  School,  for  John  i\dams  (1755-58)  was  the  first  recorded 
head  of  the  Latin  Grammar  School  which,  together  with  the  Girls  Eng- 
lish High  School  was  incorporated  in  the  Worcester  Classical  and  Eng- 
lish High  School  as  it  was  called  from  184:5  to  1892. 

Geniuses  seldom  confine  their  activities  to  one  spot  and,  like  its 
illustrious  first  leader,  this  school  has  had  a  varied  career,  even  to  the 
extent  of  several  changes  in  location.  From  1815  to  1872  sessions  were 
held,  including  Saturdays,  in  the  old  building  on  Walnut  street,  now 
used  as  a  Manual  Training  School  It  was  originally  on  the 
site  of  the  present  High  School  of  Commerce.  When  new  the  pres- 
ent antiquated  structure  was  considered  a  most  sumptuous  building  and 
was  proudly  commented  upon  in  the  school  board  reports  of  that  time. 
When  the  original  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  pupils  had  so  increased 
that  the  building  was  no  longer  adequate,  it  was  moved  across  the  street 
to  its  present  site,  and  while  the  edifice  at  the  corner  of  Maple  and  Wal- 
nut streets  was  being  constructed  the  pupils  were  housed  in  various  parts 
of  the  city.  This  building  has  now  become  a  landmark,  and  its  lofty 
clock  tower  and  imposing  entrance  are  the  work  of  a  genius,  for  H.  H. 
Richardson,  the  designer,  afterwards  became  one  of  the  leading  architects 
of  the  country.  The  original  effect  has  been  much  disturbed  by  the 
recent  large  addition,  which  however  houses  a  beautiful  and  spacious 
hall,  and  numerous  well  lighted  recitation  rooms. 

For  twenty  years  following  1872  this  school  was  a  powerful  influence 
in  the  educational  world ;  but  in  1892  it  had  to  share  the  honors  with  a 
young  and  lusty  child,  the  English  High  School,  at  the  corner  of  Irv- 
ing and  Chatham  streets.  By  a  curious  trick  of  fate  this  offspring,  now 
called  the  High  School  of  Commerce,  in  1914  seized  upon  the  newly 
enlarged  family  homestead  and  offered  its  own  smaller  quarters  to  the 
"old  folks."  The  change  was,  however,  made  amicably,  but  with  con- 
siderable loss  of  traditions,  for  it  seemed  unwise  to  move  all  the  accu- 
mulations of  forty-two  years  residence,  and  some  of  the  schools'  most 
cherished  possessions  are  still  in  the  old  halls. 

It  is  impossible  in  a  short  sketch  to  mention  all  the  noteworthy 
teachers  who  have  been  connected  with  the  Classical  High  School,  but  it 
seems  necessary  to  include  the  names  at  least  of  the  sixteen  elected  prin- 
cipals since  1845.     Elbridge  Smith,  the  head  master  of  the  Latin  Gram- 


714  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

mar  School,  was  the  logical  choice  of  the  school  board  for  principal  of 
the  newly  formed  school,  and  he  continued  in  service  for  two  years,  leav- 
ing to  organize  a  high  school  in  Cambridge,  a  position  which  testifies  to 
his  reputation  for  efficiency. 

Elected  in  1847,  Nelson  Wheeler,  previously  head  of  the  Manual 
Labor  High  School,  now  the  Worcester  Academy,  controlled  for  five 
years  the  destinies  of  this  Worcester  School  and  then  accepted  a  Greek 
professorship  in  Bro-wn  University.  The  following  two  years  (1852-54) 
found  George  Capron  at  the  helm.  Possessed  of  a  very  muscular  idea  of 
discipline,  he  seems  to  have  weeded  out  the  unfit,  for  the  school  is  reported 
to  have  fallen  ofif  greatly  in  attendance.  He  declined  re-election  in  1854, 
and  apparently  devoted  his  time  to  business  pursuits.  Osgood  Johnson  fol- 
lowed him,  but  left  two  weeks  before  the  close  of  the  year  as  a  result  of 
some  differences  with  the  school  board.  A  man  of  very  scholarly  attain- 
ments and  honored  with  the  highest  salary  yet  paid  ($1500),  he  seems 
to  have  gone  to  the  other  extreme  from  his  predecessor,  and  in  place 
of  the  rod  he  substituted  the  prayer  meeting  which  was  sometimes  held 
both  before  school  and  at  noon.  He  was  apparently  beloved  by  his 
pupils  and  was  elected  next  year  as  princi])al  of  the  Cambridge  High 
School. 

To  fill  out  the  school  year.  Homer  B.  Sprague,  a  member  of  the  school 
board,  took  charge,  and  gave  such  satisfaction  that  he  was  retained  until 
1859.  Some  disturbance  arising,  the  teachers  resigned  in  a  body,  and  the 
trouble  resulted  in  a  vote  to  lower  Principal  Sprague  to  the  rank  of 
teacher,  and  promote  Harris  Greene,  one  of  the  teachers,  to  the  princi- 
palship.  Mr.  Sprague  declined  to  serve  longer  in  any  capacity,  and 
apparently  gave  up  teaching,  retaining,  however,  in  the  matter  the 
respect  and  admiration  of  his  pupils.  He  afterwards  acquired  a  consider- 
able reputation  as  a  scholarly  writer  on  English  Classics.  The  whole 
incident,  arising  probably  in  the  politics  of  the  day,  proves  that  the  "good 
old  times"  were  almost  gruesomely  modern. 

The  next  principal,  Harris  Greene,  elected  in  1851),  gave  the  school 
till  1866  one  of  its  best  administrations.  Scholarly  and  progressive,  he 
incited  all  to  their  best  efforts,  and  during  the  trying  period  of  the  Civil 
War  he  preached  the  patriotism  of  the  daily  task,  while  speeding  on  their 
way  the  many  High  School  boys  who  left  never  to  return.  Among  these 
was  Willie  Grout,  in  whose  honor  was  written  "The  X'acant  Chair,"  a 
song  now  of  national  fame.  For  thirteen  years  after  leaving  the  High 
School,  Mr.  Greene  was  principal  of  the  Oread  Institute,  thus  giving  the 
best  part  of  his  life  to  the  educational  welfare  of  Worcester.  He  made 
many  innovations,  among  which  was  the  public  graduation,  the  pu])ils 
having  previously,  as  one  commentator  expresses  it,  "stayed  till  the  spirit 
of  leaving  overtook  them." 

Of  the  short  stay  of  James  T.  Claflin,  less  than  a  year,  another 
result  of  "unpleasant  conditions,"  it  is  not  necessary  to  speak.  Init  his 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  71 5 

failure  to  please  a  Worcester  public  did  not  prevent  his  attaining  high 
honors  in  the  educational,  political  and  literary  life  of  the  country. 

Ellis  Peterson's  service  (1867-75)  owing  to  ill  health,  was  inter- 
rupted by  the  principalship  of  Abner  H.  Davis  (1869-72).  Mr.  Davis, 
who  was  a  teacher  in  the  school,  cheerfully  accepted  his  return  to  the 
ranks  in  favor  of  the  re-election  of  his  former  chief.  During  Mr.  Davis' 
administration,  in  1871  the  building  at  the  corner  of  Maple  and  Walnut 
streets  was  dedicated.  Principal  Davis'  felicitous  remark  on  that  occa- 
sion is  worthy  of  mention.  "The  most  eloquent  dedication  will  be  the 
touch  of  the  children's  feet."  The  "unpleasant  conditions,"  which  occur- 
red with  almost  uncanny  frequency,  forced  the  resignation  in  1875 
of  Mr.  Peterson  and  his  "faithful  Achates,"  Mr.  Davis.  Both  men,  how- 
ever, kept  their  interest  in  the  school,  and  in  after  years  by  their  gifts  and 
attendance  at  various  school  reunions  testified  to  a  forgiving  spirit. 

Joseph  W.  Fairbanks  (1875-78)  was  an  efficient  and  highly  respected 
principal,  but  the  city  was  compelled,  evidently  by  hard  times,  to  reduce 
the  teachers'  salaries  twice,  and  Mr.  Fairbanks  was  attracted  by  a  more 
remunerative  position,  in  this  case  the  principalship  of  the  famous  Wil- 
liston  Academy. 

Samuel  Thurber  (1878-80)  began  his  term  under  most  favorable 
conditions,  but  his  superior  qualities  were  soon  recognized  by  the  Bos- 
ton School  Board  and  he  was  ofifered  the  principalship  of  the  Girls  High 
School,  a  position  which  he  held  almost  continually  for  the  remainder 
of  his  long  life. 

No  short  sketch  could  do  justice  to  Alfred  S.  Roe,  who  was  principal 
from  1880  to  1890,  and  a  teacher  in  the  school  for  the  five  years  preceding. 
His  labors  of  love  are  evidenced  on  every  hand,  and  his  pupils  revere  his 
memory.  His  recent  death  gave  occasion  for  his  many  friends  to  renew 
their  appreciation  of  his  service  for  Worcester.  Memorial  exercises  were 
held  in  the  Classical  High  School,  at  which  time  an  oil  painting  of  Mr. 
Roe,  the  gift  of  the  Alumni,  w^as  presented  to  the  school.  Following 
his  resignation  he  served  the  community  in  several  legislative  connec- 
tions, including  that  of  State  Senator.  In  his  later  life  he  was  supervisor 
of  the  Evening  Schools  of  Worcester,  a  position  which  he  held  at  the 
time  of  his  death. 

John  G.  Wright  (1890-94)  gave  of  his  best  to  the  school,  but  like 
that  of  so  many  of  his  predecessors  his  ability  was  recognized  by  a  more 
remunerative  position,  and  he  became  the  head  of  a  Philadelphia  high 
school. 

The  next  term  of  twenty-three  years  was  unusual  for  its  length,  and 
in  Edward  R.  Goodwin  the  school  found  a  kindly  friend  who  encouraged 
All  school  activities  and  rejoiced  in  the  splendid  record  made  by  his  stu- 
dents in  higher  institutions.  The  service  of  seven  teachers,  four  of  them 
graduates  of  the  school,  was  contemporaneous  with  that  of  Mr.  Goodwin, 
a  fact  which  induced  a  family  spirit  difficult  to  duplicate  in  any  school. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  717 

His  retirement  to  private  life  was  the  occasion  of  a  substantial  testi- 
monial on  the  part  of  teachers,  alumni  and  students.  He  was  the  first 
Classical  High  teacher  to  receive  the  benefits  of  the  new  State  pension 
laws. 

Chester  T.  Porter,  assistant  principal  for  three  years  preceding  his 
election  in  1917  and  a  teacher  in  the  school  for  sixteen  years  before, 
assumed  his  duties  in  the  early  days  of  the  Great  War.  Under  his  lead- 
ership the  school  is  making  a  splendid  record  in  patriotic  service,  having 
a  very  active  Junior  Red  Cross  Chapter,  beside  subscribing  generously 
to  Liberty  Loans  and  other  war  contributions.  Like  the  previous  war 
principal,  Mr.  Greene,  he  has  emphasized  attention  to  school  duties  as 
the  students'  most  patriotic  service,  although  several  of  the  Classical 
High  boys  have  left  for  active  war  work. 

No  mention  has  been  made  of  any  teacher  thus  far,  but  it  seems 
impossible  not  to  include  the  names  of  Mary  P.  Jefts,  Caroline  P.  Town- 
send  and  William  F.  Abbot,  wdio  during  nearly  all  of  the  last  four  prin- 
cipalships  have  been  connected  with  the  school  in  the  departments  with 
which  they  are  associated.  They  have  gained  a  highly  deserved  repu- 
tation for  scholarly  teaching,  as  well  as  unselfish  service,  and  they  are 
remembered  as  friends  in  thousands  of  homes. 

For  many  years  the  school  has  held  admission  certificate  privileges 
to  all  New  England  colleges  which  grant  the  right.  This  fact,  as  well 
as  the  records  in  scholarship  won  by  many  of  its  graduates,  attest  the 
thoroughness  and  progressiveness  of  its  work. 

Apart  from  the  routine  of  the  class  room,  the  school  has  always  been 
characterized  by  other  activities  wdiich  have  greatly  stimulated  school 
spirit  and  loyalty.  In  1885  an  Athletic  Association  was  formed,  and 
since,  then  interest  along  these  lines  has  been  very  strong.  For  a  num- 
ber of  years  the  school  has  supported  successful  football,  baseball,  bask- 
et-ball and  track  teams.  The  training  secured  in  these  activities  has 
made  it  possible  for  many  a  boy  to  become  a  star  in  his  chosen  college. 
Basket-ball  has  been  very  popular  among  the  girls  for  the  past  fifteen 
years. 

Debating  societies  have  also  played  a  prominent  part  in  the  life  of 
the  school.  As  early  as  1858  the  Eucleia  was  organized.  Almost  a  quar- 
ter of  a  century  later  the  girls  formed  a  debating  society  known  as  the 
Aletheia.  In  1883  the  Sumner  Club  was  organized,  and  two  years  later 
the  Assembly.  The  latter  was  transferred  to  the  English  High  School 
when  it  was  opened  in  1892.  All  these  societies  have  had  varied  fortunes 
and  degrees  of  prosperity  during  all  these  years,  but  everyone  of  them  has 
left  its  mark  upon  the  school  and  upon  the  large  number  of  men  and 
women  who  received  their  first  training  in  public  speaking  in  the  weekly 
meetings  of  these  societies.  In  the  inter-school  debating  contests  both 
the  Eucleia  and  the  Sumner  Club  have  held  honorable  records. 

For  many  years  it  has  been  the  custom  for  the  graduating  class  to 


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AND  ITS  PEOPLE  719 

make  the  school  some  appropriate  gift.  This  has  usually  taken  the 
form  of  some  work  of  art,  but  in  TJl?,  directly  after  our  entrance  into 
war,  the  senior  class  chose  a  beautiful  silk  flag  as  the  most  fitting  gift 
at  such  a  time. 

Dramatics,  too,  have  had  their  share  in  the  history  of  the  school. 
Among  the  most  memorable  of  these  efforts  have  been  the  Senior  Plays 
of  1915  and  1918.  In  1915  "Silas  Marner"  was  dramatized  by  Miss  May- 
nard,  a  member  of  the  class,  and  most  creditably  presented  under  the 
direction  of  Mr.  Martin  Post,  a  teacher  of  English.  In  1918  "The  Vicar 
of  Wakefield,"  dramatized  and  directed  by  Mr.  Post,  was  presented  in  the 
Worcester  Theatre  and  reflected  great  credit  upon  all  concerned. 

In  1886  the  Alumni  and  teachers  formed  an  organization  known  as 
the  High  School  Association.  It  meets  once  a  year,  on  the  evening  of 
Graduation  Day,  and  affords  an  opportunity  for  class  reunions.  For 
the  better  part  of  a  century  the  Classical  High  School  has  been  an  impor- 
tant factor  in  the  social  and  educational  life  of  Worcester.  At  the  pres- 
ent writing  it  shares  these  responsibilities  with  three  other  high  schools, 
but  its  traditions  of  efficiency  and  service  are  a  rich  possession  and  are 
an  inspiration  to  all  who  come  within  its  walls. 

North  High  School. — The  North  High  School  was  established  Octo- 
ber 3,  1911,  and  graduated  its  first  class  in  June,  1913.  The  school  was  first 
housed  in  the  small  but  handsome  building  designed  by  Stephen  C.  Earle, 
and  used  for  several  years  as  a  grammar  school.  Its  very  accessible  loca- 
tion, on  Salisbury  street,  near  the  junction  of  Grove,  Lincoln,  Belmont, 
and  Main,  is  the  best  in  the  city,  but  the  accommodations  proved  inade- 
quate almost  from  the  beginning.  The  very  old  grammar  school  build- 
ing on  Sycamore  street,  though  far  removed,  was  turned  over  to  the 
school  in  October,  1913,  but  in  June,  1914,  it  was  made  a  part  of  the 
more  recently  organized  High  School  of  Commerce.  In  September,  1916, 
was  completed,  just  north  of  the  old  Salisbury  street  building,  a  much 
larger  one,  of  which  the  architect  was  John  T.  Simpson,  of  Newark,  New 
Jersey.  The  two  structures  are  connected  and  used  by  the  one  school. 
There  is  an  excellent  gymnasium  and  one  of  the  most  unique  and  attrac- 
tive auditoriums  in  the  city.  The  school  numbers  over  thirty  teachers 
and  over  seven  hundred  pupils. 

When  the  school  was  first  established.  Miss  Nellie  C.  Thomas,  who 
had  been  principal  of  the  grammar  school,  served  for  a  time  as  acting 
principal,  until  Mr.  Charles  E.  Burbank,  a  teacher  of  the  Classical  High 
School,  was  given  the  permanent  appointment.  In  the  fall  of  1913  the 
North  High  School  Record,  a  quarterly,  began  publication,  and  in  1915, 
the  Aftermath,  an  annual,  issued  by  the  class  graduating  in  June  of 
each  year.  The  athletic  teams  maintained  are :  Football,  baseball,  boys' 
basket-ball,  girls'  basket-ball,  cross  country,  track,  tennis,  and  hockey. 
The  societies  are  the  Orchestra,  Girls' Glee  Club,  Dramatic  Club,  the  Athe- 
neuni  and  the  Forum,  debating  clubs  for  girls  and  boys  respectively,  N 


■20 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Club,  Chess  and  Checker  Club,  x\lumni  Association.     November  20,  1917, 
the  entire  school  was  chartered  as  a  chapter  of  the  Junior  Red  Cross. 

Recently  as  the  school  had  been  founded,  on  December  17, 1917,  sixty- 
eight  of  its  former  pupils  were  already  in  the  service.  About  seventy 
pupils  cultivated  gardens  at  Green  Hill,  in  the  food  conservation  move- 
ment, besides  many  others  who  had  them  at  home  or  engaged  in  regu- 
lar work  for  farmers.  Of  those  who  finish  the  four  years'  course,  a  very 
high  percentage  enter  higher  institutions  of  learning. 

South  High  School. — The  third  high  school  building  in  the  city  was 
erected  in  1900-01  at  a  cost  of  $180,000,  and  occupied  in  September,  1901. 
It  is  located  on  Richards  street,  and  known  as  the  South  High  School. 
It  is  a  brick  building,  three  stories  high,  with  23  class-rooms.  It  pro- 
vided for  700  pupils;  at  the  beginning  enrolled  about  400,  and  within 
four  years  was  filled  to  its  capacity.  Before  another  building  was  pro- 
vided to  relieve  the  overcrowding  of  the  high  schools,  its  enrollment 
increased  to  1025.  Various  temporary  buildings,  rooms  in  grammar 
school  buildings  and  other  quarters,  were  provided  for  the  overflow. 

This  school  has  maintained  a  high  standard  and  in  some  respects 
has  served  as  a  model.     xA.bout  80  per  cent,  of  its  graduates  enter  col- 
leges, normal  or  technical  schools.     Its  laboratories  were  equipped  and 
planned  by  Calvin  H.  Andrews,  now  principal  of  the  High   School  of 
Commerce,  and  they  are  frequently  visited  by  school  authorities  and 
copied  by  other  schools.     The  first  principal,  Homer  P.  Lewis,  resigned 
at  the  end  of  two  years  to  become  superintendent  of  schools,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Edward  M.  Woodward,  who  has  filled  the  position  since 
September,  1903.     (See  biographies  of  Mr.  Lewis  and  Mr.  Woodward). 
The  school  has  attained  enviable  distinction  in  athletics  and  through  its 
literary  organizations.     The   Congress  Debating  Society,  organized  in 
1902,  has  been  active  from  the  beginning  and  maintains  a  membership 
of  about  sixty.     In  contests  with  other  high  schools  it  has  won  one  cup 
and  has  two  points   to   its   credit   on   another.     The   Philomathia,   the 
debating  society  for  girls,  was  organized  in  1905  and  has  about  sixty 
members.     The  South  High  Dramatic  Club,  composed  of  both  boys  and 
girls,  was  established  in  1902  for  the  purpose  of  studying  and  presenting 
plays.     Meetings   are  held   weekly  and   plays   presented   twice   a  year. 
The  membership  is  limited  to  fifty.     The  Index,  a  monthly  newspaper, 
founded  in  1908,  edited  by  the  board  of  students  with  an  adviser  from  the 
faculty  is  published  ten  times  a  year.     It  is  a  neat,  crisp,  well-edited  pub- 
lication.    Its  motto  is  "Clean  Speech,  Clean  Athletics,  Clean  Living."    It 
has  served  a  very  useful  purpose  and  is  an  institution  of  which  teachers 
as  well  as  pupils,  are  justly  proud. 

The  South  High  Orchestra  has  been  the  means  of  developing  much 
musical  talent  among  the  pupils.  It  was  founded  in  1902.  Rehearsals 
are  held  weekly  during  the  school  year.  The  orchestra  furnishes  music 
at  all  important  school  gatherings.     For  many  years  it  played  at  the 


THE  NKW  YORK 
PUBLIC  LIBRARY 


MSrOH.    X.rJNOX   ANll 


AND  ITS  FECFLE  721 


graduating  exercises  in  Mechanics  Hall.  It  has  provided  a  source  of 
revenue  not  only  for  its  own  expenses,  but  for  other  school  purposes,  by- 
playing  in  department  stores  and  entertainments.  Miss  Elizabeth  C. 
Woodman  of  the  faculty  has  instructed  the  orchestra  and  trained  the 
glee  clubs  that  have  worked  with  the  orchestra  from  time  to  time  in 
providing  musical  entertainments.  Even  comic  operas  have  been  pro- 
duced very  successfully  by  the  students. 

South  High  has  maintained  foot-ball,  baseball  and  basket  ball  teams, 
and  taken  its  share  of  honors  in  the  games  with  other  schools. 

English  High  School. — The  building  at  the  corner  of  Irving  and 
Chatham  (now  known  as  the  Classical  High),  was  occupied  in  Sep- 
tember. 1892.  James  Jenkins  w^as  first  principal.  The  building  cost 
$100,000.  and  the  land  $50,000.  Barker  &  .Nourse  were  the  architects. 
The  building  is  117  by  147  feet,  with  a  tower  130  feet  in  height.  The 
material  is  Greenfield  brick  with  brownstone  trimming.  Mr.  Jenkins 
was  succeeded  by  Homer  P.  Lewis  in  1896.  Mr.  Lewis  resigned  in  1901 
to  become  principal  of  South  High  School.  He  was  selected  superin- 
tendent of  schools  1903.  an  office  he  has  held  since  that  time,  and  w^as 
succeeded  by  Joseph  P.  Jackson  \\\\o  served  until  1916.  The  history  of 
the  English  High  School  is  continued  under  its  new  name,  The  High 
School  of  Commerce. 

High  Schocl  of  Commerce. — The  High  School  of  Commerce  is  the 
largest  high  school  in  the  city  and  one  of  the  largest  secondary  schools 
in  the  state.  Under  normal  conditions  about  1,-iOO  pupils  are  accom- 
modated. A  faculty  of  between  sixty  and  seventy  teachers  is  main- 
tained, and  the  courses  offered  are  exceedingly  varied  and  numerous. 
Every  possible  pha^e  of  commercial  education  with  systematic  instruc- 
tion in  all  branches  of  office  practice  is  to  be  found  in  the  curriculum, 
and  every  modern  mechanical  device  now^  used  by  progressive  business 
houses  is  at  the  disposal  of  the  classes.  The  pupil  interested  in  the  study 
of  money  and  banking  finds  an  opportunity  here.  Those  who  are  inter- 
ested in  advertising,  journalism,  salesmanship,  commercial  drawing  and 
designing,  and  many  another  branch  of  work,  are  afforded  ample  chances 
for  the  pursuit  of  their  individual  needs.  At  the  same  time  the  old- 
established  branches  of  high  school  study  are  not  neglected,  and  the 
scope  of  the  institution  is  such  that  practically  every  type  of  student 
may  be  accommodated. 

The  school  was  opened  in  the  fall  of  1914,  Mr.  Joseph  Jackson  being 
the  first  principal.  Coming  from  the  English  High  School,  he  brought 
with  him  most  of  the  pupils  and  teachers  from  that  school,  and  the 
High  School  of  Commerce  was  fortunate  in  having  so  able  an  adminis- 
trator to  engineer  its  start.  Again  the  institution  was  most  fortunate  in 
acquiring  the  services  of  Calvin  H.  Andrews  as  assistant  principal,  who 
came  ripe  with  experience  won  at  the  old  English  High  School  and  the 
W.— 1-46. 


-J 22  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


South  High  School  of  this  city,  and  who  bore  with  him  at  the  start  the 
good  wishes  and  esteem  of  hundreds  of  friends.     In  addition  to  this  he 
was  a  teacher  of  wide  reputation  and  an  authority  upon  secondary  school 
physics.     In  the  summer  of  1916  Mr.  Jackson  retired  from  service,  hon- 
ored by  the  entire  community,  and  j\Ir.  Andrews  came  into  office  as 
principal,  with  Robert  T.  Elliott,  formerly  of  the  Classical  High  School, 
as  assistant  principal.     The  team  is  a  most  happy  combination,  and  in  an 
institution  of  this  size  that  is  a  tremendous  factor  in  making  for  efficiency. 
There  are  numerous  flourishing  student  organizations  at  the  High 
School  of  Commerce.     An  exceptional  orchestra,  carefully  and  success- 
fully trained  by  Miss  Alma  Morrissette,  has  already  built  an  enviable 
reputation.     The  old  Britomart,  or  Girls'  Literary  Society,  is  active,  as 
is   also  the   Assembly,   or   Boys'    Debating   Society,   while   the   Choral 
Club,  under  Mr.  Stickney,  does  splendid  work.     The  school  publishes  a 
bi-weekly  newspaper  known  as  the  Mercury.     It  is  run  by  the  classes 
in  journalism  under  Miss   Grace   Buxton,  with   Mr.  Walter  Morrill  as 
faculty   business   manager.     The    Blackfriars   is   the   title   given   to   the 
school  dramatic  club  which  was  founded  by  the  class  of  1917  with  the 
help  of  R.  R.  Greenwood.     The  faculty  coaches  are  Mr.  Greenwood  and 
Mrs.  Buckley.     There  is  in  the  school  a  splendid  athletic  spirit  and  the 
regular  quota  of  teams  may  be  found.     Special  mention  should  be  made 
perhaps  of  the  girls'  basketball  teams,  for  they  have  worked  admirably 
and   have   had   marked    success.     The   fine   gymnasium   wnth   its   ample 
tquipm'int  is  an  incentive  to  good  work  in  this  line.     In  addition  to  these 
liatters  there  are  numerous  organizations  of  both  the  boys  and  girls, 
which  owe  their  origins  to  the  war,  and  these  groups  are  doing  a  most 
useful  and  patriotic  duty  and  are  attempting  to  support  the  effort  and 
sacrifice   which  have  been  made  by  the  boys  of  the  school  who  have 
given  their  services  to  their  country. 

The  educational  purpose  of  the  High  School  of  Commerce  is  in  a 
way  unique,  for  it  w^as  established  to  meet  a  very  broad  demand.  When 
the  agitation  for  more  wide-spread  commercial  education  swept  over 
the  country  a  decade  ago,  that  impulse  in  the  community  led  to  the 
founding  of  this  school,  and  with  that  has  grown  the  intent  on  the  part 
of  those  in  authority  to  make  it  not  merely  the  typical  business  college, 
but  a  genuine  institution  of  learning  as  well,  where  a  pupil  may  learn 
not  only  useful  things  connected  with  commercial  methods  and  business 
life,  but  may  in  addition  absorb  some  of  the  more  cultural  phases  of 
education  at  the  same  time,  and  thereby  fit  himself  for  promotion  in  his 
later  vocation  and  find  himself  capable  of  maintaining  a  high  position  in 
the  community  as  an  American  citizen. 

Worcester  Evening  High  School. — The  experiment  with  evening 
schools  in  this  city  began  Dec.  1,  1849,  when  three  schools  were  opened, 
one  in  Fenwick  Hall  for  both  sexes  under  Addison  A.  Hunt;  one  for 
girls  in  the  brick  school  house  on  the  Common,  under  John  C.  Newton, 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  7^?, 

and  one  for  boys  in  the  Thomas  Street  school  house.  Elementary  stud- 
ies were  taught,  but  were  not  very  successful.  They  have  continued 
out  interruption,  and  since  1881  have  taken  an  important  place  in  the 
school  system. 

In  1881  there  were  seven  evening  schools,  in  1883,  nine;  in  1890, 
twelve.  In  1891  John  J,  Riordan  was  made  supervisor  of  the  evening 
schools.  He  died  in  1900,  and  was  succeeded  by  Hon.  Alfred  S.  Roe, 
who  continued  in  the  office  until  his  death  in  1917. 

The  Evening  High  School  was  established  by  Mr.  Riordan  in  the 
Washington  street  building,  where  the  graded  school  of  the  evening 
school  system  was  located  in  October,  1893.  The  first  class  graduated 
in  March  following.  In  1894  the  Evening  High  School  was  located  in 
the  old  Walnut  street  building,  and  at  the  graduation  March  22,  1895,  Dr. 
T.  C.  Mendenhall,  of  the  W.  P.  I.,  delivered  an  address.  Since  1895  the 
school  has  been  held  in  the  high  school  building  on  Chatham  street.  A 
course  of  three  years  was  laid  out  at  that  time.  The  graduating  exercises 
were  held  at  first  in  the  school  hall,  but  in  1908  and  since  then  in  Me- 
chanics Hall,  and  they  have  proved  to  be  events  of  much  public  interest. 
Each  year  some  eminent  educator  or  distinguished  public  man  has 
spoken  to  the  graduates. 

The  principal  of  the  Evening  High  School,  Daniel  F.  O'Regan, 
graduated  from  W.  P.  I.  in  1891,  and  has  been  a  teacher  in  the  evening 
schools  since  then.  Other  early  teachers  in  the  high  school  were :  Dr. 
C.  W.  Whitaker,  William  I.  McLoughlin,  Philip  Russell,  Dr.  D.  T. 
O'Connor  and  Thomas  C.  Carrigan.  In  recent  years  there  have  been 
about  thirty  teachers  and  800  to  1000  pupils.  Besides  arithmetic,  grammar, 
history,  civil  government,  algebra,  chemistry  and  rhetoric,  the  subjects 
originally  taught,  Latin,  German,  French,  Spanish,  civil  service,  Eng- 
lish literature,  geometry,  typewriting  and  stenography,  bookkeeping, 
physics  and  other  subjects  have  been  added.  The  school  ranks  high  and 
is  one  of  the  few  holding  five  sessions  a  week.  For  the  past  seventeen 
years  a  four-year  course  has  been  maintained  and  the  list  of  graduates 
has  constantly  increased.  There  is  also  a  separate  and  highly  suc- 
cessful evening  school  for  drawing. 

The  Latin  School  for  Boys. — A  bequest  in  the  will  of  Isaiah  Thomas 
furnished  the  lot  for  the  Latin  School  for  Boys.  At  a  town  meeting 
Nov.  21,  1831,  a  committee  consisting  of  Alfred  D.  Foster,  Lewis  Bige- 
low,  Alpheus  Merrifield,  Frederick  W.  Paine,  William  Keith,  Isaac  Da- 
vis and  George  T.  Rice,  chosen  at  a  previous  meeting,  to  consider  the 
provisions  of  the  will,  recommended  the  building  of  a  school  house  on  the 
lot  at  the  corner  of  Summer  and  Thomas  streets,  two  stories  high,  30  by 
67  feet,  estimating  the  cost  at  $2,250.  The  report  was  accepted,  and 
Frederick  W.  Paine,  Otis  Cornett  and  Lewis  Barnard  appointed  a  build- 
ing committee.  In  183-4  Nathan  Heard  succeeded  Mr.  Paine,  who 
resigned.     The   committee   finished   its  work  in   1835.     The   house   was 


724 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


built  of  brick,  but  was  called  "old"  in  1851,  when  the  present  building 
took  its  place.  The  material  in  the  old  building  was  used  in  construct- 
ing the  Pine  street  school  house  at  the  corner  of  Shrewsbury  street  and 
East  Worcester  street. 

The  need  of  more  room  at  Thomas  street  was  felt  as  early  as  1846, 
and  during  the  next  five  years  various  committees  considered  the  prob- 
lem. Once  the  town  voted  $1,200  for  changes  in  the  old  building,  but 
the  appropriation  was  not  used.  The  new  building  was  dedicated  Sept. 
1,  1851.  It  was  built  by  Horatio  N.  Tower;  seated  380  pupils.  Charles 
A.  Thurber,  master  of  the  school  for  several  years  before  1840,  and  El- 
bridge  Smith  was  afterward  a  principal  of  the  school. 

Warren  Lazell  taught  the  boys'  school  on  Thomas  street  for  eighteen 
years,  and  had  previously  taught  in  the  New  Worcester  district.  He  was 
highly  commended  in  the  reports  of  the  committee.  He  came  to  this  city 
March  18,  1827,  and  taught  until  1846,  when  he  became  secretary  of  the 
school  board.  He  had  a  book  store  at  177  Main  street,  and  afterward  w^as 
in  partnership  with  William  Hovey  in  the  manufacture  of  straw-cutters. 
When  the  business  was  destroyed  by  the  Merrifield  fire  in  1854,  he  went  to 
New  York  and  was  with  the  firm  of  Lazell, Marsh  &  Hunn,  druggists.  New 
York,  of  w^hich  his  son  was  senior  partner.     He  died  there  Dec.  23,  1845. 

George  A.  Willard  had  charge  of  the  Third  Boys'  or  Boys'  Primary 
School,  Thomas  street,  for  a  short  time,  resigning  in  1840.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Charles  W.  Hartwell,  who  had  taught  the  Apprentices'  School 
very  successfully  and  previously  in  Phillips  Academy,  Andover,  and  in 
East  Douglas ;  he  died  in  New  York  City,  Dec,  1889.  Albion  P.  Peck 
was  elected  teacher  of  the  Boys'  School,  June  22,  1835,  and  stayed  until 
1839 ;  after  he  left  this  city  he  became  register  of  probate  of  Hampshire 
county;  was  trial  justice;  well  known  writer  on  agricultural  subjects; 
member  of  the  Northampton  school  committee;  died  November  7,  1884, 
at  Vineland,  N.  J.,  where  he  spent  his  last  years. 

Austin  G.  Fitch  taught  the  Second  Boys'  School  from  1839  to  1844 
or  1845 ;  acquired  a  high  reputation  as  a  teacher ;  had  previously  bought 
a  farm  at  Quinsigamond,  later  engaged  in  milling  at  Springvale.  Me. ; 
afterward  lived  in  Holliston  and  Watertown,  where  he  died  in  July, 
1891;  he  claimed  to  be  the  first  to  introduce  music  and  drawing  in  the 
Worcester  schools. 

Charles  A.  Thurber,  mentioned  above,  was  a  graduate  of  Brown, 
1827,  principal  of  Milford  Academy;  was  principal  of  the  Worcester 
Latin  Grammar  School,  Thomas  street,  until  June,  1839 ;  became  associ- 
ated with  Ethan  Allen  in  the  manufacture  of  pistols;  was  county  com- 
missioner; state  senator;  trustee  of  Brown  University;  lived  later  in 
Norwich,  Conn.,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  and  Germantown,  Pa.  James  Sulli- 
van Russell,  of  Lowell,  who  succeeded  Mr.  Thurber,  remained  but  six 
months ;  John  WVight  was  the  next  principal  and  when  he  left  became 
officer  in  a  Lowell  mill.     Mr.  Russell  attended  school  here  as  a  boy  and 


pUBl\^ 


MC  U' 


as-^":":'j.ou»»^ 


MASSACHUSETTS  SCHOOL  OF  ENGINEERING, 
BOYS'  TRADE  SCHOOL. 


WORCESTER  B(J\  S'  TRADE  SCHOOL. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  7^S 


taught  the  Quinsigamond  school,  1828-9,  later  at  Hingham  and  Lexing- 
ton ;  was  a  student  at  Brown  afterward ;  then  a  teacher  at  Arlington  and 
in  the  Lowell  High  School ;  after  leaving  this  city  he  took  a  course  in 
the  Normal  School  at  Barre,  then  returned  as  teacher  of  mathematics  to 
the  Lowell  High  School,  in  which  he  taught  until  ISTO,  making  fifty  years 
of  his  life  devoted  to  teaching;  in  1840  he  wrote  Russell's  Rational 
Arithmetic.  George  W.  Russell  of  this  city,  a  carriage  manufacturer, 
was  a  brother.  Caleb  B.  Metcalf  began  teaching  in  Thomas  Street 
School  in  April,  1846,  and  was  headmaster  until  1856,  when  he  estab- 
lished the  Highland  Military  Academy. 

The  Latin  Grammar  School  came  to  an  end  with  the  administra- 
tion of  Rodolphus  Baker  Hubbard,  who  was  master  from  May,  1843,  to 
December,  1844 ;  he  was  praised  without  stint  in  the  committee  reports ; 
during  his  term  the  school  was  provided  with  apparatus  for  the  study 
of  natural  philosophy  and  the  beginning  of  the  present  era  of  mechanics 
and  physical  science  in  the  public  schools  had  its  beginning.  He  was  a 
student  of  Amherst  and  Union,  a  graduate  of  the  former  college ;  studied 
theology  and  preached  in  various  places ;  was  principal  of  the  Academy 
at  Kingston,  N.  Y.,  and  of  Mt.  Pleasant  Institute,  Amherst,  several  years; 
taught  at  Northampton  before  coming  here ;  after  resigning  here  he  was 
candidate  of  the  Liberty  party  for  Congress,  but  not  elected  ;  editor  of 
the  Worcester  County  Gazette,  an  anti-slavery  paper,  in  1845 ;  presi- 
dent of  the  Worcester  County  Teachers  Association  1845-6 ;  chairman  of 
the  committee  that  arranged  the  celebration  of  the  emancipation  of  800,- 
000  slaves  in  British  colonies,  Aug.  1,  1845 ;  chairman  of  a  convention  of 
the  Liberty  party,  Oct.  22,  1845 ;  represented  the  town  of  Sunderland  in 
the  General  Court,  1848;  was  associated  with  Horace  Mann  in  holding 
teachers'  institutes;  member  of  the  Governor's  Council,  1851-52;  trus- 
tee of  Williston  Seminary ;  from  1855-68  conducted  a  boys'  school  at 
Amherst;  farmer  during  his  last  years  at  Amherst.  (See  papers  by 
Henry  M.  Wheeler,  Wor.  Soc.  Ant.  Proc.  Vols.  XXVHI  and  XXX). 
James  H.  Newton  succeeded  Mr.  Metcalf  and  in  turn  was  succeeded  in 
1864  by  Edward  L  Comins  as  principal  of  Thomas  Street  School. 

Boys'  Trade  School. — The  most  important  new  departure  of  mod- 
ern times  in  public  education  is  the  trade  school,  supplementing  the 
technical  schools.  Milton  P.  Higgins  of  this  city  was  the  chief  advo- 
cate and  originator  of  these  schools,  and  the  virtual  founder  of  the  W^or- 
cester  School.  In  his  biography  in  this  work,  some  details  are  given  of 
his  advocacy  of  this  practical  and  useful  extension  of  the  public  school 
system.  He  spoke,  wrote,  planned  and  influenced  other  leading  men,  the 
city  government  and  the  legislature,  until  the  trade  school  here  was 
established.  In  1909  the  Worcester  School  was  estabHshed.  It  was  one 
of  the  first  in  the  state,  and  for  several  years  has  been  the  largest  in 
New  England. 

The  school  was  authorized  by  the  city  council,  Dec.  31,  1908,  and 


726  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

the  original  building  was  opened  to  pupils  Feb.  9,  1910.  The  building  is 
in  Armory  Square,  one  of  the  finest  school  structures  in  the  city.  Within 
four  years  the  school  had  400  day  pupils  attending,  and  nearly  800  men 
in  evening  classes.  The  original  building  was  of  brick,  three  stories  in 
height,  42  by  210  feet  with  an  administration  building,  now  the  central 
section,  50  by  oT  feet,  four  stories'  in  height.  It  was  planned  for  200 
pupils.  The  addition  completing  the  building  doubled  its  capacity  a 
few  years  later.  The  building  was  equipped  with  the  necessary  machines 
for  iron,  steel,  wood  working,  etc.  The  building  committee  consisted  of 
Milton  P.  Higgins,  John  M.  Buckley,  George  I.  Alden,  George  F.  Brooks, 
George  N.  Jeppson  and  Levi  L.  Conant ;  the  finance  committee: 
Charles  F.  Marble,  Cornelius  J.  Carmody  and  Milton  P.  Higgins. 

The  school  opened  Feb.  1  with  about  fifty  pupils,  half  in  the  iron- 
working  section,  half  in  the  wood-working,  and  for  a  time  twenty-five 
more  were  admitted  every  three  months.  Boys  over  fourteen  years  are 
admitted;  the  course  of  study  is  four  years;  the  sessions  are  8  to  12, 
and  1  to  5  daily,  except  Saturday  afternoon.  The  boys  are  taught  not 
only  how  to  run  a  machine,  but  how  to  strip  it  and  reassemble  it ;  not 
onlv  how  to  make  something,  but  how  to  make  it  perfectly  and  econom- 
ically;  not  only  how  to  discover  the  troul)le  with  his  tools  when  they 
work  badly,  but  how  to  repair  them. 

When  the  second  section  of  the  building  was  added  the  boys  of  the 
school  did  90  per  cent,  of  the  work  of  the  interior.  Inside  of  five  years 
it  became  necessary  to  double  the  size  of  the  school.  This  second  wing 
was  made  possible  by  the  gift  of  $25,000  from  the  estate  of  ]\Ir.  Higgins 
in  March,  1912.  The  150  boys  who  contributed  their  labor  to  this  sec- 
tion of  the  school  worked  with  fine  enthusiasm  and  their  work  is  the 
pride  of  the  school  and  the  city.  They  built  stairs,  laid  floors,  put  on  the 
finish  of  all  kinds,  installed  the  electric  lights,  constructed  the  running 
track,  the  iron  stairs  and  in  fact  everything  within  the  building,  valued 
at  more  than  $15,000. 

The  new  part  of  the  school  has  a  modern  and  well-equipped  gym- 
nasium ;  a  drafting  room,  lunch  room,  library,  carpentry-room,  audi- 
torium. A  section  was  given  over  to  the  Girls'  School  for  domestic 
science  and  what  they  learn  about  cooking  at  State  street,  they  utilized 
here  in  a  practical  way  in  the  lunch  room.  The  printing  class  has  quar- 
ters here.  The  school  has  succeeded  beyond  the  fondest  expectation  of 
its  founders ;  the  boys  are  taught  the  various  trades,  are  accepted  in  the 
shops  of  the  city  as  journeymen  and  hold  their  own  from  the  start  with 
the  craftsmen  taught  in  the  shops.  The  classes  in  machine  shop,  cabinet 
making,  pattern  making,  house  carpentry,  steam  engineering,  painting, 
electrical  work,  printing  and  drafting,  have  been  most  popular  and  use- 
ful. The  boys  have  their  athletic  teams  and  enter  competition  with  the 
other  high  schools  of  the  city.  (See  Wor.  ]Mag.  1009.  p.  5:  1914  9,  249. 
Tulloch-  p.  161). 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  727 

Much  of  the  machinery  has  been  earned  by  the  work  of  the  stu- 
dents. The  school  finds  a  market  for  its  product  and  at  the  same 
time  keeps  its  equipment  at  the  highest  standard.  There  are  studies  as 
well  as  work-shop  computations,  formulas,  geometry  and  study  of  tri- 
angles ;  commercial  arithmetic  and  geography ;  mechanics,  hydraulics, 
electricity.  The  boys  are  taught  English,  the  history  of  commerce  and 
invention  and  civil  government.  Great  attention  is  paid  to  drawing,  of 
course. 

Since  October,  1910,  the  school  has  been  open  to  pupils  on  the  half- 
time  plan.  The  regular  schedule  of  the  school  sends  each  pupil  into 
its  shops  for  a  full  week,  then  for  a  week  into  its  school  rooms.  The 
half-time  boys  work  for  wages  at  their  trades  in  the  industries  of  the 
city  for  a  week,  then  take  a  week  of  study  in  the  school,  thus  being 
self-supporting.  The  manufacturers  of  the  city  have  readily  co-operated 
in  carrying  out  this  plan,  but  the  number  of  these  students  has  not  been 
large.  The  buildings  and  equipment  of  the  school  have  been  furnished 
by  the  city,  including  the  gift  of  the  Higgins  estate,  $25,000  from  the 
labor  of  pupils  and  $3,000  in  gifts  of  other  citizens.  The  cost  of  main- 
tenance is  divided  between  city  and  state.  Louis  H.  Buckley  succeeded 
Mr.  Higgins  as  president  of  the  board  of  trustees.  Elmer  H.  Fish  has 
been  director  of  the  school  from  the  beginning. 

Trade  School  for  Girls. — As  soon  as  possible  after  the  successful 
inauguration  of  the  Trade  School  for  Boys,  a  similar  institution  was 
established  for  girls.  In  September,  1911,  the  school  was  opened  in  this 
city,  in  accordance  with  a  plan  submitted  by  a  sub-committee  of  the 
board  of  the  trustees  of  the  Independent  Industrial  Schools  of  Worcester, 
consisting  of  Charles  F.  Marble,  Cornelius  J.  Carmody  and  William  Wat- 
tie.  The  building  on  State  street  occupied  by  the  school  has  since 
been  bought  by  the  city.  The  school  had  at  the  start  To  pupils,  and  the 
number  has  constantly  increased.  Miss  Cleon  Murtland  was  elected 
director  of  the  School ;  she  had  been  an  instructor  in  the  New  York 
Trade  School  for  Girls  for  four  years. 

"While  the  purpose  has  been  to  equip  the  building  for  a  school  in 
which  trades  will  be  taught,  there  has  been  a  strong  wish  to  maintain 
the  home  aspect  both  within  and  without.  We  also  hope  that  the  girls 
may  gain  in  this  school,  through  direct  and  subtle  influence,  standards 
and  motives  for  higher  living  which  shall  give  to  them  a  broader  hori- 
zon of  life  and  nobler  ambitions  as  home-makers,  whether  their  relations 
in  the  home  shall  be  that  of  daughter,  sister,  wife  or  mother." 

At  the  dedication  addresses  were  made  by  Louis  H.  Buckley,  Miss 
Murtland,  Dr.  Charles  A.  Prosser,  Helen  R.  Hildreth  of  Boston,  Rev. 
Bernard  S.  Conaty  and  Hon.  James  Logan.  Miss  Murtland's  address 
was  published  in  the  Worcester  Magazine,  Oct.,  1911.  She  outlined  the 
plans  of  work.  The  principal  courses  at  first  taught  in  the  school  were 
millinery,   all   kinds   of   sewing   and   dress-making;    cooking   and   other 


►-1 
o 
o 

u 

■Si 

■A 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  729 

household  arts  and  other  trades  for  women  were  added.  The  course  of 
of  study  is  two  years.  Enghsh,  arithmetic,  textile  study,  civil  govern- 
ment, industrial  history  and  similar  subjects  are  taught.  In  its  work  the 
school  has  been  reckoned  fully  as  successful  as  the  Boys'  School.  The 
school  has  about  200  pupils  at  present. 

In  November,  1917,  David  H.  Fanning  gave  to  the  city  $100,000 
for  the  purpose  of  building  a  school  house  for  the  Girls'  Trade  School. 
This  generous  gift  will  provide  a  building  adequate  for  many  years  and 
equal  in  architecture  and  equipment  to  the  magnificent  Boys  School. 
The  Gazette  says  editorially : 

Nearly  all  of  Mr.  Fanning's  industrial  life  has  been  spent  in  Worcester.  He  made 
his  fortune  here.  His  home  and  other  social  ties  are  centered  here.  And  it  is  here 
that  he  considerately  chooses  to  place  of  the  fruits  that  his  business  ability  have  won 
in  Worcester.  The  example  cannot  fail  to  be  of  force  in  causing  other  citizens  of 
means  to  take  a  like  course  toward  their  home  city.  The  Fanning  gift  is  one  that  well 
rounds  out  a  life  of  eminent  usefulness  and  is  a  benefaction  that  is  to  be  enjoyed  by 
the  people  of  the  present  who  know  and  are  known  by  the  donor  as  well  as  by  pos- 
terity. 

Note. — The  view  of  the  High. Schools  on  page  T12  were  made  prior 
to  1914,  in  which  year  the  English  High  School  (right  hand  view)  became 
the  Classical  High  School,  and  the  left  hand  view  (Classical  High 
School)  became  the  Commercial  High  School. 


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CHAPTER  XLVI 

Academies — Business  Schools — Domestic  Science  Schools — Private 

Schools 

Worcester  Academy. — There  were  three  purposes  in  the  minds  of 
the  founders  of  the  Worcester  County  Manual  Training  School  (the  Wor- 
cester Academy  since  184T),  first,  to  have  an  academy  or  preparatory 
school  governed  by  officers  of  the  Baptist  denomination ;  second,  a  school 
for  manual  training ;  third,  an  academy  that  would  give  the  poor  boy 
an  opportunity  for  liberal  education.  Most  of  the  founders  were  Bap- 
tists. They  raised  $5,000  in  183-1,  and  formed  a  corporation  of  which 
Isaac  Davis  was  president,  Otis  Corbett,  secretary,  Ichabod  Washburn, 
treasurer,  and  Daniel  Goddard,  trustees.  They  stated  their  purpose  "to 
found  a  school  whose  advantages  for  elementary  instruction  should  be  of 
the  first  order;  under  good  moral  and  decidedly  religious  influence; 
where  every  possible  advantage  should  be  afforded  for  productive  manual 
labor;  so  that  the  instruction,  while  good,  should  not  be  expensive." 
In  other  words,  the  students  could  pay  for  their  education  by  working 
for  the  school. 

A  farm  of  60  acres  on  what  is  now  Main  street,  extending  from  near 
Lagrange  street  to  Hammond  street,  w4th  a  frontage  of  1,100  feet  was 
bought.  There  were  no  old  buildings  and  no  highway  crossed  the  prop- 
erty. The  first  building,  the  chapel,  and  the  Mansion  House  where  the 
steward  and  students  lived,  stood  on  the  ridge  on  what  is  now  Oread 
street.  In  1848  Academy  Hall  was  built,  only  to  be  demolished  six 
years  later,  the  material  being  used  to  build  tenement  houses,  known  as 
"brick  city"  on  Canterbury  street. 

The  students  who  needed  the  money  received  eight  cents  an  hour  for 
labor  on  the  farm,  if  they  had  arrived  "at  years  of  manhood,"  but  less 
in  accordance  with  their  age  and  strength.  The  price  for  board  was 
$1.50  a  week;  if  tea  and  coffee  were  not  used  $1.30.  The  simplicity  and 
frugality  of  life  in  the  academy  is  shown  by  the  following  extract  from 
C.  C.  Baldwin's  diary,  March  IT,  1835: 

Eden  Augustin  Baldwin,  my  nephew,  came  from  Templeton  today,  having  been  sent 
here  by  his  grandfather,  with  the  request  that  I  would  put  him  to  the  Baptist  School 
in  this  town  or  send  him  to  Leicester  Academy,  as  I  might  think  most  for  his  advan- 
tage. I  concluded  to  send  him  to  Leicester,  though  I  was  inclined  to  put  him  to  the 
first  named,  and  should  have  done  so  had  it  not  been  for  their  regulations  about 
board.  No  tea,  coffee  or  milk  are  given  to  the  pupils,  who  board  in  the  institution.  In 
my  judgment  this  is  a  bad  arrangement.  If  a  boy  is  not  well  treated  at  school  he  will 
hardly  know  what  he  has  a  right  to  expect  when  he  becomes  a  man.  We  should  learn 
children  their  rights  if  we  would  have  them  respected  when  they  become  men. 


732  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  late  Nathaniel  Paine  is  authority  for  the  statement  that  the  boys 
who  worked  sat  at  different  tables  from  those  who  paid  their  tuition  in 
cash,  but  the  only  difference  in  food  was  that  the  latter  had  doughnuts 
and  the  former  had  not. 

The  first  principal  was  Rev.  Silas  Bailey,  who  opened  the  school  with 
20  pupils.  Four  years  later  the  school  had  135  pupils,  18  of  whom  were 
from  this  city.  In  1838-40  Prof.  S.  S.  Green  was  principal ;  in  1840  Nel- 
son Wheeler  succeeded  him.  Lack  of  funds  caused  the  temporary  clos- 
ing of  the  school  in  1844.  About  a  year  later  a  sum  of  $6,000  was  raised 
and  another  "fund  of  $5,000  for  tuition  of  pious,  indigent  young  men  of 
the  Baptist  denomination."  The  land  south  of  Southbridge  street  was 
sold  at  this  time,  including  the  present  sites  of  the  gas-works  and  the 
Bowler  brewery ;  in  1845  the  tract  between  the  Norwich  &  Worcester 
railroad  and  Southbridge  street  was  sold,  bringing  more  funds  to  the 
depleted  treasury.  In  1852  the  trustees  leased  the  real  estate  to  Eli 
Thayer,  who  had  graduated  from  the  school  and  later  at  Brown  in  1845, 
and  immediately  became  a  teacher  in  the  school  and  was  afterward  its 
principal.  In  1848-9  he  had  founded  the  Oread  Institute,  and  there  he 
offered  the  first  opportunity  for  collegiate  education  to  young  women 
of  this  country.  Under  the  lease  Mr.  Thayer  conducted  the  academy 
until  1854,  when  he  bought  the  building  of  the  school  corporation. 

The  school  was  then  moved  to  the  old  building  of  the  American  An- 
tiquarian Society,  Summer  street,  corner  of  Belmont,  where  it  had  a  pre- 
carious existence  for  fifteen  years.  In  186T  the  trustees  were  about  to 
transfer  the  assets  of  the  school  to  the  Newton  Theological  Seminary, 
believing  that  the  public  high  schools  filled  all  the  essential  purposes  for 
which  the  academy  had  been  founded,  but  this  action  was  opposed,  and 
the  petition  for  authority  to  make  the  transfer  was  accordingly  refused 
by  the  General  Court. 

Isaac  Davis  in  18G9  b}-  private  purchase  acquired  the  property  on 
Union  Hill,  (used  during  the  war  by  the  government  and  known  as  the 
Dale  Hospital),  buying  of  the  defunct  Ladies'  Collegiate  Institute.  Mr. 
Davis  took  the  assets  of  the  academy  and  contributed  the  balance  neces- 
sary. In  the  main  building  on  the  new  site.  Dr.  Calvin  Newton  had 
established  in  1845  a  Botanico-]\Iedical  College,  incorporated  in  1849  as 
the  Worcester  Medical  College.  In  18G2  in  Aesculapian  Hall  (later  the 
chapel)  ten  graduates  including  one  woman  received  their  degrees  of 
M.  D.  The  Ladies'  Collegiate  Institute,  founded  also  by  the  Baptists, 
acquired  the  property  after  Dr.  Newton  died  in  1853,  bought  a  large 
tract  of  land  and  set  about  to  make  a  seminary  like  that  of  Mt.  Holyoke. 
The  wings  of  the  main  building  were  added  before  the  institute  failed. 
An  account  of  the  Dale  Hospital  is  given  in  the  history  of  the  Civil 
War  in  this  work.  Fourteen  wooden  barracks,  each  25  by  160  feet,  pro- 
vided for  60  beds  each  ;  but  it  was  in  use  only  from  Feb.  22  to  Dec,  1865, 
when  the  temporary  buildings  were  sold  and  removed,  excepting  the 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  733 


central  barrack,  which  was  used  by  the  academy  for  a  gymnasium  until 
1890. 

The  school  continued  as  a  second-rate  co-educational  academy  until 
1880.  The  foregoing  facts  are  taken  from  an  article  by  Dr.  George  O. 
Ward  (Won  Acad.  Bulletin,  V.  No.  4). 

To  Isaac  Davis  and  Dr.  A.  P.  Marble,  principal  for  two  years  at 
the  time  the  trustees  decided  to  discontinue  the  academy,  credit  must 
be  given  for  saving  the  school  and  preserving  for  the  institution  a  past 
filled  with  interesting  history.  Dr.  Marble  was  afterward  superintendent 
of  the  Worcester  public  schools  and  later  assistant  superintendent  of  the 
schools  of  New  York  City. 

Through  thick  and  thin,  the  school  stuck  to  its  original  purposes; 
the  high  moral  and  religious  ideals  of  the  academy  have  never  been  low- 
ered, and  notwithstanding  all  the  vicissitudes  it  has  had  almost  from  the 
beginning,  a  reputation  for  thorough  training,  scholarship  and  system. 
Every  college  welcomes  graduates  from  Worcester  Academy  on  account 
of  their  excellent  preparation.  Among  its  graduates  is  a  long  list  of  dis- 
tinguished men. 

When  the  academy  was  moved  to  Union  Hill  and  again  became  a 
boarding  school.  Prof.  William  C.  Poland,  later  of  Brown  University,  was 
principal.  He  was  succeeded  by  Prof.  Nathan  Leavenworth,  who  died  in 
1882.  Since  that  time  Dr.  Daniel  W.  Abercrombie,  has  been  principal. 
(See  biog.).  The  academy  owes  its  high  standing  to  the  energy,  cour- 
age, determination  and  executive  ability  of  its  head.  He  built  well.  The 
history  of  the  school  is  a  biography  of  the  principal.  He  secured  endow- 
ments and  gifts  of  all  kinds  and  erected  building  after  building  to  pro- 
vide for  the  constantly  increasing  number  of  students  and  to  give  the 
institution  all  the  advantages  of  a  modern  preparatory  school.  He 
stirred  the  loyalty  of  former  students  and  graduates  and  they  responded 
to  every  call.  The  spirit  of  Worcester  Academy  was  developed  until  it  is 
become  a  model  for  similar  institutions.  During  his  adminstration  the 
number  of  students  has  grown  from  about  50  to  more  than  300. 

To  the  one  old  administration  building,  the  checkered  history  of 
which  has  been  told,  a  group  of  substantial  fireproof  buildings  has  been 
added  one  after  another.  Davis  Hall,  the  first  dormitory  built,  was 
named  in  honor  of  the  first  president  of  the  board  of  trustees,  who  for  39 
years  filled  that  office.  Walker  Hall,  erected  in  1889,  was  named  for 
Hon.  Joseph  H.  Walker,  LL.D.,  the  second  president,  from  1873  until  he 
died.  (See  biog.).  It  contains  the  office,  the  chapel,  recitation  rooms, 
the  Nelson  Wheeler  Library.  Adams  Hall  is  a  model  dining  hall,  erected 
in  1892.  Dexter  Hall,  named  for  one  of  the  most  generous  benefactors 
of  the  academy,  William  H.  Dexter,  was  built  in  1892.  The  Kingsley 
Laboratories,  named  in  honor  of  a  distinguished  benefactor,  Hon.  Ches- 
ter W.  Kingsley  of  Cambridge,  was  built  in  1897-8  at  a  cost  of  $90,000 
and  equipped  with  modern  apparatus.     It  contains  a  group  of  seven 


734  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

laboratories  for  different  purposes,  and  rooms  for  manual  training  and 
mechanical  drawing.  Since  acquiring  this  building  the  academy  has 
been  able  to  offer  exceptional  opportunities  for  fitting  students  for  tech- 
nical schools  as  well  as  college.  It  is  significant  that  more  academy  men 
go  to  the  W.  P.  I.  than  any  other  college.  During  the  present  admin- 
istration the  faculty  has  grown  from  five  to  nineteen,  each  of  whom  is  a 
specialist  in  his  own  department. 

The  new  gymnasium  of  the  academy,  erected  in  1915  at  a  cost  of 
about  $100,000,  at  the  corner  of  Penn  avenue  and  Dorchester  street, 
designed  by  Parker  &  Stearns  of  Boston,  is  one  of  the  best  arranged  and 
most  fully  equipped  buildings  of  its  kind  of  any  possessed  by  prepara- 
tory schools,  public  or  private,  in  this  country.  The  exterior  is  particu- 
larly attractive.  It  stands  on  the  old  athletic  field  and  completes  the 
third  side  of  the  quadrangle  of  buildings.  The  swimming  pool  is  28-T5, 
of  the  latest  model.  The  main  room  of  the  gymnasium  is  58  by  100  feet 
and  is  well  fitted  for  basket  ball.  Exertise  in  the  gymnasium  is  com- 
pulsory. The  Academy  athletic  teams  have  received  every  encourage- 
ment from  the  trustees  and  faculty.  The  new  Gaskill  field,  named  in 
honor  of  Judge  Francis  A.  Gaskill,  third  president  of  the  board  of  trus- 
tees, is  the  best  of  its  kind  in  New  England.  It  contains  two  base  ball 
fields,  football  gridiron,  a  quarter-mile  track  with  220  yards  straightaway 
track,  three  tennis  courts,  a  field  house  of  cement.  The  field  cost  $T0,- 
000  and  contains  ten  acres. 

The  academy  is  the  oldest  of  the  higher  institutions  of  learning  in 
the  city ;  it  stands  fourth  among  the  academies  of  the  country  in  num- 
ber of  students. 

Oread  Institute. — The  Oread  Collegiate  Institute  was  important  as 
an  institution  of  learning  because  it  was  a  pioneer  among  colleges  for 
women ;  it  was  important  as  an  institution  of  the  city  because  of  the 
large  number  of  girls  of  this  city  educated  there.  From  beginning  to 
end  it  was  a  center  of  interest.  The  Oread  Castle,  which  still  stands 
unchanged  in  its  exterior,  was  the  home  of  the  institute  and  built  for  the 
purpose  by  Eli  Thayer.  Goat  Hill,  as  the  site  was  known,  was  in  the 
suburbs  when  Mr.  Thayer  bought  it  in  1845.  Subsequently  he  added  a 
field  of  ten  acres  including  the  present  site  of  Piedmont  Church.  He 
designed  the  building  which  followed  the  lines  of  a  medieval  castle  and 
it  was  built  partly  of  native  stone.  It  was  to  have  an  inner  court  ITO 
feet  square.  Circular  towers  50  feet  in  diameter  and  four  stories  in 
height  were  to  be  placed  at  the  four  corners.  The  building  w^as  designed 
for  600  students,  more  than  were  at  that  time  students  in  any  American 
college.  The  north  and  south  towers  and  connecting  hall  were  com- 
pleted in  1852,  the  whole  having  a  frontage  of  250  feet,  but  the  rest 
of  the  structure  was  never  built. 

The  Institute  was  opened  May  14,  1849.  At  that  time  Oberlin  was 
the  only  college  open  to  women,  and  no  college  exclusively  for  women 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE 


735 


had  been  established.  In  1854  there  were  a  dozen  teachers  and  the 
building  was  full  of  boarding  students.  As  the  history  and  its  roster  of 
students  and  graduates  shows,  the  school  attracted  pupils  from  the  best 
known  families  of  the  cities.  There  were  three  departments,  primary, 
academic  and  collegiate.  The  college  course  was  modeled  after  that  of 
Brown  University.  Instruction  was  also  given  in  music,  drawing,  paint- 
ing and  other  branches  considered  necessary  for  the  education  of  girls  at 
that  time.  Rather  ahead  of  the  times  also  was  the  regular  prescribed 
gymnastic  exercises  "as  means  to  health  and  to  develop  symmetry  of 
form  and  grace  of  carriage."  Students  were  expected  to  walk  daily  out 
of  doors.  A  riding  ampitheatre  was  built  soon  after  the  school  was 
opened. 


OREAD  INSTITUTE. 


Mr.  Thayer  asked  no  help  of  others  in  his  experiment.  He  said : 
"We  sell  education  at  cost.  If  our  merchandise  is  not  worth  our  price 
or  if  we  have  brought  wares  to  the  market  for  which  there  is  no  demand, 
we  ask  no  one  to  share  our  loss.  Oread  Castle  was  founded  in  good  faith 
under  the  honest  conviction  that  it  might  serve  the  country  and  the 
world  by  advancing  in  some  degree  the  able  cause  to  which  it  is 
devoted."  The  Oread  continued  for  a  period  of  thirty-two  years,  and 
was  closed  on  account  of  the  failure  of  the  health  of  John  Alden  Thayer, 
son  of  the  founder  and  at  that  time  principal. 


7Z^ 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


In  1910  the  Oread  Collegiate  Institute  Association  gave  $3,000  to 
Brown  University  for  the  "Eli  Thayer  Scholarship  of  the  Oread."  This 
association  has  maintained  an  active  existence  to  the  present  time.  A 
history  containing  portraits  and  illustrations  with  biographies  of  former 
pupils  was  published  in  1881 ;  edited  by  Martha,  Burt  Wright  and  Anna 
M.  Bancroft.    A  supplement  was  published  in  1915. 

Henry  D.  Perky,  who  afterward  bought  the  Oread  and  converted 
into  a  domestic  science  school,  described  elsewhere,  continued  until  1901:. 
For  a  number  of  years  the  property  has  been  used  for  a  riding  school.  It 
is  described  as  a  large  and  perfectly  appointed  riding  academy,  with  an 
excellent  indoor  tanbark  ring,  where  expert  instruction  in  horsemanship 
is  given  to  men  and  women  and  children  by  classes  or  private  lessons. 
Dr.  W.  J.  Hennessey  is  president;    Harry  W.  Marsh,  treasurer. 

Highland  Military  Academy. — For  more  than  fifty  years  the  High- 
land Military  Academy,  a  preparatory  school,  took  rank  among  the  best 
in  the  country.  It  was  founded  by  Caleb  B.  Metcalf  and  owned  by  him 
and  his  estate  from  the  beginning  to  the  end.  He  had  been  a  principal 
of  the  Thomas  Street  Latin  School. 


HioHLAXl^    MILITARY    ACADEMY    IN    i860, 
As  it  was  when  Willie  Grout  was  a  student  there. 


The  school  was  located  on  Salisbury  street  on  the  plateau  at  the  top 
of  the  hill.  It  began  business  Oct.  5,  1856,  with  accommodations  for  six- 
teen boarding  and  twenty  day  pupils.  Many  prominent  men  of  this  city 
were  students  there  in  their  youth.  The  school  was  primarily  to  pre- 
pare students  for  college,  but  in  the  case  of  many  it  was  their  finishing 
school.  The  military  drill  was  added  in  1858,  and  no  less  than  fifty  out 
of  150  boys  who  drilled  here  before  18G3  served  in  the  Civil  War  that 
came  soon  after  the  school  was  established.     Among  these  were  Wil- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  737 

Ham  and  Frank  Bacon,  Darius  Starr,  George  W.  Wellington,  Lewis  M. 
Brooks,  Lt.  Col.  William  N.  Green  and  W'illie  Grout,  who  lost  their 
lives  in  the  service  ;  Henry  M.  Bragg,  Sheriff  R.  H.  Chamberlain,  Maj. 
E.  T.  Raymond,  Capt.  Charles  H.  Pinkham,  William  H.  Hobbs  and  Capt. 
Levi  Lincoln.  By  18G3  the  school  had  87  students,  or  Cadets  as  they 
were  called.  Col.  John  M.  Goodhue  was  military  instructor,  a  captain 
in  the  Civil  War;  Col.  E.  B.  Glasgow  and  Maj.  L.  G.  White  were  among 
his'  successors.  Until  1868  Mr.  Metcalf  himself  was  among  the  instruc- 
tors, but  afterward  he  devoted  all  his  time  to  administrative  duties.  He 
retired  from  active  management  in  1888,  but  retained  the  title  of  super- 
intendent emeritus  until  his  death.  He  lived  for  two  years  at  36  Lin- 
coln street,  where  his  wife,  Roxanna  C.  (Barnes)  Metcalf,  a  daughter  of 
A.  S.  Barnes,  the  publisher,  died  March  7,  1890.  Mr.  Metcalf  died  July 
31,  1891,  at  the  summer  home  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  McElrath,  at  Sea- 
bright,  N.  J.  He  served  on  the  Worcester  school  committee  from  1869 
to  1881  inclusive.  George  L.  Clark  was  business  manager  of  the  school 
through  its  entire  existence. 

Joseph  Alden  Shaw  who  succeeded  Mr.  Metcalf  had  long  been  asso- 
ciated with  him.  (See  biography).  He  continued  until  the  property 
was  sold  for  residential  purposes  in  1912  and  the  school  discontinued. 
Most  of  the  buildings  were  immediately  torn.  down.  Through  its  fifty- 
six  years  it  had  been  a  prosperous  and  successful  institution,  a  source 
of  pride  to  the  city.  The  familiar  gray  uniforms  of  the  cadets  were 
decidedly  missed  when  the  school  ceased  to  exist. 

Business  Schools. — For  half  a  century  or  more,  the  business  schools 
of  this  city  have  attracted  pupils  not  only  from  W'orcester  but  from  all 
the  towns  of  the  county  and  more  distant  points.  Howe's  Business  Col- 
lege had  for  its  students  a  generation  ago  many  men  since  distinguished 
in  business  and  public  life.  W.  H.  Eaton  had  'a  Commercial  Boarding 
School  established  in  1851,  and  continued  about  ten  years.  He  adver- 
tised in  185T.  Becker's  Business  College,  98  Front  street,  is  one  of 
the  oldest  business  schools  of  this  section  and  has  had  uniformly  high 
reputation.  L.  G.  Fairchild  has  an  office  school  at  619  State  Mutual 
building.  His  school,  formerly  known  as  Phoenix  Institute,  was  for 
several  years  in  the  Graphic  Arts  building.  His  graduates  have  been  in 
great  demand  for  private  secretaries  and  office  work. 

The  largest  school  of  this  class  is  the  Worcester  Business  Institute, 
of  which  C.  B.  Post  is  proprietor  and  principal.  The  school  has  facilities 
second  to  none.  It  trains  its  pupils  thoroughly  and  places  them  in  posi- 
tions as  stenographers,  book-keepers  and  other  office  work  and  serves 
the  employers  of  the  city  in  the  selection  of  those  properly  qualified  for 
the  positions  to  which  they  are  recommended.  The  school  was  estab- 
lished in  1899  by  Mr.  Post  (see  biog.).  It  has  been  located  from  the 
beginning  at  476  Main  street. 
W.— 1-47- 


738  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  Massachusetts  School  of  Engineering,  for  the  education  of  fire- 
men, engineers  and  electricians,  Avas  established  in  1905,  by  Thomas 
F.  Myers.     (See  biog.).     It  is  located  at  26  Austin  street. 

Female  High  School. — Dr.  John  Park  established  the  Female  High 
School  here  in  1831.  He  had  previously  been  at  the  head  of  a  female 
academy  in  Boston.  It  was  a  sort  of  finishing  school,  patronized  by  the 
leading  famiHes.  Under  date  of  April  13,  1832,  C.  C.  Baldwin  wrote 
(diary,  p.  173)  :  "In  the  evening  I  attended  a  party  at  His  Excellency 
Gov.  Lincoln's.  It  was  given  for  the  purpose  of  introducing  the  senior 
class  of  misses  in  the  Female  High  School  into  company.  They  were 
all  over  15.  One  party  of  the  same  kind  was  given  Avhile  I  was  at  Tem- 
pleton  a  fortnight  ago,  and  they  are  to  be  given  every  other  week  by  dif- 
ferent families  during  the  summer.  The  number  of  young  ladies  present 
from  the  school  might  be  about  15,  many  of  whom  were  pretty  and 
interesting.  Some  of  them  are  natives  of  \\'orcester,  but  a  greater  part 
from  out  of  town.  We  were  employed  about  two  hours  in  dancing, 
though  we  had  no  music  but  from  a  piano,  which  was  played  upon  by 
the  lady  of  Dr.  John  Park,  who  moved  to  Worcester  from  Boston,  where 
for  many  years  he  was  at  the  head  of  a  female  academy,  in  1831.  April 
14,  1832.  This  morning  I  had  a  visit  from  the  lady  of  Rejoice  Newton, 
Esq.,  accompanied  by  2T  young  misses,  most  of  whom  were  from  the 
Female  High  School.  They  remained  in  the  (Antiquarian)  Hall  an  hour 
and  a  half.     They  left  their  names." 

The  Bancroft  School. — This,  a  high-grade  preparatory  institution, 
was  established  by  Frank  H.  Robson,  who  was  its  principal  from  the 
beginning  until  1914.  In  1902  it  was  incorporated  and  the  present 
building  erected  at  111  Elm  street.  The  school  provides  classes  from 
kindergarten  to  college  entrance.  Since  1913  girls  only  have  been  admit- 
ted to  the  high  school  department,  but  both  boys  and  girls  to  the  lower 
grades.  The  school  has  grown  until  it  is  the  largest  private  day  school 
in  New  England  outside  of  Boston.     There  are  thirteen  teachers. 

The  Salisbury  Mansion  School  was  advertised  in  the  Aegis  March 
12,  1855,  by  Rev.  N.  T.  Bent,  principal.  The  teachers  were  Rev.  J.  \'. 
Beane,  mathematics;  Miss  E.  S.  Bacon,  music;  Mile.  Louise  Forestere, 
French  and  German. 

Worcester  Domestic  Science  School. — For  a  number  of  years  Henry 
D.  Perky  conducted  a  model  domestic  science  school  in  the  old  Oread 
Castle.  It  was  established  in  1898  and  leaped  into  popularity  at  once. 
He  founded  a  scholarship  for  each  state  in  the  union,  and  students 
came  hither  from  all  parts  of  the  country.  The  school  opened  in  Jan- 
uary, 1899,  with  40  young  ladies  and  the  number  grew  rapidly.  The 
school  seemed  to  take  a  position  of  great  importance  as  one  of  the  pio- 
neers in  this  field.  But  it  was  a  personal  enterprise,  and  collapsed  at 
the  time  of  the  founder's  death.  Its  existence  of  seven  years  demon- 
strated the  need  and  value  of  a  school  of  domestic  science  and  home  arts. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  739 

Mr.  Perky  had  a  genius  for  the  art  of  pubHcity,  as  he  demonstrated  in 
various  other  enterprises.  He  made  the  idea  of  domestic  science  schools 
attractive  to  the  young  women  of  the  country.  Had  he  chosen  to  devote 
his  whole  energy  to  the  school,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  this  city  would 
now  be  the  home  of  an  institution  rivalling  Simmons  College  of  Boston. 

The  work  he  began  did  not  cease  entirely,  however.  One  of  the 
teachers,  Mrs.  Frank  M.  Wethered,  opened  a  school  at  her  residence.  Her 
school  also  became  widely  known  and  attracted  students  from  dis- 
tant points  as  well  as  from  the  city  and  vicinity.  She  added  to  the  facil- 
ities from  year  to  year  and  the  school  occupied  several  buildings  on  Insti- 
tute road  and  Dean  street,  all  well  equipped  for  their  purposes.  The 
graduates  have  been  placed  in  important  positions  in  this  country,  Cuba 
and  Canada.  A  two-year  course  is  given,  training  students  for  teach- 
ing the  subject  in  public  schools,  trade  schools,  and  for  institutional  and 
playgrounds  supervision.  The  Worcester  Domestic  Science  School 
ranks  as  one  of  the  most  important  private  educational  institutions  of 
the  city. 

Private  Schools. — Two  private  schools  intimately  associated  with 
the  public  school  system  and  at  times  taking  the  place  of  the  public  Latin 
School  here,  have  been  described  under  the  heading  of  public  schools. 
Infants'  schools  and  Dames'  schools  were  very  common  in  the  early 
part  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

In  1828  Madam  Collins  kept  an  infants'  school  in  part  of  the  old 
meeting  house  on  School  street.  About  the  same  time  there  was  a  pri- 
vate school  kept  in  the  court  house.  Mrs.  Jonathan  (Sykes)  Ward  had 
a  school  in  the  thirties  in  her  house  near  Jo  Bill  road  on  Salisbury  street. 
Miss  Sarah  Ward,  daughter  of  Artemas,  kept  a  school  on  Lincoln  street. 
Mrs.  William  Bickford  rented  a  room  in  the  rear  of  a  new  brick  house. 
Mrs.  Heywood,  mother  of  Rev.  John,  had  a  little  school  opposite  the 
house  of  Dr.  B.  F.  Heywood,  ]\Iain  street.  Miss  Sarah  C.  Ward  had  a 
school  in  the  post  office  building.  Miss  Lucretia  Bancroft  used  a  rear 
room  in  the  house  of  her  father.  Rev.  Aaron,  for  her  school.  Miss  Mar- 
tha Stearns  opened  a  school  in  the  wooden  building  adjoining  the  Gran- 
ite block.  Miss  Hannah  Stearns,  sister  of  Martha,  had  a  school  for  girls 
on  Main  street,  not  far  from  the  Salisbury  block.  John  Wright  and  his 
wife  had  a  school  room  in  the  post-office  building.  Main  street,  and  later 
in  his  own  house  at  the  north  end  of  Salisbury  block.  It  was  called  "A 
Female  Academy."  Robert  Phipps  came  here  in  1836  and  opened  a 
school  in  the  Butman  block,  where  he  had  two  rooms  on  the  third  floor. 
He  had  a  French  teacher,  a  gymnasium,  taught  drawing,  and  offered 
other  educational  novelties,  but  like  all  those  mentioned,  his  school  had 
a  short  and  doubtless  unprofitable  life.  Thomas  Payson  opened  a  pri- 
vate school  under  the  name  of  Seminary  for  Young  Ladies  in  the  spring 
of  1819  ;  its  existence  was  brief.  Hannah  Spofford  opened  a  female  sem- 
inary  here   in   May,    1804.     The   tuition   was   $2   to   $4   a   quarter-year, 


740  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

according  to  the  courses.  The  school  was  not  a  success.  Mrs.  Nugent 
opened  an  academy  for  girls  in  1805.  These  academies  taught  sewing, 
reading,  embroidery,  writing,  arithmetic,  grammar,  rhetoric,  painting  in 
water  colors,  drawing,  geography,  music,  and  some  other  subjects, 
according  to  their  advertisements. 

In  1823-4  Rev.  Benjamin  F.  Farnsworth  had  an  academy.  A  cor- 
poration was  formed  and  a  building  purchased  for  the  Worcester  Fe- 
male Academy  in  1832  and  was  kept  by  Mrs.  A.  M.  Wells  one  year  and 
by  John  Wright  for  a  short  time  afterward.  It  failed  and  the  building 
was  sold. 

After  the  Phipps  School  closed  about  1840  the  Misses  Stearns 
opened  another  school  in  Salisbury  block  and  kept  boarding  pupils  as 
well  as  day  scholars.  This  school  continued  until  the  early  fifties,  Han- 
nah continuing  alone  after  her  sister  married  and  moved  to  Salem. 
Hannah  had  been  a  governess  in  the  Randolph  family  in  Virginia.  Rev. 
Edward  Everett  Hale  was  a  boarder  in  the  Stearns  home  after  the 
school  was  given  up.  Hannah  moved  finally  to  Exeter,  N.  H.,  and  died 
there. 

The  school  sessions  in  the  thirties  were  usually  from  nine  to  twelve 
and  two  to  five,  with  half-hour  recesses  during  each  session.  The  vaca- 
tions were  two  weeks  in  summer  and  two  in  winter.  The  young  girls 
were  not  sent  to  the  public  schools  as  a  rule  and  small  boys  were  sent 
to  the  Dames'  schools  with  the  girls,  if  the  family  purses  warranted  the 
expense.     (See  Wor.  Soc.  Ant.  Proc.  p.  246,  1903). 


CHAPTER  XL VI I 

Colleges  and  Institutes — Worcester  Polytechnic  Institute — College  of  the 

Holy  Cross — Clark  University — State  Normal  School — 

Assumption  College 

Worcester  Polytechnic  Institute. — Three  of  the  four  men  who  may 
be  called  the  founders  of  the  Worcester  Polytechnic  Institute  were  prom- 
inent citizens  of  this  city:  Ichabod  Washburn,  Stephen  Salisbury  (2d), 
and  David  Whitcomb,  through  whose  advice  and  administration  of  the 
gift  of  John  Boynton,  his  former  partner,  the  original  fund  of  $100,000 
was  applied  to  the  purposes  of  this  institution.  Fortunate  was  it  that 
other  men  had  kindred  purposes  in  view  at  the  same  time.  Fortunate  too 
were  the  founders  in  securing  men  such  as  Milton  P.  Higgins  and  Seth 
Sweetser  to  carry  into  effect  their  purposes.  The  original  name  was  the 
Worcester  County  Free  Institute  of  Industrial  Science.  In  1887  it  was 
changed  to  the  present  title. 

John  Boynton's  letter  of  gift  was  dated  May  1,  1865.  The  Institute 
opened  in  1868,  with  scope  and  aims  as  outlined  by  its  first  president, 
Charles  O.  Thompson,  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth,  a  chemist  of  distinc- 
tion, who  had  spent  five  years  abroad  studying  technical  schools.  The 
course  at  first  was  three  years,  but  was  soon  extended  to  four.  Mr. 
Thompson's  ideals  were  high  and  he  made  the  standards  to  correspond 
and  fought  to  maintain  them.  That  they  have  never  been  lowered  is  the 
chief  reason  for  the  success  of  the  school. 

The  second  principal.  Homer  T.  Fuller,  Ph.D.,  began  his  administra- 
tion in  1883,  and  with  the  aid  of  an  able  board  of  trustees  and  a  faculty 
of  unusual  attainments  and  talents,  he  extended  the  usefulness  and 
achievements  of  the  school  rapidly.  New  buildings  were  erected ;  addi- 
tional endowments  received. 

Dr.  T.  C.  Mendenhall,  the  third  president,  was  in  charge  from  1894 
to  1901,  and  the  work  of  broadening  the  scope  of  the  Institute,  of 
strengthening  it  financially,  of  developing  it  in  various  lines,  was  car- 
ried forward.  Every  year  brought  additional  prestige;  every  alumnus 
became  a  bulwark  of  strength,  as  he  demonstrated  his  value  in  the  world 
of  business  or  industry.  Dr.  Edmund  A.  Engler,  the  next  president 
served  from  1901  to  1911. 

The  growth  and  reputation  of  the  Institute  has  never  receded,  and 
never  greater  than  during  the  administration  of  the  present  president, 
Prof.  Ira  N.  Hollis,  who  came  from  a  chair  in  Harvard  University,  where 
his  reputation  had  already  been  established. 

The  Institute  has  53  acres  of  land,  including  the  new  athletic  field. 
The  buildings  are  located  on  an  eminence  on  Salisbury  street.     Boynton 


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AND  ITS  PEOPLE  743 

Hall,  a  veritable  landmark  on  the  crown  of  the  hill,  built  of  stone  from 
Worcester  quarries,  has  always  been  the  administration  building;  the 
home  of  the  library  of  general  reference,  of  the  department  of  engineer- 
ing and  various  recitation  rooms.  One  by  one  the  other  departments 
have  moved  to  buildings  of  their  own. 

The  Washburn  shops,  the  gift  of  Ichabod  Washburn,  gave  distinc- 
tive character  to  the  school  from  the  beginning.  His  letter  offering 
them  was  dated  March  6,  1866,  and  he  not  only  erected  the  buildings 
soon  afterward,  but  gave  an  endowment  of  $50,000.  In  these  shops  the 
students  are  employed  in  commercial  work,  making  patterns,  doing 
machine  work,  working  in  the  forge  and  foundry.  It  was  the  first  and 
is  yet  the  best  shop  operated  by  a  technical  school  of  the  country.  The 
present  foundry  was  erected  in  1902  and  other  extensive  alterations  and 
additions  have  been  made  from  time  to  time  in  the  original  Washburn 
shops.  The  shops  have  a  substantial  business  in  manufacturing  machine 
tools,  having  in  addition  to  the  students  a  force  of  skilled  workmen. 

The  chemical  and  physical  laboratories  in  a  building  named  for 
Stephen  Salisbury,  one  of  the  largest  benefactors  from  the  beginning 
until  his  death,  and  for  his  son,  Stephen  (3d),  who  was  equally  inter- 
ested and  generous  in  supporting  the  school,  is  a  four  story  fireproof 
building. 

In  the  three-story  building  occupied  by  the  department  of  mechan- 
ical engineering,  is  the  laboratory  for  classes  in  hydraulics,  testing 
metals  and  materials,  gas  engineering,  and  the  general  laboratory  for 
research  and  experiment.  The  building  has  rooms  for  mechanical  draw- 
ing, machine  design,  library,  besides  offices  and  recitation  rooms.  The 
electrical  engineering  department  has  one  of  the  finest  buildings  devoted 
solely  to  its  use  of  any  technical  school  or  college,  erected  at  a  cost  of 
$350,000.  It  is  200  feet  in  length  and  including  its  galleries  has  floor- 
space  of  20,000  square  feet.  Other  buildings  are  the  non-magnetic  labo- 
ratory, the  power  plant  which  serves  as  a  laboratory  as  well  as  furnish- 
ing the  heat,  light  and  power  for  all  the  buildings :  New^ton  Hall,  a  dor- 
mitory; the  hydraulic  laboratory  at  Chaffinsville,  where  the  school  owns 
a  water  privilege.  Each  department  has  a  special  reference  library  in 
addition  to  that  in  Boynton  Hall. 

The  Institute  in  recent  years  has  offered  these  four  distinct  courses 
of  study — mechanical  engineering,  electrical  engineering,  civil  engineer- 
ing, and  chemistry  and  general  science.  The  first  degree  is  B.  S.,  and  to 
graduates  after  prescribed  study,  the  degrees  of  M.  S.,  M.  E.,  E.  E.,  C.  E. 
and  D.Sc.  are  granted.  About  two  thousand  students  have  received 
degrees,  and  perhaps  three  times  that  nvimber  have  been  students  here 
for  a  time. 

The  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  has  a  branch  at  the  "Tech." 
An  Athletic  Association  has  charge  of  the  business  of  all  the  football, 
baseball,  track  and  other  teams.     Its  officers  are  elected  by  the  students 


744  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

and  they  co-operate  with  an  advisory  board  composed  of  members  of 
the  faculty  and  alumni.  There  are  branches  of  the  student  members  of 
the  American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineering  and  the  American 
Society  of  Electrical  Engineering,  each  holding  regular  meetings  at 
which  addresses  are  given  by  students,  instructors,  engineers  of  distinc- 
tion and  specialists.  The  Greek  Letter  fraternities  having  chapters 
here  are:  The  Phi  Gamma  Delta.  Sigma  Alpha  Epsilon,  Alpha  Tau 
Omega,  Delta  Tau,  Phi  Kgippa  Pei.  Lamda  Chi  and  Theta  Chi,  each  of 
which  maintains  a  club  house.  The  students  have  published  a  news- 
paper for  many  years.  In  recent  years  it  has  been  entitled  the  Tech 
News,  and  while  giving  all  reports  of  current  events  and  all  the  mat- 
ters of  interest  relating  to  the  school  it  has  been  especially  active  in 
promoting  athletics  and  aiding  the  work  of  the  Athletic  Association. 
Alumni  Associations  have  been  formed  in  Worcester,  Boston,  New  York, 
Philadelphia,  Washington.  Chicago,  Cleveland,  Buffalo,  San  Francisco, 
and  elsewhere  where  graduates  have  located  in  sufficient  numbers. 

"T^ch"  received  gold  medals  for  its  exhibits  at  the  Pan-American 
Exposition  at  Buffalo;  the  Interstate  and  West  Indian  Exposition  at 
Charlestown,  S.  C.,'  in  1902  and  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition  at 
St.   Louis  in  1903. 

In  recent  years  the  alumni  of  the  Institute  have  begun  to  repay 
their  debt  to  their  alma  mater.  .In  19U  the  magnificent  athletic  field  on 
Park  avenue,  providing  unsurpassed  grounds  for  baseball,  football,  track 
games  and  other  sports,  was  completed  at  a  cost  of  $100,000.  Many  of 
the  gifts  for  this  fund  were  large,  but  the  school  takes  pride  in  the  fact 
that  almost  without  exception  the  alumni  responded  to  the  call  and  con- 
tributed according  to  their  means. 

The  building  itself  is  like  the  Institute,  thoroughly  up-to-date.  The 
swimming  pool  is  one  of  the  chief  attractions.  The  meeting  rooms  for 
the  use  of  the  student  fill  a  long  felt  need  of  the  school. 

Two  vears  after  the  field  was  dedicated,  the  present  gymnasium 
w^as  finished.  It  was  dedicated  with  appropriate  ceremony  at  Com- 
mencement, 1916.  The  principal  speakers  were  Rear  Admiral  Austin  M. 
Knight,  U.  S.  N.,  President  Ira  X.  Hollis,  Lieut.  Gov.  Calvin  Coolidge, 
J.  C.  Miller  ('86);  Edwin  H.  Brown  ('98);  Z.  A.  Gibson  ('91)  of  the 
Central  Building  Company:  Prof.  A.  W.  French:  Prof.  P.  R.  Carpenter; 
Vice-president  A.  C.  Comins  of  the  Alumni  Association,  '93  :  Dr.  Homer 
Gage  of  the  trustees. 

Among  the  former  professors  of  the  Institute  deserving  special  men- 
tion are :  George  I.  Alden,  Levi  L.  Conant,  U.  Waldo  Cutler,  Thomas  E. 
Eaton,  George  E.  Gladwin,  Milton  P.  Higgins,  F.  R.  Jones,  Alonzo  S. 
Kimball,  Albert  Kingsbury,  L.  P.  Kinnicutt,  Orie  W.  Long,  William 
McDonald,  John  H.  Nelson,  Sidney  A.  Reeve.  George  I.  Rockwood, 
John  E.  Sinclair,  Edward  P.  Smith,  Charles  O.  Thompson  and  George 
H.  White. 


■^^l^v^^'   YORK 


I     »«-.-fJl    L£NO^  ^^*-i 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  745 

College  of  the  Holy  Cross. —  llie  College  of  the  Holy  Cross,  founded 
in  1843  by  Rt.  Rev.  Joseph  Benedict  Fenwick,  second  Bishop  of  Boston, 
is  the  oldest  Catholic  College  in  New  England. 

The  most  cherished  wish  of  the  bishop  was  to  establish  such  an  insti- 
tution in  his  diocese.  He  was  aided  greatly  at  the  start  by  the  work  of 
Rev.  James  Fitton,  the  first  priest  of  this  section,  who  had  erected  on 
the  present  site  of  the  college  on  old  Pakachoag  Hill,  "the  hill  of  pleas- 
ant springs,"  the  Seminary  of  Mount  St.  James.  This  building  with 
about  60  acres  of  land,  Father  Fitton  deeded  to  the  bishop  in  1842. 
The  location  for  a  college  was  ideal.  From  the  top  of  this  hill  there 
is  a  magnificent  view  in  every  direction.  The  city  itself  stretches  to  the 
northward.  Beyond  looms  Mt.  Wachusett  in  the  background  of  cluster- 
ing hills.  And  since  the  building  of  the  college  it  has  been  a  landmark 
of  the  first  order  and  beauty,  visible  from  every  point  of  vantage  for 
many  miles. 

The  first  classes  were  organized  in  the  Seminary  of  Mount  St.  James, 
Nov.  2,  1843.  The  bishop  called  to  his  aid  the  priests  of  Georgetown 
College,  Washington,  D.  C,  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  and  they  took  charge 
of  the  instruction.  Rev.  Thomas  F.  Mulledy,  S.  J.,  was  the  first  presi- 
dent. The  cornerstone  of  the  main  college  building  was  laid  June  21, 
1843,  and  it  was  occupied  Jan.  13.  1844.  It  was  used  for  all  the  college 
purposes,  recitations,  ofifice  and  dormitory.  The  first  annual  exhibition 
July  29,  1844,  was  a  great  occasion  among  the  Catholics  of  New  England. 
When  Bishop  Fenwick  died,  Aug.  10,  1846,  with  his  great  work  just 
under  way,  he  was  buried  at  his  own  request  in  the  college  cemetery.  A 
few  days  before  he  died  he  gave  to  the  Fathers  of  the  Society  of  Jesus, 
then  in  charge,  the  legal  title  to  the  property,  and  they  have  conducted 
it  since  then. 

The  main  building  was  burned,  July  14,  1852,  and  the  disaster 
threatened  at  first  to  end  the  .existence  of  the  college.  Rt.  Rev.  John  B. 
Fitzpatrick,  then  bishop,  determined  that  it  should  survive,  and  funds 
were  raised  and  the  construction  of  a  larger  and  better  structure  was 
begun.  A  class  of  students  who  had  entered  in  1843  and  1844  had 
advanced  to  philosophy,  as  the  senior  year  was  called,  and  were  ready  to 
graduate  in  1849.  The  college  then  asked  the  State  for  a  charter,  which 
was  not  granted,  and  it  was  not  until  after  the  Civil  War  had  eliminated 
sectarian  prejudice  at  Beacon  Hill  that  the  charter  was  granted  by  the 
General  Court  March  24,  1865.  While  the  lack  of  state  authority  pre- 
vented the  granting  of  degrees  earned  by  the  students,  Georgetown  Uni- 
versity granted  the  degrees  to  Holy  Cross  students  until  the  act  of 
incorporation  was  passed  The  charter  gave  the  college  the  right  to  con- 
fer all  except  medical  degrees.  At  Commencement  in  1868,  Gov.  Bullock 
of  this  city,  speaking  for  the  Commonwealth,  took  occasion  to  praise  the 
patience  of  the  fi  lends  of  the  college  during  the  period  of  waiting  for  the 
chrater — "Patience    which    under    the    circumstances    he    should    hardly 


746  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


have  dared  to  expect  from  many  Christian  denominations."  While  gov- 
ernor he  attended  three  commencements  here. 

During  the  war  the  college  became  dear  not  only  to  Catholics  but 
to  many  non-Catholics  of  New  England.  Gov.  Andrew  visited  it  in 
1862  and  presided  at  Commencement,  speaking  highly  of  the  college  and 
showing  his  friendship  then  and  afterward  in  various  ways. 

The  college  has  erected  new  buildings  from  time  to  time,  as 
required  by  its  growth.  In  1875  the  east  wing  of  the  main  building  was 
raised  and  extended.  This  wing,  the  only  part  of  the  old  building  not 
destroyed  in  1852,  gave  place  in  time  to  a  structure  112  feet  in  length 
with  an  easterly  frontage  of  90  feet.  On  the  first  and  second  floors  are 
the  refectories ;  on  the  upper  floor  the  chapel.  Adjoining  this  wing 
on  the  southeast  corner  is  the  infirmary.  A  later  structure  known  as  the 
O'Kane  Building  was  completed  in  1895,  and  formally  opened  in  Sep- 
tember of  that  year;  it  contains  the  gymnasium,  50  by  139  feet,  one  of 
the  largest  and  best  in  New  England.  On  the  third  floor  is  Fenwick 
Hall,  an  auditorium  for  public  meetings,  lectures,  debates,  student  assem- 
blies, etc.  Alumni  Hall,  a  dormitory  with  rooms  for  200  students,  was 
completed  in  the  fall  of  1905. 

An  important  addition  to  the  college  equipment  was  the  completion 
of  Fitton  Field.  This  athletic  field  is  superbly  located,  lacking  in  noth- 
ing that  makes  for  a  place  for  baseball,  football,  track  athletics  and  other 
sports.  Since  it  has  been  in  use  its  value  has  been  demonstrated  not 
only  in  the  improvement  in  athletics  generally  but  in  the  vast  increase 
of  attendance  at  games  and  in  the  public  support  of  the  college  teams  in 
the  city  of  Worcester. 

Beaven  Hall,  the  latest  building,  was  erected  in  1912.  The  corner- 
stone was  laid  with  elaborate  ceremony  May  21  and  22  of  that  year, 
during  a  special  reception  in  honor  of  the  Bishops  who  were  graduates 
of  the  institution — of  whom  there  were  thirteen — Bishops  Healy,  Mc- 
Mahon,  Baltes,  Bradley,  Michaud,  Delaney  and  Gravel ;  Rt.  Rev.  Thomas 
D.  Beaven,  D.  D.,  '70,  of  Springfield;  Rt.  Rev.  Mathew  Har- 
kins,  D.  D.,  '64,  Providence,  R.  I.;  Rt.  Rev.  Thomas  J.  Conaty,  D. 
D.,  '69,  of  Los  Angeles,  Cal. ;  Rt.  Rev.  Michael  J.  Hoban,  D.  D.,  'T4,  of 
Scranton,  Pa. ;  Rt.  Rev.  Louis  S.  Walsh,  D.  D.,  '78,  of  Portland,  Me. ;  Rt. 
Rev.  Joseph  J.  Rice,  D.  D.,  '91,  of  Burlington,  Vt.  Beaven  Hall,  the  new 
administration  building,  is  a  substantial  and  spacious  structure,  of  artis- 
tic design  and  proportions. 

The  system  of  education  is  the  same  as  that  of  all  the  colleges  of  the 
Society  of  Jesus,  guided  by  the  principles  laid  down  in  the  famous 
Ratio  Studiorum,  elaborated  by  centuries  of  experience.  The  college 
adheres  to  a  classical  education  and  announces  that  instead  of  abolish- 
ing prescribed  studies  and  enlarging  the  elective  plan,  it  advocates  a 
wise,  deliberate  and  prudent  selection  by  men  whose  profession  is  edu- 
cation,  and   not  an  unwise,   sudden   and   rash   choice   by   inexperienced 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  7A7 

youths  just  entering  on  the  process  of  education.  "It  is  not  a  system  of 
ever-changing  theory  and  doubtful  experiment,  but  one  on  which  have 
been  built  the  characters  of  the  world's  best  scholars  and  statesmen  for 
centuries.  It  meets  the  demand  for  modern  improvement  by  wise 
adaptation  and  readjustment.  The  natural  sciences  and  modern 
languages  are  by  no  means  overlooked  or  neglected  in  this  system,  but 
the  ancient  languages  and  their  literature  are  still  retained  as  pre- 
scribed studies  and  with' mathematics  and  philosophy,  form  the  essential 
trinity  of  courses,  which  Prof.  Ladd  of  Yale  considers  absolutely  neces- 
sary for  a  truly  liberal  education.'' 

The  college  possesses  an  excellent  library.  That  as  well  as  every 
other  department  has  grown  rapidly  in  recent  years.  The  college  has 
given  degrees  to  more  than  a  thousand  students.  At  the  present  time 
the  alumni  are  engaged  in  raising  a  large  endowment  fund,  and  a  large 
sum  has  already  been  pledged. 

The  past  presidents  of  the  college  have  been :  Rev.  Thomas  Mul- 
ledy,  S.  J.,  '43-'45;  Rev.  James  Ryder,  S.  J.,  '45-'48;  Rev.  John  Early, 
S.  J.,  '48-'51;  Rev.  Anthony  F.  Ciampi,  S.  J.,  '51-'54;  Rev.  Peter  J.  Blen- 
kinsop,  S.  J.,  '54-'5?  ;  Rev.  Anthony  F.  Ciampi,  S.  J.,  '57-'61;  Rev.  James 
Clark,  S.  J.,  '61-'67;  Rev.  Robert  W.  Brady,  S.  J.,  '67,  six  months;  Rev. 
Anthony  F.  Ciampi,  S.  J.,  '67-'73 ;  Rev.  Joseph  B.  O'Hagan,  S.  J.,  '73-'79 ; 
Rev.  Edw.  D.  Boone,  S.  J.,  '79-'83 ;  Rev.  Robert  W.  Brady,  S.  J.,  '83-'87 ; 
Rev. 'Samuel  Cahill,  S.  J.,  '87-'89 ;  Rev.  Michael  A.  O'Kane,  S.  J.,  '89- 
'93 ;  Rev.  Edw.  A.  McGurk,  S.  J.,  '93-'95 ;  Rev.  John  T.  Lehy,  S.  J.,  '95- 
1901 ;  Rev.  Joseph  F.  Hanselman,  S.  J.,  1901-06 ;  Rev.  Thomas  E.  Murphy, 
S.  J.,  1906-11;    Rev.  Joseph  N.  Dinand,  S.  J.,  1911 — . 

Clark  University. — Clark  University  was  founded  by  Jonas  G.  Clark, 
and  opened  in  1889.  Dr.  Granville  Stanley  Hall,  the  first  president,  is 
still  at  the  head  of  the  institution.  The  original  board  of  trustees, 
selected  by  Mr.  Clark,  consisted  of  Gen.  Charles  Devens,  Stephen  Salis- 
bury (3d),  Hon.  George  Frisbie  Hoar,  Hon.  William  W.  Rice,  Dr.  Joseph 
Sargent,  Hon.  John  D.  Washburn,  Frank  P.  Goulding  and  George  Swan, 
all  of  whom  have  passed  away.  The  charter  was  granted  by  the  legis- 
lature May  4,  1887. 

The  land  for  the  University,  a  tract  of  eight  acres,  400  by  800  feet, 
had  been  acquired  by  Mr.  Clark  on  Main  street,  a  mile  and  a  half  from 
City  Hall.  The  cornerstone  of  the  main  building  was  laid  with  appro- 
priate ceremony,  Oct.  22,  1887.  Gen.  Devens  presided  and  made  an 
address  (see  Worcester  Past  and  Present,  p.  99a).  Addresses  were  also 
made  by  Hon.  John  D.  Washburn,  Senator  Hoar,  Rev.  D.  O.  Mears  and 
Rev.  Daniel  Merriman.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Clark  handled  the  first  trowel  of 
cement  used. 

The  trustees  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Clark  on  May  5,  1887,  described  his 
benefaction  as  "the  largest  single  charitable  gift  ever  made  by  a  pri- 
vate person  in  New  England,  and  with  very  few  exceptions  the  largest 


H 
> 

Pi 

< 

U 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  749 


ever  made  by  a  private  person  in  his  life-time,  anywhere  in  the  world." 
Of  the  original  gift  of  a  million  dollars,  Mr.  Clark  set  apart  as  a  working 
or  construction  fund  $;300,000  to  be  applied  in  the  erection  of  buildings 
and  equipping  them  with  appliances  for  the  work  of  the  University; 
$100,000  as  a  library  fund  and  $600,000  as  a  University  endowment  fund 
for  the  general  uses  and  support  of  the  University.  To  this  sum  Mr. 
Clark  proposed  to  add  another  gift  of  $500,000  in  real  estate,  library  and 
works  of  art,  and  the  further  sum  of  $500,000  for  the  maintenance  of 
three  or  more  chairs.  The  latter  gift  was  subject  to  the  condition  that 
an  equal  amount  be  contributed  by  other  founders. 

The  first  story  of  the  main  building  is  of  stone;  the  four  upper 
stories  of  brick.  The  dimensions  are  304^4  by  114  feet;  78  feet  in  height 
and  96  to  the  face  of  the  clock  in  the  tower.  At  first  this  building  con- 
tained oftice,  library,  recitation  rooms,  laboratories  and  gymnasium.  It 
has  90  rooms.  The  chemical  laboratory  was  erected  immediately  after 
the  main  building. 

At  the  opening  exercises  Oct.  2,  1889,  in  the  hall  of  the  University, 
Mr.  Clark  stated  his  purposes,  the  chief  of  which  was  original  research, 
General  Devens  presided.  The  story  of  the  founding  of  the  University 
may  be  told  best  in  the  words  of  Dr.  Hall  at  the  celebration  of  the  com- 
pletion of  the  twenty-fifth  year : 

I  was  at  the  outset  sent  on  an  eight  months  trip  to  Europe  with  several  score  let- 
ters of  introduction,  including  one  from  the  national  government  which  gave  me  access 
to  the  inside  workings  of  Kultus  ministeria  and  university  inner  circle,  so  that  my  trip 
constituted  a  pedagogic  journey  I  think  almost  without  precedent.  I  was  surprised  to 
find  the  inost  eminent  men  of  learning  in  Europe  profoundly  interested  in  it  and  so  lav- 
ish with  their  line,  sympathy  and  counsel.  I  was  entertained  by  Lord  Kelvin,  Pasteur, 
Helmholtz,  Jowett  and  some  score  of  others  of  the  greatest  living  leaders  in  scientific 
thought;  went  on  a  trip  of  inspection  of  German  universities  as  the  guest  of  the  Prus- 
sian minister  of  education,  Von  Goslaarm,  and  perhaps  most  embarrassing  of  all,  was 
taken  in  state  by  Gen.  Trepanof  on  a  visit  to  the  two  great  Russian  military  schools 
near  St.  Petersburg  in  each  of  which  an  all  day's  program  of  military  evolutions  had 
been  arranged  for  my  special  edification ;  was  a  guest  of  honor  at  a  meeting  of  Swed- 
ish universities,  etc. 

My  instructions  from  Mr.  Clark  had  been  to  see  everything  and  every  institution 
possible,  collect  building  plans,  budgets,  administration  methods  of  every  kind.  I  came 
home  slightly  intoxicated  with  academic  ideals,  so  were  all  of  us  in  sorne  degree,  ac- 
cording to  our  temperament,  but  a  reality  that  was  sobering  enough  soon  confronted 
us.  If  ever  there  was  an  academic  tragedy,  a  via  crucis,  a  veritable  descent  into 
Avernus,  it  was  here.  We  began  the  fourth  year,  1893-4,  with  only  one-fourth  the 
total  annual  resources  that  we  had  the  first  year.  In  the  seven  years  that  followed, 
down  to  the  founder's  death  in  1900,  we  had  for  all  purposes  only — less  than  $30,000. 
Several  of  us  who  remained  here  were  tempted  by  larger  offers  to  what  seemed  more 
promising  fields. 

There  was  no  friction.     We  stood  and  worked  shoulder  to  shoulder. 

Compared  either  with  the  size  of  our  faculty,  the  number  of  departments  or  our 
annual  budget,  we  have  fitted  more  men  for  higher  degrees,  seen  more  of  them  in 
academic  chairs,  where  they  are  found  in  all  the  leading  institutions  of  the  land,  in- 
cluding some  dozen  of  presidencies,  first  and  last;  published  more  original  contribu- 


750  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

tions  which  seek  to  add  to  the  sum  of  the  world's  knowledge ;  have  a  larger  propor- 
tion of  members  of  our  faculty  starred  as  of  the  first  rank  in  Cattell's  census  of  the 
competent ;  had  closer  personal  and  often  daily  contact  with  students,  and  given  more 
individual  help  outside  of  classes  had  more  academic  freedom  (for  no  one  in  our 
history  has  ever  suffered  in  any  way  for  his  opinions)  :  had  more  autonomy  in  our  de- 
partments, each  of  which  is  a  law  to  itself;  had  less  rules  and  formalities  of  every 
kind ;  had  less  drudgery  of  marks  and  faculty  rulings ;  had  a  president  who  was  less 
president  and  more  teacher,  good  or  bad ;  spent  less  time  in  devising  ways  and  means 
of  seeking  contributions  from  our  friends  here;  advertised  less  and  avoided  all  pub- 
licity more,  until  now  (when  I  am  just  for  this  one  moment,  throwing  all  our  tradi- 
tions of  silence  and  modesty  to  the  winds).  In  these  respects,  we  exceed  any  of  the 
other. twenty  institutions  of  the  Association  of  American  Universities. 

From  1892,  when  several  instructors  resigned,  the  faculty  remained 
intact  for  twenty-one  years.  Then  Dr.  Clifton  F.  Hodge,  professor  of 
biology,  resigned  to  accept  a  chair  in  Oregon.  The  death  of  the  founder 
brought  a  large  addition  to  the  endowment,  making  the  total  gift  of  Mr. 
Clark  about  $4,000,000.  The  department  of  chemistry  was  reopened 
and  enlarged ;  departments  in  history,  economics  and  philosophy  added. 
A  library  building  has  been  erected  at  a  cost  of  $225,000. 

The  original  library  fund  of  $100,000  given  by  Mr.  Clark,  was 
increased  by  a  bequest  at  the  time  of  his  death  in  1900  by  about  $600,000, 
besides  $150,000  for  a  building.  The  new  building  was  opened  in  the 
fall  of  1903,  the  formal  dedication  taking  place  Jan.  14,  1904.  It  con- 
tains 13  rooms  and  a  floor  space  of  25,000  square  feet.  The  main  library 
room  has  a  capacity  of  60,000  volumes.  It  was  modeled  after  the  library 
of  Trinity  College  at  Cambridge,  England,  designed  by  Sir  Christopher 
Wren.  The  stack  room  has  shelves  for  75,000  books.  The  library  is 
conducted  on  the  open-shelf  plan,  every  book  being  accessible  to  author- 
ized persons.  "There  was  probably  no  department  of  the  University," 
said  Mr.  Wilson,  the  librarian,  at  the  time  of  dedication,  "in  which  Mr. 
Clark  took  more  interest  than  the  library.  'It  is  difficult  to  understand,' 
he  said,  'why  men  have  so  long  worshipped  books  as  books,  and  have 
not  realized  that,  after  all,  they  are  merely  tools  to  be  used  in  working 
for  higher  things.  ...  If  there  is  any  place  on  earth  where  a  liberal 
spirit  inust  be  shown,  it  is  in  a  university  library,  I  would  say  especially 
in  the  Clark  University  library.'  " 

In  course  of  time  the  library  room  in  the  main  building  proved  inade- 
quate and  an  addition  was  decided  upon  in  1909,  was  completed  in  the 
summer  of  1910,  and  has  been  in  use  since  the  fall  of  that  year.  The 
main  room  is  53  by  80  feet,  having  shelf  capacity  of  15,000  books.  Ac- 
cess to  the  University  library  is  provided  by  means  of  a  corridor.  The 
building  is  English  collegiate  Gothic  in  style.  It  cost  $100,000,  making 
the  total  cost  of  the  two  library  buildings  $225,000.  (See  Worcester 
Mag.  1908,  p.  129;  1911,  p.  384).  Both  library  buildings  were  designed 
by  Forst,  Briggs  &  Chamberlain,  and  built  by  Norcross  Bros.  Co.,  of  this 
city.  Few  colleges  in  this  country  have  as  good  buildings  and  as  well 
endowed  and  equipped  libraries  as  Clark. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  751 

Clark  College. — Clark  College  was  founded  in  1902  under  a  codicil 
of  the  will  of  Mr.  Clark,  which  charged  the  trustees  of  Clark  University 
with  the  creation  of  "a  Collegiate  Department  where  young  men,  who 
have  graduated  from  the  high  schools  and  other  preparatory  schools 
and  have  not  the  means  to  enable  them  to  attend  universities  where  the 
expense  is  large,  may  obtain  at  a  moderate  cost  and  in  a  three  years 
course  a  practical  education  which  shall  fit  them  for  useful  citizenship 
and  their  w^ork  in  life."  Other  provisions  stipulated  an  administrative 
organization  wholly  independent  of  the  University  and  responsible 
directly  to  the  trustees.  Clark  College  is  thus  an  independent  under- 
graduate institution,  separately  endowed,  with  a  separate  faculty  and 
student  body,  but  governed  by  the  trustees  of  Clark  University  and  hav- 
ing joint  privileges  in  the  Library  and  making  use  of  the  same  campus 
and  buildings  as  the  University,  with  which  its  relations  are  those  of 
intimate  and  cordial  cooperation.  The  productive  endowment  of  the 
College  is  $1,300,000. 

To  organize  a  new  college  in  New  England  and  not  to  duplicate 
admirable  institutions  already  in  the  field  was  no  easy  task  and  called  for 
special  care  in  the  selection  of  the  first  president.  Under  the  guidance 
of  Senator  Hoar,  then  chairman  of  the  board,  the  place  was  offered  to 
Col.  Carroll  D.  Wright,  United  States  Commissioner  of  Labor,  who 
accepted  early  in  1903,  though  duties  in  Washington  and  in  connection 
with  the  great  anthracite  coal  strike,  prevented  the  new  president  for 
some  months  from  taking  personal  charge  of  affairs.  The  details  of 
organization  were  meanwhile  carried  out  by  the  first  Dean,  Prof.  Rufus 
C.  Bentley.  The  selection  of  Col.  Wright  for  the  presidency  was  most 
fortunate  for  the  new  institution.  He  brought  to  it  fresh  points  of  view, 
large  experience  in  administration,  an  international  reputation  in  science, 
and  high  qualities  of  leadership  and  character. 

The  marked  features  of  the  college,  in  addition  to  the  low  tuition 
and  the  three  year  course  required  by  Mr.  Clark's  will,  M^ere  the  substi- 
tution of  admission  on  trial  for  the  usual  entrance  examinations,  a  group 
system  of  studies,  close  personal  supervision  of  student  work  and  the 
prohibition  of  intercollegiate  athletics. 

The  first  class  was  received  in  October,  1903,  sixty-three  strong. 
The  formal  exercises  of  President  Wright's  inauguration  were  held  Oc- 
tober 9,  1903,  with  addresses  by  Senator  Hoar,  President  Hall  and  Sena- 
tor Henry  Cabot  Lodge.  The  first  class,  reduced  by  the  exigencies  of 
the  curriculum  and  other  causes  to  43,  was  graduated  June  21st,  1905. 
President  Theodore  Roosevelt  was  the  guest  of  the  College  on  this  occa- 
sion and  received  the  degree  of  LL.D.  at  the  hands  of  President  Wright. 
The  commencement  oration  was  delivered  by  Dr.  Hamilton  W.  Mabie. 

The  institution  grew  steadily  in  students  and  instructors  until  in 
1909,  the  year  of  President  Wright's  death,  the  numbers  were  186  and 
23  respectively.     The   second  president.   Dr.   Edmund   C.   Sanford,   was 


752  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

elected  by  the  trustees  in  October,  liJOU.  Under  his  administration  the 
organization  of  the  institution  has  been  developed  and  the  standard  of 
requirement  in  scholarship  raised  without  essential  departure  from  the 
main  lines  already  laid  down. 

The  great  war  has  made  serious  inroads  upon  the  College  personnel 
as  upon  that  of  other  institutions  of  higher  education.  Even  before  the 
declaration  of  war  against  Germany,  several  of  the  students  and  one 
member  of  the  faculty  had  taken  the  training  at  Plattsburg  and  a  volun- 
tary military  company  had  begun  drilling  on  the  campus.  With  the 
declaration  of  war  still  greater  attention  was  given  to  military  matters. 
The  voluntary  company  was  taken  over  as  a  regular  part  of  the  college 
work;  courses  were  immediately  offered  in  military  map-making,  mili- 
tary hygiene  and  in  wireless  telegraphy.  With  the  friendly  assistance  of 
Worcester  citizens  a  fund  of  $8,000  was  raised  and  a  unit  of  22  motor 
ambulance  drivers  sent  to  France  to  work  under  the  auspices  of  the 
American  Field  Service — 18  of  them  college  undergraduates.  At  the 
same  time  others  left  college  to  enlist  in  the  Naval  Reserve,  and  a  little 
later  still  others  for  special  work  on  the  farms  and  in  various  sorts  of 
indirect  war  service.  At  the  present  time  some  30  or  -iO  of  the  alumni 
of  the  College  (numbering  in  all  but  Jiol)  are  commissioned  officers  in  the 
army  and  navy  of  the  United  States ;  100  or  more — students  and  alumni 
— are  non-commissioned  officers  or  privates ;  while  20  or  30  are  in  scien- 
tific work  for  the  government  or  for  war  industries,  in  Y.  M.  C.  A.  work, 
or  in  other  indirect  forms  of  service.  Of  the  faculty  two  are  commis- 
sioned officers,  one  is  in  Y.  M.  C.  A.  work  in  France,  one  has  been 
released  in  order  to  give  full  time  to  government  work,  and  several  more 
are  assisting  without  interrupting  their  college  duties,  as  opportunity 
oft'ers. 

State  Normal  School. — The  State  Normal  School  at  Worcester  was 
established  by  act  of  the  State  Legislature  in  18T1,  and  was  opened  Sept. 
15,  187-1.  Although  a  state  institution,  this  school  has  been  able  by  its 
location  in  the  populous  city  of  Worcester  to  offer  the  youth  of  the 
city  exceptional  advantages  of  training  for  the  profession  of  teaching 
and  by  its  close  affiliation  and  alliance  with  the  city  school  system  has 
virtually  become  a  local  institution.  For  this  reason  the  student  body 
has  always  come  largely  from  the  city  and  its  immediate  vicinity  and  a 
large  proportion  of  its  graduates  have  become  teachers  in  the  city  schools. 

The  site  of  the  school  was  formerly  known  as  Hospital  Grove,  and 
is  situated  on  one  of  the  nearest  of  the  circle  of  hills  on  which  Worcester 
is  built.  It  has  an  elevation  of  688  feet,  which  makes  it  very  admirable  in 
many  respects.  The  view  is  inspiring  in  all  directions  and  the  grounds, 
comprising  nearly  six  acres,  are  of  great  beauty,  due  to  the  rolling  char- 
acter of  the  hill,  the  fine  grassy  slopes  and  the  noble  oaks  which  stretch 
in  great  numbers  up  to  lofty  heights  aJl  about  the  buildings  and  walks. 
Rarelv  does  one  see  a  more  attractive  and  fitting  setting  for  a  school  than 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  753 

this  one.  The  main  building,  of  the  style  of  an  old  French  castle,  is 
rugged  in  appearance,  as  if  built  to  endure  rather  than  to  adorn.  It  is 
constructed  of  gray  stone  which  was  quarried  on  the  very  site  of  the 
school  itself  from  the  ledges  that  crop  out  in  many  places  here  and  there. 
Adjoining  the  main  school  building  is  the  gymnasium,  erected  in  1896, 
also  of  stone,  possessing  considerable  architectural  beauty.  Besides  these 
two  building  there  are  two  frame  houses,  one  a  school  dormitory  with  a 
capacity  for  twenty  boarders,  known  as  Stoddard  Terrace  in  honor  of 
Colonel  E.  B.  Stoddard,  for  many  years  the  official  school  visitor 
appointed  by  the  State  Board  of  Education,  and  the  other  the  home  of 
the    school    principal. 

The  design  of  the  Normal  School  is  strictly  professional;  that  is,  to 
prepare  in  the  best  possible  manner  the  pupils  for  the  work  of  organiz- 
ing, governing,  and  teaching  the  public  schools  of  the  Commonwealth. 
To  this  end  there  must  be  the  most  thorough  knowledge :  first,  of  the 
branches  of  learning  required  to  be  taught  in  the  schools ;  second,  of  the 
best  methods  of  teaching  these  branches ;  and  third,  of  right  mental 
training.  Throughout  its  history  the  methods  of  instruction  have  been 
original  and  progressive  with  a  definite  basis  in  child  psychology.  The 
first  principal,  Mr.  E.  Harlow.  Russell  (see  biography)  was  a  pioneer  in 
the  investigation  of  the  child  as  a  problem  of  instruction  and  did  much 
to  advance  the  study  and  the  knowledge  of  child  life.  In  all  the  work 
of  the  school  through  the  years,  the  same  aim  and  spirit  have  persisted, 
and  the  individual  pupil,  with  attention  to  his  talents  and  his  defects,  his 
interests  and  his  possibilities,  has  been  the  object  and  center  of  all  stud- 
ies. More  than  six  thousand  written  exercises  prepared  by  students  of 
the  school  and  based  on  actual  observations  of  children  were  some  years 
ago  presented  to  Clark  University  and  made  the  subject  of  further  inves- 
tigation, classification  and  tabulation.  To  facilitate  this  study  of  indi- 
vidual pupils,  classes  of  children  are  taught  at  the  school  by  the  students 
in  training  working  under  expert  supervision  and  those  who  are  able  to 
secure  entrance  into  these  classes  are  deemed  especially  fortunate.  Since 
1910  the  Elizabeth  Street  School  has  also  been  officially  connected  with 
the  Normal  School  for  the  purpose  of  giving  the  students  additional 
advantages  of  observation  of  good  teaching  in  the  various  subjects  of  all 
grades  from  the  kindergarten  to  the  eighth  grade. 

Since  its  foundation  the  school  has  graduated  about  eighteen  hun- 
dred students  and  the  attendance  varies  from  two  hundred  to  two  hun- 
dred and  fifty.  Since  1915  the  admission  has  been  restricted  to  young 
women  only.  The  principals  of  the  school  have  been  three,  as  fol- 
lows: Mr.  E.  Harlow  Russell,  1874-1909;  Dr.  Francis  R.  Lane.  1909- 
1913;  and  Dr.  William  B.  Aspinwall,  since  1912  (see  biography).  Mr. 
Russell,  who  served  the  school  for  thirty-five  years,  was  present  at  the 
40th  anniversary  in  1Q14  and  was  greeted  with  great  affection  and  many 
W.— 1-48. 


754 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


tributes  by  his  former  pupils.  Other  speakers  on  this  occasion  were  Dr. 
Austin  S.  Garver  of  Worcester;  Dr.  G.  Stanley  Hall,  president  of  Clark 
University ;  Dr.  David  Snedden,  State  Commissioner  of  Education ;  and 
Dr.  William  B.  Aspinwall,  the  present  principal.  Governor  David  I. 
Walsh,  who  was  to  have  had  a  part  in  the  celebration,  was  prevented  by 
a  painful  accident  from  attending. 

In  1913,  under  the  direction  of  the  present  principal,  an  annual  con- 
ference on  the  problems  of  rural  education  was  organized  which  has  since 
its  inauguration  had  a  conspicuous  influence  in  improving  the  physical 
condition  and  social  efticiency  of  the  country  schools.  Educators  and 
rural  workers  of  national  reputation  participate  each  year  in  these  meet- 
ings which  are  attended  by  teachers,  superintendents,  members  of  school 
committees  and  of  granges,  and  others  interested  in  rural  school  progress. 


ASSUMPTIOX  COLLEGE. 

The  suDjects  considered  by  these  conferences  have  been:  1912  (Febru- 
are  10),  The  Improvement  of  the  Rural  School.  1914  (March  27),  Rural 
School  Hygiene.  1915  (March  26),  The  Improvement  of  Rural  School 
Grounds  and  Interiors.  1916  (April  28),  The  Rural  School  as  the  Com- 
munity Center.  1917  (March  23),  Vitalizing  the  Rural  School  Cur- 
riculum.    1918  (March  15),  Teaching  the  Duties  of  Citizenship. 

In  January,  1917.  the  American  Journal  of  School  Hygiene  was  first 
published,  and  is  now  issued  monthly  by  the  Head  of  the  Department  of 
Hygiene  and  Psychology  of  the  school. 

Assumption  College. — :The  youngest  of  the  institutions  that  may 
grant  college  degrees  in  this  city  is  Assumption  College  at  Greendale. 
The  shorter  name  was  taken  in  1917,  bv  virtue  of  an  amendment  in  the 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  755 


charter,  which  was  granted  by  the  legislature  to  the  Society  of  the 
Augustinian  Fathers  of  the  Assumption  in  Worcester,  Dec.  1,  1904,  with 
authority  to  grant  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts,  Rev.  Omer  J.  Rochain 
is  the  president. 

The  college  began  with  classes  in  1904  in  a  small  wooden  building 
on  the  slope  of  the  hill  between  West  Boylston  street  and  Burncoat 
street,  with  half  a  dozen  pupils.  In  the  following  year  the  number  of 
students  was  so  great  that  the  adjoining  house  was  also  used  for  the 
infant  college.  Confident  of  the  future  of  the  institution  provided  ade- 
quate buildings  and  facilities  were  available,  the  Fathers  in  charge  made 
an  earnest  attempt  to  raise  the  funds  to  build  a  college  building.  As- 
sisted by  the  generosity  of  Mgr.  Brochu,  they  acquired  a  few  acres  of 
land  on  Baltimore  avenue,  north  of  their  original  location.  Here  they 
laid  the  foundations  of  a  handsome  and  solid  structure  of  brick  and 
granite,  intended  for  about  sixty  students.  The  building  was  outgrown 
in  less  than  five  years. 

At  the  time  of  the  visit  of  the  Superior  General  of  the  Assumption- 
ists,  Rt.  Rev.  Emmanuel  Bailly,  in  1911,  it  was  decided  to  erect  a  large 
central  structure  to  which  the  original  building  should  be  a  wing.  Work 
was  begun  at  once  and  by  September  roohis  were  ready  for  three  times 
the  original  capacity,  and  120  students  registered.  That  was  before  the 
first  class  graduated  in  1913.  The  building  has  a  sightly  location  and 
is  one  of  the  landmarks  of  the  northern  part  of  the  city.  Besides  erecting 
this  spacious  building,  the  trustees  have  purchased  all  the  land  between 
Boylston  and  Burncoat  streets,  north  of  their  other  property.  Baseball 
fields  and  tennis  courts  have  been  laid  out  and  the  students  instructed 
in  athletics.  The  institution  is  the  especial  center  of  interest  of  the 
French-Cathohc  population.     (See  Wor.  Mag.   1912). 


CHAPTER  XLVIII 
Entertainment  Societies 

The  Worcester  Lyceum. — The  Worcester  Lyceum  was  organized  in 

November,  1829,  with  forty  to  fifty  members.  The  first  officers  were : 
Rev.  Jonathan  Going,  president;  Anthony  Chase,  secretary,  and  an  exec- 
utive committee :  Frederick  W.  Paine,  Moses  L.  Morse,  William  Lin- 
coln, Ichabod  Washburn  and  Thomas  Chamberlain.  The  chief  purpose 
of  the  organization  was  to  provide  a  course  of  lectures  each  year;  estab- 
lish a  circulating  library ;  and  for  debates.  Classes  were  formed  for 
study  of  various  topics,  and  chemical  apparatus  purchased.  In  1855  the 
library  of  the  Lyceum  was  transferred  to  the  Young  Men's  Library  As- 
sociation, but  the  lecture  courses  were  continued  until  the  Lyceum  was 
merged  with  the  Library  Association  by  act  of  the  legislature,  approved 
March   15,   1856. 

Worcester  Natural  History  Society. — The  Young  Men's  Library  As- 
sociation was  originally  formed  for  purposes  similar  to  the  Young  Men's 
Christian  Association,  from  which  those  of  liberal  religious  denomina- 
tions were  then  excluded.  A  call  was  issued  in  August,  1852,  in  the 
Spy,  for  "young  men  connected  with  the  Unitarian,  Second  Advent, 
Universalist,  Friends  and  Free  Churches,  and  all  interested,  to  meet  at 
Waldo  Hall  to  consider  the  propriety  of  organizing  a  Young  Men's  Chris- 
tian Association  worthy  of  the  name."  The  meeting  was  called  to  order 
by  Rev.  Edward  Everett  Hale,  pastor  of  the  Church  of  the  Unity; 
George  F.  Hoar  was  elected  chairman,  William  Mecorney,  secretary. 
About  fifty  names  were  taken  as  prospective  members,  and  a  committee 
appointed  to  confer  with  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  looking  to  a  union  of  the  two 
organizations.  Though  the  committee  reported  that  such  a  union  was 
feasible,  it  recommended  that  no  further  action  toward  union  be  taken. 

The  new  society  perfected  its  organization  under  the  name  of  the 
Young  Men's  Library  Association,  its  objects  being  the  improvement 
of  the  young  men  of  the  city  by  affording  them  intellectual  and  social 
advantages,  by  the  maintenance  of  a  library,  reading  room,  and  such 
courses  of  lectures  and  classes  as  may  conduce  to  that  end.  The  society 
took  over  the  rooms  which  had  been  fitted  up  by  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  The 
first  officers,  elected  in  December,  1852,  were  :  Francis  H.  Dewey,  presi- 
dent;  George  W.  Bently,  vice-president;  George  F.  Hoar,  corresponding 
secretary;  Nathaniel  Paine,  recording  secretary;  Henry  Woodward, 
treasurer.  An  act  of  incorporation  was  accepted  April  16,  1853.  In 
1854  a  campaign  for  a  library  resulted  in  securing  gifts  of  867  books 
and  more  than  $1,300  in  cash.  The  library  was  opened  June  18,  1853, 
and  the  public  was  given  the  use  of  the  books  on  payment  of  a  dollar 
annually.     A  reading  room  was  soon  added. 


758  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

In  1855  the  Young  Men's  Rhetorical  Society  was  merged  with  the 
Library  Society,  continuing  until  1858.  In  1856  the  Worcester  Lyceum, 
established  in  1829,  was  merged  with  the  Library  Society,  and  the  cor- 
porate title  changed  by  act  of  the  legislature  to  The  Worcester  County 
Lyceum  and  Library  Association. 

In  1851  a  natural  history  department  was  formed  for  the  study  of 
the  natural  sciences.  Prof.  Louis  Agassiz,  of  Harvard,  came  by  invita- 
tion to  assist  in  planning  its  work,  April  28,  1854.  At  that  time  the 
collection  of  the  Worcester  Lyceum  of  Natural  History,  then  in  posses- 
sion of  the  American  Antiquarian  Society,  was  given  to  the  Lyceum  and 
Library  Association,  and  formed  the  nucleus  of  the  present  Natural 
History  Museum.  Rev.  E.  E.  Hale  was  elected  chairman  of  the  natural 
history  department,  William  E.  Starr,  secretary,  and  James  B.  Blake, 
treasurer.  Henry  A.  Marsh  succeeded  Mr.  Blake  a  few  Aveeks  later. 
In  1856  the  miscellaneous  library  of  Dr.  John  Green  came  into  posses- 
sion of  the  society.  In  November,  1859,  after  the  ,death  of  Mr.  Gray,  the 
librarian,  a  committee  consisting  of  Dr.  George  Chandler,  Albert  Tol- 
man  and  T.  W.  Higginson,  appointed  to  consult  with  Dr.  John  Green 
about  the  appointment  of  a  new  librarian,  learned  that  he  had  the  inten- 
toin  of  giving  his  library  to  the  city  as  the  foundation  of  a  public  library. 
The  committee  recommended  that  the  society  library  also  be  given  to 
the  city.  The  gift  of  Dr.  Green  and  the  association  were  accepted  by  the 
city  council  in  December,  1859.     (See  Public  Library). 

The  Natural  History  Department  was  the  main  activity  of  the 
society  after  the  library  was  given  away.  In  1860  the  name  was  changed 
to  Worcester  Lyceum  and  Natural  History  Association.  Since  that 
time  the  organization  has  devoted  itself  to  the  study  of  natural  history 
and  collection  of  specimens,  except  that  for  a  long  time  a  yearly  course 
of  Lyceum  lectures  was  maintained,  which  brought  before  the  public 
such  people  as  Hayes,  the  explorer,  Wendell  Phillips,  Garrison,  Doug- 
lass, Gough,  Chapin,  Beecher,  Collyer,  Kate  Field,  Mary  Livermore, 
and  other  prominent  people  of  the  period.  In  1880  the  plan  of  giving 
instruction  by  means  of  free  classes  for  the  study  of  natural  history  was 
inaugurated.  Since  1882  the  museum  has  been  open  to  the  public  daily 
from  9  a.  m.  to  5  p.  m.  A  system  of  loans  was  devised  to  assist  schools 
and  students  in  the  study  of  natural  history.  Some  results  of  its  work 
are  that  the  Museum  is  visited  yearly  by  thousands  to  see  the  exhibits, 
permanent  and  transient;  many  to  attend  lectures  and  classes,  and  thus 
through  those  who  are  teachers,  hundreds  of  school  children  are  reached; 
many  teachers  bring  their  classes  or  send  individuals  for  study ;  many 
come  for  specimens  to  study  at  home  or  to  illustrate  lessons  before 
classes;  many  to  identify  birds,  insects,  minerals,  rocks;  some  to  learn 
how  to  combat  harmful  animals  and  plants.  Especial  attention  is  being 
paid  to  interest  children  in  the  study  of  Nature.     The  purpose  of  its  col- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  759 


lections  is  to  start  at  the  simplest  forms  of  life  and  follow  up  to  men  on 
the  one  hand  and  the  highest  plants  on  the  other,  on  the  plan  suggested 
by  Agassiz,  namely,  the  outside  world  represented  by  a  type  of  each 
important  group  or  order  and  Worcester  county  by  every  species ;  also 
to  represent  the  inorganic  kingdom. 

The  final  change  in  name  was  made  by  act  of  the  legislature  March 
6,  1884,  the  present  title  being  The  Worcester  Natural  History  Society. 
In  the  same  year  a  tract  of  about  40  acres  was  secured  on  the  shore  of 
Lake  Quinsigamond,  and  called  Natural  History  Park.  In  the  summer 
of  1885  the  first  summer  camp  for  boys  was  established  there.  Thomas 
H.  Dodge  gave  $1,000  for  the  purchase  of  tents  and  the  building  of  a 
structure  since  known  as  the  Dodge  Pavilion,  in  which  lectures  were 
given  and  classes  heard.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dodge  subsequently  added  $500 
to  this  gift.  In  1888  Joseph  H.  Walker  gave  $5,000  to  enable  the  society 
to  perfect  its  title  to  the  real  estate,  and  in  the  same  year,  through  the 
efforts  of  Horace  H.  Bigelow,  a  workshop  well  stocked  with  tools  was 
added  to  the  camp  property.  Various  merchants  contributed  the  lum- 
ber and  tools.  The  summer  school  and  camp  proved  very  popular  until 
recent  years,  when  the  Boy  Scouts  and  other  organizations  working 
along  similar  lines  proved  more  attractive  to  the  youth  of  the  city.  From 
1880  until  the  summer  school  was  discontinued.  Dr.  W.  H.  Raymenton 
was  president  of  the  society  and  took  personal  charge  of  the  camp. 

The  bequest  of  Edwin  Conant  in  1891  gave  a  much-needed  and  very 
suitable  home  for  the  museum  at  the  corner  of  State  and  Harvard  streets, 
which  is  now  outgrown,  more  room  being  needed  for  collections  and 
classes. 

At  the  monthly  meetings  of  the  society  papers  are  read  on  topics 
relating  to  the  work  of  the  society.  It  has  published  "The  Physical 
Geography  of  Worcester"  by  Joseph  H.  Perry,  with  photographic  illus- 
trations by  the  late  J.  Chauncy  Lyf ord ;  "Geology  of  Worcester,  Mass.," 
1903,  by  Joseph  H.  Perry,  teacher  of  chemistry  and  geology,  Wor- 
cester High  School,  and  B.  K.  Emerson,  Professor  of  Geology  at  Am- 
herst College ;  "Flora  of  Worcester  County,"  1903,  by  Joseph  Jackson, 
Principal  Worcester  High  School;  "Birds  of  Worcester  County,"  1911, 
by  Chester  A.  Reed. 

The  society  has  placed  in  the  mansion  at  Green  Hill  a  collection  of 
Worcester  county  birds,  and  it  is  said  to  be  a  most  complete  and  valua- 
ble collection  of  local  birds.  At  the  State  street  building,  classes  are 
formed  each  year  at  the  proper  season  to  study  mushrooms,  mosses, 
ferns,  flowers,  trees,  insects,  birds,  minerals,  geology  and  astronomy. 
From  early  spring  until  late  in  autumn  all  of  the  wild  flowers  of  this 
vicinity,  gathered  fresh  from  the  fields  and  woods,  properly  labeled,  are 
displayed  for  the  benefit  of  the  public.  Particular  attention  is  being  paid 
to  make  its  collection  and  pressed  botanical  specimens  complete. 

Mothers*  Child  Study  Circle. — The  idea  of  this  club  originated  with 


76o  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Mrs.  Alfred  F.  Longley,  one  of  its  devoted  members  until  her  death.  She 
confided  her  idea  to  a  friend,  Mrs.  C.  P.  Earley,  who  promoted  it.  Young 
mothers  already  interested  in  the  new  child  study  movement  pledged 
their  support.  A  meeting  was  held  at  the  home  of  Mrs.  William  H. 
Gates  and  there,  on  the  third  of  February-,  189T,  the  Mothers'  Child  Study 
Circle  was  organized  with  fourteen  members ;  officers :  Mrs.  Earley, 
president ;  Mrs.  Gates,  vice-president ;  Mrs.  Longley,  secretary  and 
treasurer;   Mrs.  W.  H.  Nelson,  librarian. 

The  circle  was  to  meet  bi-monthly  at  private  homes,  and  for  this 
reason  and  to  promote  efficiency,  its  membership  was  limited  to  fifteen, 
later  to  twenty.  The  child  and  everything  which  contributes  to  child 
development  were  to  be  subjects  for  study  and  report;  experts  in  these 
lines  of  study  occasionally  secured  to  speak ;  the  scientific  child  study 
work  reported;  magazines  and  books  helpful  for  child  study  circulated, 
and  mothers'  problems  discussed  in  a  question  box  meeting  each  year. 
This  plamof  work  proved  largely  practicable,  satisfactory  in  its  results 
and,  minus  the  magazine  and  book  circulation,  is  still  followed  by  the 
circle. 

Features  have  been  added,  notal)ly  a  picnic  in  June  ;  a  Christmas 
partv  for  the  children,  at  which  Christmas  gifts  are  prepared  for  less 
favored  children ;  fathers'  night,  informal  and  popular  with  the  fathers ; 
extension  work,  long  desired,  possible  at  last  through  legacies  in  the 
wills  of  ]\Ir.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  H.  Dodge  ;  story-telling  and  report  of 
current  events.  In  the  extension  work  money  is  not  given,  but  clothing 
is  made  for  various  city  charities ;  dolls  dressed  by  the  members,  toys, 
stockings,  mittens  and  Christmas  goodies  are  given  to  public  kindergar- 
tens, and  open  meetings  are  held  designed  to  instruct  young  mothers 
in  the  care  and  training  of  children.  The  circle  at  the  present  time  num- 
bers nineteen  active  members  and  several  honorary  ones  (all  past  mem- 
bers). It  is  more  vigorous  and  efficient  than  ever  in  its  history.  The 
present  officers  are  Mrs.  E.  I.  ^Morgan,  president;  Mrs.  Robert  Whitte- 
more,  first  vice-president;  Mrs.  Charles  T.  Haven,  second  vice-president; 
Mrs.  James  C.  Davis,  secretary  and  treasurer. 

Public  Education  Association. — The  following  is  from  the  pen  of 
Mrs.  Eliza  D.  Robinson: 

Early  in  January,  1905,  a  group  of  Worcester  citizens,  among  whom  were  Charles 
M.  Thayer,  Dr.  William  H.  Burnham.  of  Clark  University,  Rufus  B.  Fowler,  Esq.,  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  J.  Russel  Marble,  and  Mrs.  Fannie  Fern  Andrews  of  Boston,  met  at  the 
home  of  Mrs.  Joseph  J.  H.  Robinson  to  discuss  the  advisability  of  an  organization  of 
both  men  and  women,  to  advance  the  cause  of  public  education  in  the  city.  A  public 
meeting  was  held  Jan.  17th,  in  Memorial  Hall,  with  James  P.  Munroe  of  Boston,  for 
the  principal  speaker.  At  a  later  meeting  February  7th  in  the  same  place,  Clinton 
Rogers  Woodruff,  Esq.,  Secretary  of  the  National  Municipal  League,  gave  an  address 
on  "Public  Education  and  the  Citizen." 

Charles  M.  Thayer,  Esq.,  presided  at  both  meetings,  and  remarks  in  favor  of 
an  organization  were  made  by  Hon.  James  Logan,  Prof.  George  L.  Alden,  Rufus  B. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  761 

Fowler,  Esq.,  Homer  P.  Lewis,  Supt.  of  Schools.  Rev.  A.  W.  Hitchcock,  Prof.  Arthur 
G.  Webster  and  others.  A  constitution  was  adopted  and  the  following  ofificers  elected : 
President,  Prof.  George  L.  Alden ;  Vice  Presidents,  Philip  J.  O'Connell,  Col.  E.  B. 
Glasgow;  Secretary,  Mrs.  J.  H.  Robinson,  Assistant  Secretary,  Cora  Greene;  Treas- 
urer, William  Woodward.  The  object  of  the  society  was:  "To  secure  and  maintain 
the  highest  educational  standards  for  Worcester."  The  necessity  of  working  construc- 
tively and  in  cooperation  with  established  authority,  was  emphasized  both  by  Mr.  Wood- 
ruff and  President  Alden.  The  first  meeting  of  the  executive  board  was  held  in  Room 
12,  City  Hall,  and  the  following  standing  committees  established — school  hygiene,  man- 
ual training,  education  cNtension,  school  organization,  and  school  visitors.  Head- 
quarters for  the  Association  were  secured  by  President  Alden  at  No.  11  Foster  St., 
and  on  the  occasion  of  the  openirg,  Dr.  G.  Stanley  Hall  delivered  a  stimulating  ad- 
dress on  "Citizens  Initiative  in  School  Reforms."  The  Manual  Training  Committee 
later  known  as  Committee  on  Industrial  Education,  encouraged  by  means  of  lectures 
and  exhibitions  from  other  cities  where  the  manual  training  was  co-extensive  with  the 
course  of  study,  aided  the  extension  of  manual  training  in  our  schools.  In  1906  a  law 
was  passed  making  it  possible  for  a  city  to  erect  and  equip  schools  for  industrial 
and  agricultural  training,  the  state  to  reimburse  for  half  the  maintenance.  Milton  P. 
Higgins,  chairman  of  the  committee,  had  already  given  much  study  to  the  problem  of 
securing  skilled  workman  for  the  industries.  On  January  4th,  1907,  a  meeting  was  held 
in  Washburn  Hall  in  the  interest  of  Industrial  Education  for  Worcester,  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Public  Education  Association;  members  of  the  Mechanics  Association, 
Metal  Trades  and  Board  of  Trade  were  invited  to  cooperate.  Mr.  Higgins  presided. 
Hon.  Carroll  D.  Wright,  Pres.  of  Clark  College  and  Chairman  of  the  Douglas  Com- 
mission, which  investigated  industrial  conditions  in  Massachusetts,  honorary  member  of 
this  association ;  Magnus  W.  Alexander,  organizer  of  the  Apprentice  School  at  General 
Electric  Co.,  Lynn,  were  speakers.  A  subsequent  conference  resulted  in  the  choice  of  a 
committee  of  five  to  draft  a  petition  to  the  city  government  composed  of  Milton  P. 
Higgins  (Pub.  Ed.  Assn.),  Rufus  B.  Fowler  (Board  of  Trade),  Charles  F.  Marble 
(Metal  Trades  Assn.),  John  R.  Back  (Mechanics  Assn.),  and  George  L.  Alden  (Public 
Education  Association).  The  Secretary  of  this  association  after  correspondence  with 
the  Independent  State  Industrial  Commission  was  empowered  to  call  a  meeting  in 
behalf  of  a  trade  school  for  girls,  in  Woman's  Club  building.  Secretary  Morse  of  the 
commission,  addressed  the  meeting  and  a  Conference  Committee  was  chosen,  com- 
posed of  delegates  from  Woman's  Club,  Twentieth  Century  Club,  Council  of  Jewish 
Women  and  the  Public  Education  Association,  to  make  investigations  of  industries  in 
the  city  employing  women,  and  a  petition,  asking  that  provision  for  a  trade  school  for 
girls  as  well  as  boys,  and  that  two  women  be  appointed  on  the  Commission  for  Indus- 
trial Education  for  Worcester  were  sent  to  the  committee  of  five,  to  be  included  in  pe- 
tition to  city  government.  At  the  hearing,  before  the  Committee  on  Education  of  the 
City  Council,  Messrs.  Alden  and  Fowler  presented  the  case  of  the  boys,  and  the  Secre- 
tary of  the  Public  Education  Association  of  the  girls.  Today  there  are  two  flourish- 
ing trade  schools  in  Worcester  for  boys  and  girls. 

The  subject  of  Vocational  Guidance  was  first  brought  to  the  attention  of  Wor- 
cester citizens  by  this  association.  Meyer  Bloomfield,  Director  of  Civic  Service  House, 
Boston,  spoke  at  the  fifth  annual  meeting,  and  later,  Supt.  Stratton  D.  Brooks  of 
Boston  Public  Schools.  President  Alden  believed  that  while  Trade  Schools  now  had 
the  approval  of  public  sentiment,  there  was  a  large  majority  of  boys  and  girls  in  our 
public  schools  whose  needs  can  best  be  met  by  the  "half  time  plan."  Prof.  Alden  out- 
lined a  plan  for  "a  better  education  of  boys  and  girls  who  leave  the  gramfnar  school 
to  seek  employment  in  unskilled  industries"  and  recommended  a  special  supervisor 
who  would  be  a  helper  and  friend,  in  other  words  "a  vocational  guide."  Favorable  con- 
sideration by  school  committee  was  obtained  but  business  conditions  prevented  the 
adoption  of  the  plan  at  that  time. 


762  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  School  Hygiene  Committee  under  the  able  leadership  for  several  years  of  Dr. 
William  H.  Burnham  of  Clark  University,  an  expert  in  this  field,  gathered  facts  in 
regard  to  the  practice  of  school  hygiene  in  the  cities  of  the  U.  S.  and  recommended 
features  specially  commendable  for  safeguarding  the  health  of  the  children.  The 
committee  recommended:  i.  e.,  the  passage  of  the  bill  for  medical  inspection  of  the 
schools  of  Massachusetts;  better  control  of  contagious  diseases;  erection  of  school 
houses  sanitary  in  construction  and  equipment;  sanitary  drinking  fountains  which  were 
first  introduced  in  Worcester  school  houses  at  request  of  this  committee ;  the  best 
methods  of  cleaning  schoolhouses,  especially  use  of  oil  in  sweeping  and  prohibition  of 
all  dry  sweeping  and  use  of  feather  duster,  and  the  following  year  these  recommenda- 
tions were  first  put  in  practice;  attention  was  called  to  the  neglect  of  outdoor  recesses 
and  investigation  and  improvement  followed,  also  adequate  playgrounds  and  the  care 
of  school  yards  were  recommended. 

Attention  of  this  committee  was  called  by  the  school  visitors'  committee  to  the 
fact  that  High  School  pupils  w^ere  without  gymnasium  and  physical  training.  A  peti- 
tion from  this  committee.  Dr.  Kendall  Emerson,  then  chairman,  fortified  by  data  col- 
lected by  Miss  Robinson,  resulted  in  appointment  of  two  physical  directors,  one  for 
boys  and  one  for  girls.  At  the  present  time,  Oct.  1917,  there  are  two  fine  gymnasiums, 
one  at  North  High,  the  other  at  High  School  of  Commerce,  •  with  some  provision  for 
physical  training  in  all  four  High  Schools  and  competent  directors,  both  men  and 
women  in  all,  and  a  general  director  in  charge  of  the  entire  system,  thus  securing 
breadth  and  unity  of  purpose. 

The  psychological  clinic  for  examination  of  backward  children  was  encouraged  by 
addresses  from  specialists  in  this  most  important  field  of  Health  Education  and  a  clinic 
is  now  held  weekly  in  City  Hall,  under  director  of  state  alienists. 

The  committee  has  from  time  to  time  continued  in  the  daily  press,  particularly  in 
the  Gazette,  the  campaign  for  "Wider  use  of  the  School  Houses  for  Civic  Betterment" 
and  Miss  Miriam  Abbot  of  the  committee  prepared  a  valuable  questionnaire  on  the 
present  use  of  the  school  buildings  which  was  sent  to  all  principals.  "The  most  striking 
fact  brought  out  with  regard  to  present  use  of  the  schools  was  the  number  of  different 
types  of  groups  using  the  buildings  in  comparison  with  the  number  of  times  the  build- 
ings were  used  in  toto.  This  would  seem  to  indicate  that  there  is  a  demand  from  all 
classes  of  people  for  the  use  of  the  buildings,  which  is  checked  only  by  the  expense  in- 
volved. In  summarizing  the  value  of  this  enquiry,  the  most  encouraging  and  stimulat- 
ing fact  is  the  interest  which  the  principals  of  the  public  schools  have  expressed,  and  the 
cooperation  with  which  they  are  ready  to  unite  in  developing  an  adequate  policy  of 
civic  recreation."  Dr.  Ray  Greene  served  two  years  as  chairman  of  this  committee.  In 
1918  Dr.  Caroline  A.  Osborne  was  elected  chairman. 

The  School  Visitors  Committee  has  had  the  inspiration  of  seeing  the  work  done  in 
the  school  rooms  and  also  of  receiving  from  the  teachers  valuable  suggestions  for  prac- 
tical work.  Attention  has  been  given  to  sanitary  conditions,  recesses,  single  and  dou- 
ble sessions,  compulsory  physical  training  in  high  schools,  home  gardens,  and  parents 
have  been  urged  to  buy  text  books  for  their  children  when  possible  as  health  precau- 
tion. Dr.  Florence  H.  Richards  of  Philadelphia,  medical  director  of  the  William  Penn 
High  School  for  girls,  was  secured  for  a  lecture  on  "Physical  Education  for  High 
School  Girls."  A  demonstration  of  gymnasium  work,  (the  first  one  of  its  kind  in  the 
city)  followed,  under  the  direction  of  Miss  Florence  Bennett,  physical  director,  as- 
sisted by  Miss  Aileen  Foley.  The  Education  Extension  Committee  under  the  leader- 
ship of  Prof.  U.  Waldo  Cutler,  conducted  evening  lectures  for  two  seasons  in  three 
school  neighborhoods  and  in  spite  of  the  lack  of  proper  assembly  halls,  the  attendance 
was  gratifying.  Dr.  Henry  M.  Leipziger  of  New  York  City,  was  engaged  for  a  lecture 
on  "The  School  for  all  the  People,"  with  the  result  that  the  School  Committee  ar- 
ranged a  course  of  lectures,  for  which  the  City  Council  appropriated  $1,000.  These 
were  not  continued  and  the  P.  E.  A.  established  a  committee  on  "Civics,  Social  Centers 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  7^2 


and  Recreation."  Prof.  Frank  H.  Hankins,  chairman,  in  a  series  of  important  press 
articles,  called  to  the  attention  of  the  public  "that  with  our  present  highly  complex  civ- 
ilization we  have  lost  the  communion,  fellow  feeling  and  neighborhood  interest  on 
which  New  England  town  life  rested,  and  that  the  most  efifective  means  of  restoring 
the  community  spirit  and  raising  the  level  of  civic  life  toward  that  of  the  democratic 
ideal,  is  the  Social  Center."  One  such  center  was  established  at  Union  Hill,  another  at- 
tempt in  a  new  building  equipped  with  a  fine  assembly  hall  proved  abortive  for  the 
reason  that  the  neighborhood  was  made  up  of  non-English  speaking  people,  but  the 
knowledge  gained  has  resulted  in  classes  for  teaching  English  to  the  foreign  mothers 
under  the  supervision  of  the  School  Department. 

The  Home  and  School  Visitor,  trained  in  social  service,  but  unofficial,  and  sup- 
ported by  the  Public  Education  Associations  had  proved  of  great  value  in  bringing 
about  a  closer  relation  between  home  and  school,  and  it  was  decided  to  endeavor  to 
secure  one  for  Worcester  who  should  be  a  regular  officer  of  the  school  department. 
The  effort  was  successful  and  the  office  of  "Supervisor  of  Attendance"  was  created. 
The  changed  character  of  the  problem  of  school  attendance  was  called  to  the  attention 
of  the  state  superintendents  and  the  recommendation  that  "Truant  Officer"  be  changed 
to  "School  Attendance  Officer"  was  adopted  in  the  recodified  law. 

A  lecture  by  Prof.  George  Pierce  Baker,  of  Harvard  University,  on  "The  Child 
and  the  Theatre,"  resulted  in  the  formation  of  a  committee  on  "The  Theatre  as  an 
Educational  Force/'  Prof.  Samuel  P.  Capen,  chairman.  The  committee  publicly  en- 
couraged worthy  dramatic  productions  and  stood  sponsor  for  several  plays.  A  ques- 
tionnaire to  ascertain  the  tlieatre-going  habits  of  children,  was  sent  to  the  schools  and 
the  data  secured  presented  to  many  groups  of  people.  Under  the  direction  of  Chair- 
man Prentiss  C.  Hoyt,  a  study  of  the  condition  in  the  cheaper  theatres  was  made,  and 
assisted  by  Miss  Marietta  Knight  and  Miss  Sarah  B.  Hopkins,  children's  plays  were 
successfully  given  at  Endicott  House,  the  use  of  which  was  generously  granted  by  the 
Worcester  City  Missionary  Society.  Recognizing  the  value  of  dramatization  and 
pageantry  in  history  teaching,  and  interpretation  of  the  life  of  a  people,  the  committee 
was  changed  to  "Dramatization  and  Pageantry  Committee."  Prof.  Horace  G.  Brown 
of  State  Normal  School  read  an  important  paper  on  "Dramatization  in  History  teach- 
ing," and  Charles  H.  Lincoln,  Ph.  D.,  one  on  "The  Significance  of  American  National 
Holidays,"  and  Dr.  William  E.  Bohn  of  the  Ethical  Culture  School,  New  York  City, 
gave  a  lecture  before  the  association  on  "The  School  Festival."  Dr.  Bohn  said  that  a 
Festival  is  any  celebration  which  nobly  embodies  a  noble  ideal."  This  was  finely  il- 
lustrated by  the  "School  Festival"  entitled  "A  Parade  of  Nations,"  given  by  the  pupils 
of  Elizabeth  street  school  (seventeen  nationalities  being  represented)  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Miss  Emma  Plimpton,  the  principal,  with  the  cooperation  of  Dr.  William  B. 
Aspinwall,  principal  of  the  Normal  School,  who  has  well  said  that  "The  amalgama- 
tion of  the  races  is  the  triumph  of  the  American  Public  School." 

Two  pageants  have  been  successfully  produced — both  on  Fourth  of  July  and  with 
the  cooperation  of  the  committee  appointed  by  the  mayor  for  the  observance  of  a 
"Safe  and  Sane  Fourth."  The  first  "The  Spirit  of  Liberty,"  given  in  1912,  was  planned 
and  directed  by  Mrs.  Savage,  chairman  of  the  P.  E.  A.  Committee;  the  second  in 
1913,  "The  Children  of  America,"  was  directed  by  Miss  Lotta  T.  Clark  of  Boston, 
secretary  of  the  "Drama  League  of  America,"  Mrs.  J.  M.  Talamo  of  the  city  committee, 
and  Mrs.  J.  H.  Robinson,  secretary  of  the  association,  were  chairman  and  vice  chair- 
man respectively  of  the  Executive  Committee  in  charge.  Both  pageants  were  held  on 
Clark  College  campus. 

Moral  educational  conferences  were  held  annually  for  several  years,  with  the  co- 
operation of  the  superintendents  of  schools.  Afternoon  sessions  were  held  so  that 
the  teachers  could  attend,  and  evening  sessions  were  open  to  the  public,  and  many  emi- 
nent speakers  were  secured.  A  bibliography  on  moral  education  was  prepared  and 
also  important  reprints  distributed  am.ong  the  teachers. 


764 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Public  addresses  have  been  given  by  many  eminent  speakers,  among  them,  Dr. 
David  Starr  Jordan,  Chancellor  of  Leland  Stanford  University,  Dr.  G.  Stanley  Hall, 
President  of  Clark  University,  Prof.  J.  William  Hudson  of  University  of  Missouri, 
Mr.  Oswald  Garrison  Villard,  president  and  editorial  writer  of  the  New  York  Even- 
ing Post. 

Practically  every  Public  Education  Association  in  the  country  has  occupied  itself 
with  the  question  of  small  school  boards  for  the  more  efficient  administration  of  our 
public  schools.  A  bill  was  presented  to  the  Legislature  during  the  administration  of 
Prof.  George  Q.  Alden.  This  bill  called  for  a  non-partisan  committee  of  seven  elected 
at  large— in  place  of  the  committee  of  thirty  elected  afterwards.  This  bill  was  opposed 
by  the  City  Council  and  defeated.  In  1916  the  Committee  on  School  Organization  and 
Administration,  Prof.  C.  B.  Randolph,  chairman,  secured  a  city  wide  interest  in  a  bill 
for  smaller  school  committee,  which  called  for  eleven  members,  one  from  each  of  the 
ten  wards  and  one  at  large,  and  with  a  referendum  to  the  people  attached.  Prof. 
Frank  H.  Hankins,  of  Clark  University,  conducted  the  hearing.  Mr.  J.  Russell  Mar- 
ble, president  of  the  association,  was  made  chairman  of  a  "Citizens  Committee,"  to  work 
for  the  referendum.  The  work  of  the  campaign  outlined  by  the  committee  was  carried 
out  almost  entirely  by  Mr.  Marble,  Mr.  Rowland  T.  Hastings  and  Mr.  Levi  Bousquet— 
other  members  actively  interested  were  Prof.  U.  Waldo  Cutler,  Mr.  Maurice  F.  Reidy 
and  Mr.  Ernest  Adams,  and  contributions  to  the  expenses  of  the  campaign  expenses 
were  made  by  Mr.  J.  Russell  Marble,  Hon.  James  Logan,  Prof.  George  Q.  Alden  and 
by  the  association.  The  Worcester  Evening  Gazette,  Post  and  L'Opinion  Publique 
pledged  their  support  and  were  a  great  factor  in  the  overwhelming  victory  which  car- 
ried  every   ward   and   precinct   in   the   city. 

The  association  has  had  for  honorary  members,  presidents  of  Clark  University 
and  Clark  College,  Worcester  Polytechnic,  College  of  Holy  Cross  and  Principal  of  the 
State  Normal  School,  President  G.  Stanley  Hall,  honorary  president.  Presidents  of 
the  Association  since  organization  are  as  follows:  Prof.  George  Q.  Alden  (3  years), 
Prof.  Samuel  P.  Capen  (3  years),  Prof.  U.  Waldo  Cutler  (3  years).  Dr.  William  B. 
Aspinwall.  Rev.  Vincent  E.  Tomlinson,  Air.  J.  Russel  Marble,  Rev.  Austin  S.  Garver. 
Treasurers  Charles  E.  Burbank  and  Prof.  Charles  B.  Randolph  served  three  years  each 
and  Mr.  James  Green  seven  years.  Secretary,  Mrs.  Joseph  H.  Robinson,  served  ten 
years.  Assistant  Secretary,  Alice  Thayer,  four  years,  Camilla  G.  Whitcomb,  Eliza- 
beth S.  Campbell,  Mrs.  Robert  K.  Shaw,  Olive  M.  Brooks,  two  years  each.  Miss  Ara- 
bella H.  Tucker,  one  year.  Presidents  Alden,  Capen,  Cutler,  Marble,  Treasurer  Ran- 
dolph and  the  secretary  have  given  active  service  as  chairmen  of  committees,  and  also 
Prof.  William  H.  Burnham,  specialist  in  School  Hygiene;  Prof.  George  H.  Blakeslee, 
History  and  International  Relations :  Dean  James  P.  Porter,  chairman  of  Committee 
on  Moral  Education  ;  Dr.  Amy  E.  Tanner,  Committee  of  School  Visitors ;  Prof.  Frank 
H.  Hankins.  Civic  Centers;  Prof.  Prentiss  C.  Hoyt,  The  Theatre  as  an  Educational 
Force,  and  Prof.  Horace  G.  Brown,  History  and  Moral  Education. 


CHAPTER    XLIX 

Historical  and  Literary  Societies — Worcester  County  Historical  Society 

— American  Antiquarian  Society — Worcester  Society  of  Antiquity — 

Worcester  Book  Club — The   Shaksepeare   Club — Fraternity   of 

Odd  Fellows — Worcester  Art  Museum — Public  School 

Art  League — St.  Wulstan  Society 

The  Worcester  County  Historical  Society. — At  the  beginning,  this 
Society  had  a  promising  future.  Incorporated  Feb.  19,  1831,  the  charter 
members  were  John  Davis,  Samuel  Jennison,  Isaac  Goodwin,  William 
Lincoln.  The  purpose  was  "to  collect  and  preserve  material  for  a  com- 
plete and  minute  history  of  Worcester  county, — the  origin,  advance- 
ment and  social  relations,  geographical  limits  and  appearance  of  the  ter- 
ritory," etc.  John  Davis,  the  first  president,  held  the  office  for  many 
years.  The  centennial  anniversary  of  the  county  was  celebrated  with 
formal  exercises,  John  Davis  being  the  orator.  The  date  of  dissolution 
is  not  known. 

American  Antiquarian  Society. — Founded  here  by  Isaiah  Thomas  in 
1813,  this  is  a  national  institution,  its  membership  including  the  most  dis- 
tinguished scholars,  authors,  literary  men,  public  officers  and  statesmen, 
not  only  of  the  United  States,  but  of  various  foreign  countries.  But  the 
energy,  interest  and  devotion  of  a  small  group  of  men,  mostly  of  Wor- 
cester, created  the  society,  collected  its  library,  and  contributed  the  funds 
which  have  maintained  it,  built  its  home  and  have  sustained  its  purpose 
for  more  than  a  century.  Prominent  among  these  men  have  been  Isaiah 
Thomas,  Stephen  Salisbury,  Sr.,  Stephen  Salisbury,  Jr.;  the  librarians, 
especially  the  present  one,  who  has  accomplished  through  modern  meth- 
ods and  a  genius  for  this  work,  more  than  in  many  previous  decades ; 
Waldo  Lincoln,  the  present  head  of  the  institution,  whose  personal  pres- 
ence and  attention,  refined  taste  and  good  judgment  are  in  evidence 
on  every  hand ;  the  late  Nathaniel  Paine,  who  collected  everything 
within  his  reach  for  this  library ;  Franklin  P.  Rice,  who  has  given  his 
service  faithfully  in  recent  years,  a  service  that  counts  beyond  that  of  a 
score  of  ordinary  men  on  account  of  his  lifelong  experience  in  compiling 
and  printing  historical  works  and  on  account  of  his  natural  gifts  in 
research. 

Those  who  signed  the  petition  for  incorporation  were :  Isaiah 
Thomas,  Nathaniel  Paine,  Dr.  William  Paine,  Rev.  Aaron  Bancroft  and 
Edward  Bangs,  all  leaders  in  their  professions,  known  from  one  end  of 
the  country  to  the  other.  The  petition  states  "that  its  immediate  and 
peculiar  design  is  to  discover  the  antiquities  of  our  continent  and  by  pro- 
viding a  fixed  and  permanent  place  of  deposit  to  preserve  such  relics  of 


766  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

American  antiquity  as  are  portable,  as  well  as  to  collect  and  preserve 
those  of  other  parts  of  the  globe."  These  purposes  were  never  realized. 
They  indicated  an  intention  to  have  a  museum  such  as  the  Smithsonian 
Institution.  The  American  antiquities  have  been  collected  and  stored  in 
various  museums.  The  small  collection  made  by  this  society  in  early 
days  has  been  distributed  among  institutions  most  suitable  for  preserving 
the  articles,  excepting  some  choice  furniture,  jewelry,  china  and  other 
relics  of  value.  The  society  turned  its  attention  to  the  collection  of 
American-newspapers,  historical  books  and  magazines,  manuscripts  and 
records,  and  has  made  a  library  of  incalculable  value  to  the  American 
people  and  their  historians.  Much  of  the  material  in  this  library  can  be 
found  nowhere  else. 

The  charter  limited  the  amount  of  its  income  from  real  estate  to 
$1,500.  The  first  meeting  was  held  in  the  Exchange  Coffee  House,  Bos- 
ton, Nov.  19,  1812.  At  the  next  meeting  President  Isaiah  Thomas  gave 
books  valued  at  $4,000,  and  was  requested  to  allow  them  to  remain  in 
his  house  until  the  society  found  other  quarters.  The  first  meeting  in 
this  city  was  at  the  tavern  of  Col.  Reuben  Sikes,  now  the  Exchange  Hotel, 
Main  street,  Sept.  29,  1813.  The  Boston  meetings  were  held  in  Ex- 
change Coffee  House  until  it  was  burned  in  1819,  and  when  it  was 
rebuilt,  resumed  its  meetings  there  for  a  period  of  fifteen  years ;  from 
May,  1836,  to  May,  1847,  the  semi-annual  meetings  were  in  the  Tre- 
mont  House;  then,  until  April,  1900,  in  the  rooms  of  the  American 
Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences  and  since  then  in  the  rooms  of  the  Mas- 
sachusetts Historical  Society. 

Mr.  Thomas  provided  a  building  on  Summer  street  at  his  own 
expense,  and  the  library  was  formally  opened  Aug.  24,  1820.  Two 
wings  were  added  in  1831 ;  it  was  never  deeded  to  the  society,  however. 
Mr.  Thomas  left  $30,000  to  the  society  and  valued  the  library  building 
and  land  at  $8,000,  leaving  $12,000  in  books  and  $12,000  in  money.  The 
building  on  Main  street,  corner  of  Highland,  was  erected  on  land  given 
in  1850  by  Stephen  Salisbury,  who  also  gave  $5,000  to  the  building  fund. 
The  old  building  was  sold  to  the  trustees  of  Worcester  Academy. 

The  society  published  a  volume  of  archaeology  by  Caleb  Atwater 
in  1820 ;  a  volume  on  aboriginal  languages  by  Albert  Gallatin  in  1835 ; 
the  early  records  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay  Co.  in  1850.  At  the  annual 
meeting  in  1863,  completion  of  the  half-century,  an  address  was  deliv- 
ered by  Rev.  Dr.  William  Jenks,  who  had  delivered  the  address  at  the 
meeting  fifty  years  before,  and  was  one  of  the  four  survivors  of  the 
original  members,  the  other  three  being  Gov.  Levi  Lincoln,  Josiah 
Quincy  and  Dr.  John  Green. 

Samuel  Jennison.  who  succeeded  Mr.  Thomas  as  librarian,  served 
until  1826.  William  Lincoln,  who  succeeded  him,  was  a  graduate  of 
Harvard,  lawyer,  editor,  author  of  the  history  of  Worcester.  Christo- 
pher Raldwiu,  the  next  librarian,  served  October,  182T-1835,  except  when 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  7^7 

he  practiced  law  at  Barre,  1831-33,  during  his  absence  Samuel  M.  Burn- 
side  acting  as  librarian.  To  Mr.  Baldwin  the  society  is  indebted  for 
many  of  its  rare  books,  and  especially  to  enlarging  its  collection  of  Amer- 
ican newspapers.  Mr.  Thomas  and  Mr.  Baldwin  both  received  as 
exchanges,  while  editors,  most  of  the  important  newspapers  of  the  coun- 
try and  they  kept  the  files,  depositing  them  in  the  library.  Maturin  L. 
Fisher,  acting  librarian  two  years,  was  succeeded  in  October,  1837,  by 
Samuel  F.  Haven,  who  served  until  April,  1881.  He  was  succeeded  by 
Edmund  M.  Barton,  now  librarian  emeritus.  The  present  librarian, 
Clarence  S.  Brigham,  who  served  on  the. committee  in  charge  of  the  new 
building  which  was  dedicated  in  1912,  had  charge  of  the  removal  and 
classification  necessary  at  the  time  of  removal.  He  was  formerly  librarian 
of  the  Rhode  Island  Historical  Society. 

Mr.  Thomas  was  succeeded  as  president  by  Thomas  Lindall  Win- 
throp.  Edward  Everett,  the  statesman,  was  next  in  this  office.  Since 
then  the  presidents  have  been  residents  of  Worcester.  Everett  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Gov.  John  Davis,  Congressman,  Governor  and  United  States 
Senator.  The  second  Stephen  Salisbury  was  president  from  1854  until 
he  died  in  1884.  He  was  a  man  of  learning,  and  next  to  Mr.  Thomas  the 
foremost  benefactor  of  the  society  up  to  that  time.  Stephen  Salisbury 
(3d)  was  president  from  1887  until  he  died.  He  was  the  third  great 
benefactor  and  builder  of  the  library.  The  hew  building  was  erected 
from  the  generous  legacy  that  he  left  the  society.  Senator  George  F. 
Hoar  was  a  member  from  1853  until  he  died ;  and  was  president  from 
1884-87;  Nathaniel  Paine,  member  from  1860  until  death,  1917.  Rev. 
Edward  Everett  Hale  served  as  president  for  one  year.  He  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  society  for  sixty  years  and  spoke  often  at  its  meetings. 

In  October,  1918,  the  library  had  nearly  6,000  books,  the  larger  part 
being  the  Thomas  Collection,  valued  at  $5,000,  but  at  present  prices 
worth  many  times  that  amount.  The  library  has  copies  of  nearly  all  the 
publications  in  the  country  before  1700,  and  a  large  part  of  those  pub- 
lished before  1800.  It  is  rich  in  old  manuscripts.  It  has  the  best  col- 
lection of  early  newspapers  in  the  country.  Among  the  more  important 
acquisitions  of  the  library  in  later  years  may  be  mentioned  the  bequest 
of  books  and  manuscripts  of  Dr.  William  Bentley  of  Salem,  gifts  of 
books  valued  at  $5,000  by  the  estate  of  George  Brinley  of  Hartford,  a 
gift  of  the  same  amount  in  the  will  of  Joseph  J.  Cooke  of  Providence; 
the  bequest  of  William  Bentley  Fowle  including  the  manuscripts  of  Dr. 
Bentley.  Substantial  funds  were  bequeathed  by  Isaac  Davis  and  Ben- 
jamin F.  Thomas  of  this  city.  In  recent  years  the  bequests 
of  books  have  been  too  numerous  to  mention.  From  these  collections 
many  duplicates  have  been  used  to  good  purposes  in  securing  volumes 
by  exchange  with  dealers  and  other  libraries. 

The  library  of  the  famous  old  Mather  family  constitutes  one  of  the 
treasures  of  the  society.     It  contains  many  priceless  manuscripts  of  Rich- 


NATHANIEL  PAIXE. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  769 

ard,  Increase  and  Cotton  Mather.  The  collection  of  engravings  and  por- 
traits is  very  valuable.     (See  p.  1494  Hist,  of  Worcester  County,  Hurd). 

Mrs.  Mary  (Robinson)  Reynolds  has  been  connected  with  the 
library  since  February,  1881,  and  since  Feb.  1,  1889,  has  been  assistant 
librarian.  Her  natural  aptitude  for  the  work  and  her  intimate  knowl- 
edge of  the  library  have  made  her  invaluable  in  her  position.  She  has 
been  occupied  during  a  greater  part  of  the  time  in  work  on  the  card  cat- 
alogue.    No  printed  catalogue  has  been  prepared  since  1837. 

The  centennial  celebration  of  the  society  was  celebrated  by  the  open- 
ing of  the  new  building  and  exercises  of  unusual  importance  Oct.  16, 
1912.  It  was  attended  by  President  Taft;  Rt.  Hon.  James  Bryce,  Am- 
bassador plenipotentiary  of  Great  Britain;  Senor  Federico  Alfonzo  Pe- 
zet,  Minister  from  Peru ;  U.  S.  Senator  Henry  Cabot  Lodge,  all  of  whom 
made  addresses;  by  delegates  from  all  the  great  libraries  and  learned 
societies  of  the  country  and  many  from  abroad.  The  annual  meeting 
was  followed  by  an  historical  address  by  Hon.  Charles  G.  Washburn,  to 
whom  the  writer  is  indebted  for  some  of  the  material  of  this  sketch. 
Formal  exercises  were  held  in  the  afternoon  in  the  First  Unitarian 
Church,  and  a  dinner  in  the  evening  at  the  Worcester  Club,  at  which  Mr. 
Taft  spoke.     Some  2,000  persons  attended  the  various  exercises. 

At  that  time  the  assets  aside  from  the  collections  were  reported  as 
$491,441.51.  The  progress  and  growth  of  the  library  since  1912  has  been 
greater  than  during  any  previous  period.  The  new  building  at  the  cor- 
ner of  Salisbury  street  and  Park  avenue,  is  admirably  located.  The 
building  is  of  imposing  architecture.  The  front  is  similar  to  that  of  the 
original  building  on  Summer  street.  The  library  stacks  are  of  the 
best  modern  construction.  The  reading  room  is  beautifully  appointed. 
A  striking  feature  of  the  main  room  is  the  circle  of  massive  pillars  of 
polished  Siena  marble.  The  alcoves  about  the  main  room  are  lined  with 
books  relating  to  American  history — town,  county,  national,  civil,  and 
Revolutionary  War.  In  the  main  room  are  genealogies,  and  the  col- 
lection of  family  history  is  one  of  the  best  dozen  genealogical  collections 
of  the  country.  Special  attention  has  been  paid  by  Mr.  Brigham  to  col- 
lecting volumes  on  American  biography  and  genealogy.  Mr.  Brigham 
has  been  engaged  also  in  preparing  a  bibliography  of  American  news- 
papers and  at  the  same  time  by  purchase  and  exchange  adding  to  the  files 
of  old  American  newspapers  in  the  library.  It  has  been  a  monumental 
task  and  when  complete  will  be  of  immense  interest  and  value  to 
historians. 

To  this  library  every  writer  of  general  history  must  come  for  some  of 
his  material,  if  his  work  is  done  thoroughly.  There  are  constantly  at 
work  throughout  the  year  in  the  library  investigators  and  writers,  gene- 
alogists and  historians.  Students  in  the  colleges  often  come  here  for 
material  for  their  theses  and  special  researches.  The  professors  of  the 
W.— 1-49. 


770 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


colleges  are  frequent  visitors.  Hundreds  of  important  books  have 
acknowledgments  by  their  authors  of  obligations  to  the  society  and 
appreciation  of  its  resources. 

Worcester  Society  of  Antiquity. — This  was  organized  by  Samuel  E. 
Staples,  Franklin  P.  Rice,  John  G.  Smith,  and  Richard  O'Flynn,  at  the 
residence  of  Mr.  Staples,  Lincoln  place,  Jan.  23,  1875.  Daniel  Seagrave 
and  Albert  Tyler,  the  printers,  were  among  the  founders ;  and  some  of 
the  preliminary  meetings  were  held  in  their  office.  The  constitution  of 
the  society  was  adopted  Feb.  13,  1875 ;   the  first  officers  elected  March  2, 


SOCIETY  OF  ANTIQUITY. 

were:  Samuel  E.  Staples,  president;  Henry  D.  Barber,  vice-president; 
Daniel  Seagrave,  secretary;  Henry  F.  Stedman,  treasurer;  John  G. 
Smith,  librarian.  During  the  first  two  years  meetings  were  held  at  the 
homes  of  members.  The  society  was  incorporated  by  act  of  the  legisla- 
ture secured  by  Hon.  Clark  Jillson.  The  charter  members  were  Samuel 
E.  Staples,  Clark  Jillson,  Ellery  B.  Crane,  Daniel  Seagrave,  Franklin  P. 
Rice,  James  A.  Smith,  Albert  A.  Lovell  and  Albert  Tyler.  The  first 
meeting  of  the  incorporated  society  was  held  March  G,  1877,  at  the  home 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  771 

of  Edward  I.  Comins,  and  the  following  officers  elected :  President, 
Samuel  E.  Staples;  Vice-Presidents,  Clark  Jillson  and  Ellery  B.  Crane; 
Treasurer,  James  A.  Smith ;  Clerk,  Daniel  Seagrave.  In  1878  there  were 
69  members. 

The  first  rooms  were  occupied  Oct.  2,  1877,  in  the  Bank  Block,-  on 
Foster  street,  where  members  met  informally  every  Tuesday  evening.  In 
addition  to  establishing  the  library  largely  from  books  given  by  members, 
the  society  began  the  publication  of  its  transactions  and  of  various  other 
records,  beginning  with  the  inscriptions  from  the  tombstones  of  the 
Mechanic  street  burial  ground.  Inscriptions  in  the  old  cemeteries  of 
Worcester  and  adjoining  towns  were  also  copied.  The  society  co-oper- 
ated with  Mr.  Franklin  P.  Rice,  who  copied  and  printed  as  part  of  its 
proceedings  the  early  records  of  Worcester  from  the  beginning  to  1848, 
including  the  vital  records.  This  work  extended  over  a  period  of  years, 
and  is  a  monument  to  the  industry,  painstaking  and  persistent  effort  of 
Mr.  Rice,  and  a  source  of  pride  to  all  interested  in  the  history  of  Wor- 
cester and  its  families. 

A  portion  of  Rev.  George  Allen's  library  was  bought  by  the  society, 
am.ounting  to  some  300  books,  more  than  doubling  the  society's  previous 
library. 

The  tenth  anniversary  was  celebrated  in  the  Old  South  Church, 
Jan.  27,  1885,  Rev.  Carlton  A.  Staples  delivering  the  principal  address. 
At  a  banquet  served  in  the  Bay  State  House,  Hon.  Alfred  S.  Roe  was 
toastmaster. 

Through  the  generosity  of  Stephen  Salisbury  (3d)  the  society  came 
into  possession  of  the  building-lot  on  which  the  society  erected  for  its 
purposes  on  Salisbury  street.  The  property  is  now  valued  at  $50,000. 
The  building  was  dedicated  Nov.  24,  1891.  The  audience  room  is  named 
for  Mr.  Salisbury.  The  society  has  more  than  27,000  bound  books,  about 
40,000  pamphlets  and  an  interesting  museum  of  American  history,  con- 
taining more  than  6,000  Indian  relics,  also  a  large  collection  of  Colonial, 
Revolutionary  and  Civil  War  relics  and  numerous  mementoes  of  domestic 
life. 

Hon.  Ellery  B.  Crane,  present  librarian,  formerly  president  and  one 
of  the  two  surviving  charter  members,  has  been  indefatigable  in  his  ser- 
vices from  the  beginning,  not  only  in  contributions  to  local  history  pub- 
lished in  the  proceedings,  but  in  securing  additions  to  the  library  and 
museum,  also  in  giving  his  time  to  the  work  of  the  organization.  The 
society  numbers  among  its  members  many  of  the  prominent  citizens  and 
scholars  of  the  town,  especially  those  interested  in  local  history  and  in 
genealogy.  (See  Historic  Homes,  etc.,  of  Worcester  County,  edited  by 
Mr.  Crane,  Lewis  Pub.  Co.,  1907;  Worcester,  City  of  Prosperity,  by  Tul- 
loch,  p.  217;  Worcester  Co.  Hist.  (Hurd)  1,  1607). 

The  officers  in  1917  are:  President,  U.  Waldo  Cutler;  Vice-Presi- 
dents:    Arthur  P.  Rugg,  William  F.  Abbot,  Adaline  May;    Recording 


^72  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Secretary,  Walter  Davidson;  Financial  Secretary,  Edward  F.  Coffin; 
Treasurer,  Frank  E.  Williamson;    Librarian,  Ellery  B.  Crane. 

Worcester  Book  Club. — This  club,  established  late  in  1839  and  still 
active,  may  be  the  oldest  in  the  country.  The  first  book  club  was  started 
in  Cambridge  in  1832.  Another  had  been  organized  in  Northampton, 
Massachusetts,  before  1839,  and  the  Misses  Martha  and  Hannah  Stearns 
were  members  and  perhaps  among  the  founders.  To  them  credit  is 
given  of  introducing  the  idea  in  Worcester.  Mrs.  Emory  Washburn  was 
an  active  promoter.  Emory  Washburn,  Samuel  F.  Haven,  Dr.  Oliver 
Blood  and  Henry  H.  Chamberlin  and  Lincoln  Newton  were  original 
members.  In  addition  to  books  bought,  the  club  ordered  magazines, 
such  as  the  English  quarterlies,  Blackwood's  Magazine  and  the  North 
American  Review. 

At  first  an  attempt  was  made  to  hold  monthly  meetings,  and  social 
and  literary  features  for  entertainment,  but  the  meetings  were  never  pop- 
ular, and  the  club  devoted  itself  entirely  to  the  circulation  of  books  and 
magazines.  Gradually  the  administration  of  affairs  was  left  to  the  book 
or  executive  committee.  In  later  years  the  executive  officer  was  the 
secretary  and  treasurer.  The  records  of  the  society  date  from  1844  to 
the  present.  In  1844  the  members  were :  Dr.  John  Green,  Theophilus 
Brown,  Frederick  W\  Paine,  John  Milton  Earle,  Dr.  Sargent,  Samuel 
Hathaway,  Levi  A.  Dowley,  Miss  Woodward,  L.  L.  Newton,  Samuel  F. 
Haven,  Henry  H.  Chamberlin,  Albert  Tolman,  George  T.  Rice,  F.  H. 
Dewey,  Samuel  Jennison,  F.  H.  Kinnicutt,  Emory  Washburn,  George  A. 
Trumbull,  Miss  Hamilton,  Miss  Stearns,  Alonzo  Hill,  Dr.  Oliver  Blood, 
M.  D.  Phillips  and  Daniel  W.  Lincoln.  A  social  directress  was  elected 
in  1846,  Mrs.  John  M.  Earl;  in  1847  Mrs.  Emory  Washburn  held  this 
office,  and  in  1848  Mrs.  Henry  Chapin.  The  directress  had  full  charge  of 
the  social  aft'airs  of  the  club.  Beginning  in  1850,  meetings  were  held 
quarterly  instead  of  monthly.  At  first  the  dues  were  a  dollar  a  year,  then 
three  dollars  and  later  five. 

There  were  few  changes  in  membership.  As  members  resigned  others 
were  elected,  the  membership  for  many  years  remaining  at  twenty-four. 
Some  of  the  later  members  elected  were :  Sarah  Tucker,  1845 ;  H.  G. 
O.  Blake,  1846;  A.  H.  Bullock,  1843;  Henry  Chapin,  1847;  Rejoice  New- 
ton, 1849 ;  Peter  C.  Bacon,  1850;  Stephen  Salisbury,  1851 ;  Charles  Paine 
and  P.  LeBaron,  1853;  Mrs.  Eliza  Davis  and  W.  A.  Wheeler,  1854; 
Dwight  Foster,  1856;  Thomas  Kinnicutt,  C.  Hartshorn,  1864;  Miss 
Canfield  and  Mrs.  Willard,  1865;  Mrs.  Thompson  and  Mr.  Wetherell, 
1866;  Philip  L.  Moen  and  Mr.  Hamilton,  1867;  Alice  Miller  and  Mrs. 
Bigelow,  1869;  Miss  Bartlett,  1874;  Joseph  Sargent,  1875;  Mrs. 
W.  W.  Rice,  1877;  L.  N.  Kinnicutt,  1881;  James  T.  Paine,  1883; 
Rockwood  Hoar,  1886;  Mrs.  William  Workman,  1886;  Mrs.  J.  C. 
Throop,  1889;  Mrs.  George  T.  Rice;  Miss  Trumbull.  G.  S.  Paine  was 
treasurer  from  1845  to  1860.     Albert  Tolman  was  secretary  a  short  time, 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  77^ 


and  his  son  Edward  F.  Tolman  for  many  years,  1890  to  1910.  Since  then 
Miss  Paine  has  been  treasurer.  Some  of  the  early  presidents  were :  L. 
A.  Dowley,  George  A.  Trumbull,  1846;  J.  M.  Earle,  1848;  Henry  Chapin, 
1848;  Rejoice  Newton,  1849;  Col.  A.  H.  Bullock,  1850;  H.  H.  Chamber- 
lin.  The  membership  has  remained  largely  in  the  families  of  the  early 
members.  In  recent  years  the  club  has  been  smaller  in  point  of  mem- 
bership. The  present  members  are:  Miss  Lois  O.  Paine,  Ellen  Dana, 
W.  B.  Allen,  O.  S.  Kendall,  A.  S.  Pinkerton,  Fannie  Hamilton,  Margaret 
Harlow,  Mrs.  Benjamin  Stone,  Caroline  Townsend,  Russell  S.  Paine, 
Mrs.  M.  L.  T.  C.  Roberts. 

The  Worcester  Shakespeare  Club. — The  following  account  is  con- 
tributed by  Mrs.  Louisa  Cogswell  Roberts : 

The  club  was  founded  in  1887  by  Mrs.  Josephine  Heard  Cutter,  with  the  co-opera- 
tion of  Harry  Leverett  Nelson,  an  enthusiastic  Shakespeare  student,  and  Miss  Grace 
Cleveland  (Mrs.  Reuben  Colton)  ;  then  of  Eben  Francis  Thompson,  Worcester's  lead- 
ing dramatic  reader.  Among  those  invited  to  organize  the  society  were  Col.  E.  B. 
Glasgow,  a  man  of  scholarly  attainments,  Samuel  S.  Green  the  librarian,  and  the  Misses 
Earle ;  while  prominent  among  the  25  or  30  at  the  first  gatherings  were  Col  W.  S.  B. 
Hopkins,  an  accomplished  amateur  actor.  Rev.  A.  H.  Vinton,  afterwards  Bishop  of 
Massachusetts,  Charles  M.  Rice  and  the  Moen  family. 

The  active  membership  is  limited  to  fifty ;  but  the  honorary  (past  members,  resi- 
dent or  non-resident,  and  wives  and  husbands  by  courtesy)  reaches  a  higher  figure.  It 
is  largely  drawn  from  professional  and  professorial  classes,  and  has  included  two  col- 
lege presidents  and  four  judges. 

The  purpose  of  the  club,  as  stated  in  the  by-laws,  is  "the  study  of  Shakespeare's 
writings,  and  of  other  kindred  subjects."  While  the  primary  object  is  still  the  read- 
ing of  his  plays,  the  elasticity  of  the  second  clause  has  been  stretched  to  cover  a  vast 
variety  of  activities.  Other  dramas,  from  the  ancient  Greek  down  to  contemporary, 
have  been  studied,  with  the  history  and  poetry  of  many  lands.  Essays,  some  of  high 
literary  quality,  informal  talks  and  illustrative  readings  have  extended  over  as  wide  a 
range. 

Thirty-five  of  the  thirty-seven  Shakespearean  plays  have  been  read,  some  of  them 
many  times,  and  discussed.  One  year  was  devoted  to  other  Elizabethan  dramatists. 
Among  modern  plays  considered  may  be  cited :  Sheridan's  comedies ;  The  Piper,  by 
Miss  Peabody  (a  Stratford  prize-winner);  Jeanne  d'Arc  by  Percy  MacKaye;  Lady 
Windermere's  Fan  by  Oscar  Wilde,  and  Shaw's  Caesar  and  Cleopatra.  A  group  from 
the  Irish  Players'  repertory  was  read  by  Thomas  A.  Watson  of  Boston  (since  made 
an  honorary  member  by  compliment). 

Some  topics  of  papers  are: — Shakespearean  Characters,  individually  or  in  groups 
as  the  Witches,  Demons,  Ghosts,  Fools  and  Fairies;  Hamlet's  Sanity  by  Prof.  Meyer, 
psychiatrist;  an  original  emendation  of  Hamlet  by  Rice;  Early  English  Speech  by 
Prof.  Webster ;  Etymology,  Versification ;  Political  and  Social  Conditions ;  Magna 
Charta  ;  Military  Science  ;  Customs  and  Costumes  ;  Shakespeare's  Life  by  Dr.  Getchell, 
Prof.  Haynes  and  others;  his  legal  lore,  his  portraits,  by  Mr.  Thompson;  Sonnets; 
Famous  Actors  by  Profs.  Coombs,  Webster,  etc.;  Rostand's  Chanticleer  by  Prof.  Ca- 
pen;  The  Rubaiyat  by  Mr.  Thompson  with  excerpts  from  Fitzgerald's  and  his  own 
translations ;  and  the  wars  of  the  world  from  the  Caesarian  to  the  present  European 
conflict,  for  which  a  six-star  service  flag  might  be  displayed,  since  Prof.  Webster, 
Prof.  Duflf,  Dr.  Emerson,  Prof.  Blakeslee,  Dr.  Clark  and  the  Rev.  Mr.  Knapp  are  ren- 
dering patriotic  service  in  various  lines  here  or  abroad. 


774  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Occasionally  an  outsider  has  favored  the  society  with  a  paper :  Mrs.  Georgia  Tyler 
Kent  gave  Reminiscences  of  the  Boston  Museum,  and  Thomas  A.  Watson  of  the  Ben- 
son Players  in  England. 

Some  evenings  have  been  enlivened  by  music.  The  songs  of  Shakespeare  have  been 
sung;  and  selections  from  Gounod's  opera,  Romeo  and  Juliet,  rendered.  Mr.  Thomp- 
son's arrangement  of  Midsummer  Night's  Dream  with  the  Mendelssohn  music  has  been 
presented  several  times.  Browning's  Toccata  of  Galuppi's  was  read  with  accompani- 
ment of  old  Italian  airs.  Miss  Morse  and  the  late  Walter  S.  Knowles  freely  gave  their 
services,  instrumental  and  vocal;  and  outside  talent  has  sometimes  been  enlisted. 

The  social  side  has  been  enjoyable.  Refreshments  are  served  at  the  regular  fort- 
nightly meetings  held  at  the  homes  of  members.  On  special  occasions  the  honoraries  ap- 
pear, and  guests  are  bidden,  a  club  house  being  often  pressed  into  service  for  larger  as- 
semblies. The  closing  annual  meeting  is  marked  by  extra  festivities,  a  musicale,  the 
reading  of  a  modern  play,  theatricals,  etc. 

Public  lectures',  readings  and  entertainments  have  been  given  by  the  club  or  under 
its  auspices.  In  the  first  decade  there  were  courses  by  James  E.  Murdock,  Henry  A. 
Clapp  and  Alfred  Waites,  whose  name  as  that  of  a  Shakespeare  scholar  honors  the 
club  roster.  J.  C.  Black  of  Harvard  was  another  early  speaker.  Judge  Putnam  de- 
fended the  Baconian  Theory  which  was  later  refuted  by  Mr.  Thompson.  It  was  again 
Mr.  Thompson  who,  having  addressed  his  fellow-members  on  the  notable  discovery  of 
the  Shakespeare  Deposition  and  presented  to  each  a  facsimile  with  transcription,  ar- 
ranged a  lecture  by  the  discoverer.  Prof.  Wallace.  The  members  were  the  guests  of 
Judge  William  T.  Forbes  at  a  Shakespeare  recital  by  Samuel  King  from  the  Univer- 
sity of  London ;  and  Frank  H.  Robson  at  a  reception  for  the  Ben  Greet  players,  for 
whose  Macbeth  the  club  stood  sponsor.  Theatre-parties  have  attended  noteworthy 
performances. 

The  most  ambitious  effort  of  the  club  was  the  presentation  in  the  Worcester  Thea- 
ter, April  27,  1905,  of  the  Dream  of  Shakespeare's  Women  by  a  company  of  115  under 
Miss  Hopkins'  management,  the  net  proceeds  of  which  ($1000)  formed  the  nucleus  of  a 
fund  to  build  the  Children's  Ward  of  the  Memorial  Hospital. 

In  the  decennial  year,  1897,  a  sketch  of  the  club  by  Mrs.  Cutter  was  printed.  The 
appointment  of  Hon.  Arthur  P.  Rugg  as  Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court 
of  Massachusetts,  1911,  was  celebrated  by  a  dinner  with  speeches.  The  twenty-fifth  anni- 
versary of  the  club,  1912-13,  was  commemorated  by  a  banquet,  with  Shakespearean 
menu  cards,  music,  addresses,  and  a  dramatic  skit  on  the  personnel,  by  Prof.  Webster; 
also  by  the  preparation  of  its  complete  history  by  Mrs.  Roberts,  which,  with  continua- 
tion to  the  present  time  and  a  compilation  of  the  records,  will  be  published  later. 

The  350th  anniversary  of  Shakespeare's  birth,  1914,  was  marked  by  a  performance 
of  Midsummer  Night's  Dream  (the  Mendelssohn-Thompson  arrangement)  ;  the  Ter- 
centenary of  his  death,  1916,  by  an  exhibition  of  Shakcspeariana  with  explanatory 
talks  by  Mrf  Shaw,  etc.,  at  the  public  library,  and  by  another  banquet  taking  the  form 
of  a  costume  party  with  Elizabethan  glees  and  scenes  from  Shakespeare's  plays  en- 
acted by  members,  Mr.  Thompson  supplying  a  prologue.  A  pleasant  incident  of  this 
season  was  a  refection  prepared  by  the  Marbles  from  Tudor  receipts.  At  this  time  too 
the  project  of  a  community  theatre  was  broached;  with  the  co-operation  of  the  Park 
Commission,  an  arena  has  been  partly  constructed  on  the  northern  slope  of  Newton 
Hill,  where,  it  is  hoped,  a  Shakespeare  garden  may  be  later  planted. 

Coincident  with  the  Shakespeare  Tercentenary  occurred  the  Centenary  of  Sheri- 
dan's death ;  and  The  School  for  Scandal  and  the  Rivals  were  performed  at  the  Strat- 
ford-on-Avon  joint  celebration.  In  this  the  following  season  these  plays  have  been 
read  by  the  Shakespeare  Club. 

Presidents,  1894-1918,  (term  of  office,  i  year). — Thomas  Goddard  Kent,  Prof.  Ar- 
thur Gordon  Webster,  Col.  Edward  Brodie  Glasgow,  William  Fitzhale  Abbot,  Hon. 
Charles   Thornton   Davis,   Dr.  Albert  Colby  Getchell,   Prof.   William    Edward   Story, 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  775 


Prof.  George  Henry  Haynes,  Prof.  Zelotes  Wood  Coombs,  Hon.  William  Trow- 
bridge Forbes,  Joseph  Russel  Marble,  Frank  Huson  Robson,  Samuel  Heald  Clary, 
Charles  Moen  Rice,  Dr.  Kendall  Emerson,  Prof.  Samuel  Paul  Capen,  Hon.  Arthur 
Prentice  Rugg,  Robert  Kendall  Shaw,  Chandler  Bullock,  Dr.  Ray  Woodville  Greene, 
(Mrs.)  Josephine  Heard  Cutter,  Eben  Francis  Thompson,  Prof.  Alexander  Wilmer 
Dufif,  Miss  Frances  Clary  Morse,  Dr.  Albert  Milo  Shattuck,  president-elect. 

Fraternity  of  Odd  Fellows. — This,  a  literary  society,  not  connected 
with  the  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  was  organized  about  1820. 
Among  the  members  were  Emory  Washburn,  John  Davis,  Thomas  Kin- 
nicutt,  Isaac  Davis,  Isaac  Goodwin,  Stephen  Salisbury,  C.  C.  Baldwin, 
Henry  and  Gardiner  Paine,  James  Green  and  William  Lincoln.  The 
fifth  anniversary  was  celebrated  Dec.  8,  1824,  when  an  oration  was  deliv- 
ered and  a  poem  read.  In  1827  the  society  celebrated  the  Fourth  of 
July  with  an  oration  by  Thomas  Kinnicutt  (Aegis  Nov.  24)  and  a  poem 
by  Richard  H.  Vose.  Jubal  Harrington  was  secretary  in  1829.  The 
society  ceased  to  exist  many  years  ago,  but  no  definite  date  has  been 
discovered. 

Phrenological  Society. — When  phrenology  was  popular,  the  Phren- 
ological Society  was  formed  here  in  May,  1834.  The  first  officers  were : 
Dr.  Samuel  B.  Woodward,  president;  Stephen  Salisbury,  vice-pres.  ; 
Isaiah  Thomas,  sec;  Dr.  William  Paine,  treas, ;  Dr.  John  Green,  Dr.  O. 
H.  Blood  and  Christopher  C.  Baldwin,  directors.  The  society  began 
with  much  enthusiasm  but  its  life  was  brief,  and  of  its  death  there  is  no 
record. 

Worcester  Art  Society. — At  a  public  meeting  held  April  16,  1877,  in 
the  Board  of  Trade  rooms,  it  was  decided  to  organize  the  Worcester  Art 
Society.  Stephen  C.  Earle,  Burton  W\  Potter,  Henry  Woodward  and 
Nath.  Paine  were  appointed  to  present  a'  plan  of  organization.  In  Oc- 
tober, Lucius  J.  Knowles  presided,  and  a  draft  of  the  constitution  and 
by-laws  presented;  on  Nov.  27,  1877,  officers  were  elected:  Pres.,  George 
F.  Hoar;  Vice-Prests.,  Lucius  J.  Knowles,  Edward  H.  Hall  and  Charles 
M.  Lamson;  Secy.,  Rebecca  Jones ;  Treas.,  Joseph  E.  Davis;  Directors, 
Charles  O.  Thomson,  Stephen  C.  Earle,  Burton  W.  Potter,  Mrs.  Philip 
L.  Moen  and  Mrs.  Joseph  H.  Walker.  The  society  was  incorporated  in 
December,  1887,  when  Nathaniel  Paine  was  elected  president. 

The  first  exhibition  was  held  in  the  Board  of  Trade  rooms  in  the 
Taylor  building;  and  more  than  seventy  water-colors  and  oil  paintings 
lent  by  members  were  shown.  Subsequently  exhibitions  were  held  reg- 
ularly;  lectures  on  art  were  given  from  time  to  time.  The  society 
became  from  the  outset  the  leading  organization  devoted  to  art,  until  the 
Art  Museum  was  erected.  Since  then  its  members  have  cooperated  with 
that  institution. 

The  presidents  have  been,  besides  those  mentioned  above:  Samuel 
S.  Green,  Charles  S.  Hale,  Lincoln  N.  Kinnicutt,  and  Austin  S.  Garver. 
Rev.  Dr.  Garver  is  now  writing  a  history  of  the  society.     Charles  A. 


776  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Chase  and  Frederick  S.  Pratt  served  as  vice-presidents  ;  Charles  T.  Davis 
clerk  and  Prof.  Zelotes  W.  Coombs  treasurer,  and  for  many  years  the 
faithful  secretary. 

As  being  the  pioneer  art  organization  in  the  city,  the  society  exerci- 
cised  a  great  influence  for  many  years.  Composed  of  leading  citizens 
who  were  later  prominently  identified  with  the  museum,  it  was  undoubt- 
edly instrumental  in  no  small  degree  in  the  establishment  of  that  insti- 
tution by  Mr.  Stephen  Salisbury.  It  continued  its  independent  existence 
for  some  time,  maintaining  annual  courses  of  lectures  of  much  distinc- 
tion; then,  the  membership  having  declined,  it  voted  to  turn  over  its 
funds  amounting  to  more  than  $2,000  to  the  Art  Museum,  to  establish 
and  administer  a  fund  to  be  known  as  the  Worcester  Art  Society  Lecture- 
ship Fund. 

Art  League. — At  a  meeting  of  the  Worcester  School  Board  in 
March,  1895,  at  the  suggestion  of  Rev.  A.  S.  Carver,  a  member,  an  organ- 
ization to  be  called  the  Worcester  Public  School  Art  League  was  form- 
ally approved,  and  the  following  persons  were  appointed  to  have  charge 
of  its  management:  John  T.  Duggan,  M.  D.,  and  Rev.  Austin  S.  Carver, 
representing  the  School  Board ;  the  President  of  the  Worcester  Art  So- 
ciety; the  President  of  the  Art  Students'  Club;  the  President  of  the 
Woman's  Club ;  the  Librarian  of  Worcester  Public  Library ;  the  Super- 
intendent of  Schools;  the  Supervisor  of  Drawing;  the  Art  Supervisor 
of  Drawing;  Mrs.  Edith  Loring  Getchell  and  Miss  Frances  M.  Lincoln. 
Later  the  School  Board  gave  the  League  the  privilege  of  adding  a 
limited  number  of  persons  to  its  membership.  The  first  official  meeting 
of  the  League  was  held  April  9,  1895,  through  the  courtesy  of  the 
Librarian,  in  his  private  room  at  the  Public  Library.  The.  following 
officers  were  elected:  Rev.  A.  S.  Carver,  pres. ;  Frances  M.  Lincoln, 
vice-pres.;    Jeanie  Lea  Southwick,  sec;    Samuel  S.  Green,  treas. 

With  the  clearly  defined  purpose  of  attempting  to  beautify  the 
school-rooms,  the  Art  League  began  its  work.  For  several  years  the 
work  was  necessarily  largely  of  an  advisory  nature,  owing  to  the  lack 
of  funds  at  the  disposal  of  the  League.  As  time  went  on,  private  indi- 
viduals became  interested,  and  many  gifts  were  received,  among  them 
framed  pictures,  casts,  and  occasional  small  sums  of  money. 

During  the  past  few  years  the  work  has  been  greatly  enlarged, 
because  of  the  generous  annual  gift  of  $500  from  the  St.  Wulstan  Society. 
With  this  sum  each  year  added  to  the  amount  raised  in  many  of  the 
schools  by  the  pupils,  by  means  of  entertainments,  candy  sales,  and  class 
gifts,  it  has  been  possible  to  reach  practically  every  school-room  in  the 
city,  and  the  work  has  overflowed  to  the  corridors  and  school  yards, 
until  many  of  them  are  hardly  recognizable,  so  great  has  been  the 
improvement. 

The  meetings  of  the  League  are  held  regularly  at  the  Public  Library 
the  third  Tuesday  of  each  month  of  the  school  year.     The  annual  meet- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  777 

ing  occurs  in  January.  The  present  officers  are  Pres.,  Frank  J.  Dar- 
rah;  Vice-Pres.,  E.  H.  Thornhill ;  Sec,  Carrie  A.  Hildreth ;  Treas.,  Rob- 
ert K.  Shaw. 

From  time  to  time  lectures  and  exhibitions  have  been  held  under  its 
auspices. 

St.  Wulstan  Society. — This  was  organized  for  social  and  literary  pur- 
poses on  the  initiative  of  J.  Everts  Greene,  who  called  the  first  meeting, 
held  at  his  home  in  June,  1890.  The  original  membership  consisted  of 
Senator  George  F.  Hoar,  Judge  Hamilton  B.  Staples,  Rev.  Daniel  Merri- 
man.  Very  Rev.  John  J.  Power,  Samuel  S.  Green,  Stephen  Salisbury, 
Judge  Thomas  L.  Nelson,  Frank  P.  Goulding,  Dr.  G.  Stanley  Hall,  Dr. 
Leonard  Wheeler,  Dr.  George  E.  Francis,  Rev.  Alexander  H.  Vinton, 
D.  D.,  Henry  A.  Marsh,  J.  Evarts  Greene  and  E.  Harlow  Russell.  As 
vacancies  have  occurred,  men  of  similar  distinction  have  been  elected, 
but  the  limit  of  membership  has  been  kept  at  sixteen.  At  the  meeting 
in  October,  1890,  Mr.  Marsh,  one  of  the  executors  of  the  estate  of  Helen 
C.  Knowles,  suggested  that  the  society  become  trustees  of  the  bequest 
known  as  the  "Helen  C.  Knowles  fund  for  the  advancement  of  art  educa- 
tion in  Worcester,"  and,  having  accepted  the  proposition,  the  society  was 
incorporated  in  1891,  "for  the  purpose  of  promoting  literature,  art,  his- 
torical and  social  science  in  Worcester,  and  holding  and  administering 
the  Helen  C.  Knowles  legacy  for  promoting  art  education  in  Worcester 
and  such  other  funds  as  may  be  acquired  for  the  same  and  kindred 
objects."  The  fund  amounted  to  about  $35,000.  The  income  has  devoted 
to  the  Art  Museum,  the  Art  Society  and  other  art  organizations.  The 
first  officers  were:  Pres.,  George  F.  Hoar;  Vice-Pres.,  Stephen  Salis- 
bury ;   Clerk,  J.  Evarts  Greene  ;  Treas.,  Henry  A.  Marsh. 


FREE  PUBLIC  LIBRARY. 
An   addition   has    since   been   built    for   a    Children's    Department. 


^OBf  iC  LfBRARY 


tj  ^'„     -54,- 


PUBLIC   LIBRARY,   SOUTH   WORCESTER   BRANCH. 


CHAPTER  L 

The  Free  Public  Library — The  Law  Library — The  Medical  Library — 

Worcester  County  Athanaeum — The  Art  Museum — Art 

Students'  Club 

The  following  is  contributed  by  Mr.  Robert  K.  Shaw : 

The  Free  Public  Library.— The  early  history  of  the  Free  Public  Library  has 
been  written  so  exhaustively  by  Mr.  Samuel  S.  Green,  Librarian  Emeritus,  for  Kurd's 
"History  of  Worcester  County,"  1889  (vol.  II,  p.  1498-1504)  that  it  would  be  useless 
to  retrace  the  ground  so  admirably  covered  by  Mr.  Green.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  two 
private  libraries,  those  of  the  Worcester  Lyceum,  organized  in  1829,  and  the  Young 
Men's  Library  Association,  dating  from  1852,  were  united  in  1856,  and  three  years  lat- 
er gave  their  joint  collections,  amounting  to  some  4,500  volumes,  to  the  city  to  form 
the  nucleus  of  the  circulation  department  of  the  Free  Public  Library. 

The  Reference  Department,  at  the  same  time,  was  set  on  a  firm  foundation  by  the 
munificence  of  Dr.  John  Green,  who  on  December  27,  1859,  gave  to  the  city  his  splen- 
did private  library  of  about  7,000  volumes  "in  trust  for  the  free  use  of  the  citizens  and 
the  public  forever,  as  a  library  of  consultation  and  reference,  but  to  be  used  only  in 
the  library  building." 

To  his  gift  of  books  Dr.  Green  added  in  his  will  a  legacy  of  $30,000  for  the  main- 
tenance of  the  Reference  Library,  with  the  wise  provision  that  one-fourth  of  the  in- 
come should  always  be  added  to  the  principal  until  the  latter  should  amount  to  $100,- 
000.  Thus  in  the  half-century  since  Dr.  Green's  death,  his  legacy  has  more  than  dou- 
bled, and  furnished  at  the  same  time  a  steadily  increasing  source  of  revenue. 

After  the  close  of  Mr.  Green's  narrative  of  library  history  in  1888,  the  first  import- 
ant event  was  the  erection  of  what  is  now  (1918)  called  the  New  Building,  adjoining 
the  old,  which  was  erected  in  1861.  In  1888  the  city  acquired  the  land  for  $35,000, 
and  three  years  later,  in  April,  1891,  the  building  was  opened  for  public  use.  Its  cost 
was  $100,000,  and  the  architect,  the  late  Stephen  C.  Earle. 

The  early  months  of  1895  saw  the  small  beginnings  of  our  branch  library  system. 
Quoting  from  Mr.  Green's  annual  report:  "An  expressman  going  thru  Greendale  on 
his  way  from  West  Boylston  to  Worcester,  stops  at  a  store  in  Greendale  every  Wed- 
nesday and  Saturday;  takes  thence  a  locked  box  of  books  and  cards  of  users  to  the 
library  building,  and,  calling  at  the  latter  place  in  the  afternoon,  takes  the  box  filled 
with  newly  selected  books  back  to  the  store,  at  which  residents  call  for  them."  For 
the  next  three  years  no  more  stations  were  added. 

In  1896  was  issued  the  last  supplement  to  the  printed  catalogs  of  the  library,  of 
which  the  first  appeared  in  1861.  Formerly  considered  indispensable,  such  catalogs 
are  no  longer  issued  by  the  larger  libraries,  as  their  expense  is  enormous  and  they  are 
out  of  date  before  received  from  the  press.  Monthly  bulletins  of  new  books  and  frequent 
reading  lists  on  timely  topics  more  than  compensate  for  the  absence  of  an  obsolete 
printed  catalog  in  the  home. 

After  several  years  of  effort  by  the  librarian  and  directors,  in  May  of  1898  eight 
delivery  stations  at  various  points  between  Greendale  and  New  Worcester  were  opened. 
At  these  stations,  held  in  stores  or  private  houses,  books  and  readers'  cards  are  sent 
back  and  forth  between  the  station  and  the  main  library,  twice  each  week.  The 
falling  far  short  of  the  facilities  offered  by  branch  libraries,  they  extend  the  library's 
clientele,  and  sometimes  pave  the  way  for  the  establishment  of  a  regular  branch. 


78o  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


At  this  same  time  the  recataloguing  and  reclassifying  of  the  hbrary  were  in  full 
swing.  Begun  in  1894,  this  really  heroic  task  of  putting  into  logical  arrangement  for 
public  use  at  the  shelves,  a  great  circulating  library  of  70,000  volumes,  formerly  shelved  ^ 
in  their  order  of  accession  to  the  library,  required  great  courage  on  the  part  of  the 
librarian  to  attempt,  and  persistence  to  execute.  The  same  might  be  said  of  the  prep- 
aration of  three  public  card  catalogs :  in  the  Reference  Library,  a  compete  catalog  of 
everything  in  the  whole  system ;  in  the  circulation  department  another  for  that  depart- 
ment and  the  children's  room,  which  latter  has  also  one  of  its  own. 

The  year  1900  saw  the  opening  of  the  addition  to  the  old  building  (20x35  feet) 
which  cost  $7,000  and  provided  also  for  the  beginnings  of  a  children's  department  on 
the  second  story. 

Five  years  later  a  modified  form  of  civil  service  was  adopted  as  a  means  for  fill- 
ing all  regular  positions  in  the  library  except  the  very  highest.  By  removing  all 
chance  for  favoritism  in  appointments  and  making  examinations  absolutely  free  to 
all  applicants,  whether  Worcester  residents  or  not,  the  system  has  accomplished  much 
good.  Of  the  forty-three  regular  members  of  the  staflf  in  1918,  thirty-four  were  ap- 
pointed through  the  library  civil  service.  A  set  of  printed  rules  for  governing  the  Di- 
rectors, the  library  staff  and  the  public,  was  adopted  at  the  same  time.  Samuel  Swett 
Green  was  the  second  librarian.  Zephaniah  Baker,  the  first,  served  from  Feb.  17, 
i860,  to  Jan.  14,  1871. 

Early  in  1909  Mr.  Green  resigned  as  librarian,  on  completing  his  thirty-eighth 
year  of  active  service  in  that  position.  A  pioneer  and  recognized  leader  in  his  profes- 
sion, and  one  of  the  incorporators  of  the  American  Library  Association,  Mr.  Green 
gave  practically  all  his  best  years  to  the  upbuilding  and  maintenance  of  the  highest 
type  of  public  library  in  this  city.  For  his  unremitting  zeal  and  persistence  in  making 
this  library  known  and  appreciated  in  Worcester,  and  throughout  the  country  at  large 
his  native  city  must  now  and  forever  remain  profoundly  grateful.  His  successor, 
Robert  K.  Shaw,  entered  the  library  service  as  assistant  librarian,  in  February,  1905, 
having  resigned  the  librarianship  at  Brockton  to  accept  this  position. 

Branch  libraries,  after  more  than  five  years  of  agitation,  finally  became  a  reality  and 
opened  their  doors  to  the  public  in  February,  1914.  First  mentioned  in  library  publica- 
tions by  Mr.  Green  in  his  last  report,  for  1908,  this  movement  received  efficient  support 
from  Messrs.  Charles  T.  Tatman  and  Frederick  W.  Vermille  on  the  Board  of  Direc- 
tors. Chiefly  to  Ex-Mayor  James  Logan  is  due  the  credit  for  securing  from  Andrew 
Carnegie  a  gift  of  $75,000  to  build  three  branch  libraries,  and  from  local  property  own- 
ers the  admirable  sites  at  470  West  Boylston,  812  Millbury  and  705  Southbridge  Streets 
respectively.  At  Greendale  several  manufacturers  joined  to  present  the  land  to  the 
city;  at  Quinsigamond  the  American  Steel  and  Wire  Company  and  at  South  Wor- 
cester Messrs.  Whittall  and  Thomas  gave  the  sites. 

At  the  laying  of  the  three  corner-stones  on  March  27,  1913,  Mr.  Carnegie  was 
present  in  person,  entering  with  great  zest  into  the  proceedings.  In  the  following 
February  the  buildings  were  opened  to  the  public;  Judge  Frederick  H.  Chamberlain, 
president  of  the  Board  of  Directors,  conducted  the  simple  exercises  at  all  three 
branches  in  the  presence  of  crowds  that  taxed  the  capacity  of  the  buildings  and  made 
it  impossible  for  many  to  find  seats.  Prof.  Z.  W.  Coombs,  president  of  the  Library 
Board  for  1913,  deserves  the  enduring  thanks  of  the  library's  patrons  for  the  great 
amount  of  time  and  expert  assistance  offered  in  getting  these  branch  libraries  ready  for 
the  public. 

As  aids  in  the  development  of  community  life,  all  three  branches  have  enjoyed 
marked  success.  The  community  room,  fitted  up  attractively  in  the  basement,  has 
been  in  each  case,  a  welcome  meeting-place  for  boys  and  girls  clubs.  Red  Cross  and 
other  war  relief  work,  food  conservation  demonstrations  and  classes,  as  well  as  many 
other  activities.  Since  their  opening  the  branches  have  been  one  of  the  library's  most 
valued  assets. 


PUBLIC  LIBRARY,  GREENDATE  BRANCH. 


PUBLIC  LIBRARY,  QUINSIGAMOND  BRANCH. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  781 


Overcrowding  at  the  main  library  has  grown  steadily  worse  for  many  years, 
during  which  adequate  service  could  not  be  rendered,  while  many  priceless  books  and 
pictures  have  been  in  constant  danger  of  destruction  from  fire.  Plans  for  a  new  build- 
ing have  progressed  only  so  far  as  the  endorsement  by  the  Directors  of  a  site  at  Salem 
Square.    Our  entrance  into  the  war  has  necessarily  postponed  activity  in  this  direction. 

Service  to  Worcester's  highest  educational  interests  has  always  been  the  library's 
watchword.  With  the  development  of  the  children's  department,  and  of  the  intimate 
and  helpful  relations  which  the  library  has  enjoyed  during  half  a  century  with  the 
public  schools,  has  come  an  opportunity  to  instill  into  the  mind  and  heart  of  the  child 
a  love  for  the  best  in  all  literature,  domestic  or  foreign,  which  should  help  steadily  to 
raise  the  ideals  and  morals  of  our  people  toward  that  noblest  internationalism  which 
alone  can  make  future  war  impossible. 

The  total  number  of  volumes  in  the  library  in  1917  is  218,473,  and  in  the  branches 
17)395-     The  additions  yearly  are  about  6,000  volumes. 

Worcester  County  Law  Library. — This  came  into  existence  with  the 
formation  of  the  Worcester  Coimty  Law  Library  Association,  June  21, 
1842,  under  the  provisions  of  a  law  passed  that  year.  The  association 
consisted  of  the  members  of  the  bar  of  the  county.  From  time  to  time 
amendments  have  been  made,  but  the  law  has  provided  from  the  begin- 
ning a  fund  for  the  purchase  and  care  of  books,  from  the  fees  paid  to  the 
county  clerk.  The  library  has  had  quarters  in  the  court  house.  From 
the  beginning  the  clerk  of  the  courts  has  been  librarian.  For  many 
years  the  collection  was  small.  Credit  for  making  it  a  library  of  import- 
ance belongs  to  Judge  Thomas  L.  Nelson,  who  for  thirty  years  neglected 
no  opportunity  to  build  the  library  through  gifts  and  purchase.  In  1858 
Charles  D.  Bowman  of  Oxford  bequeathed  800  volumes  to  the  library. 
William  T.  Harlow  was  clerk  of  the  association  for  many  years.  In 
1888  there  were  about  11,000  volumes. 

When  an  addition  was  made  to  the  court  house  in  1878,  a  large  room 
was  provided  for  the  library,  and  it  was  occupied  until  the  last  remodel- 
ing of  the  court  house,  when  the  present  rooms  in  the  old  south  wing 
were  provided. 

Since  1898  the  library  has  been  in  charge  of  Dr.  George  E.  Wire,  as 
deputy  librarian,  and  its  value  and  usefulness  wonderfully  increased  in  a 
card  catalogue,  through  the  accession  of  many  thousand  volumes  of  care- 
fully selected  books,  and  the  intelligent  aid  given  to  readers  by  the 
librarian.  The  aim  of  Dr.  Wire  has  been  not  to  get  as  large  a  collection 
or  as  complete  a  collection  as  some  of  the  great  law  libraries,  but  to  select 
books  wisely  for  their  value  to  workers.  When  he  took  charge  there 
were  19,500  volumes;  in  1917  there  were  34,506.  The  collection  includes 
all  American  law  reports  of  value,  text  books,  statutes,  English  law 
works,  and  some  historical  works.  The  library  is  open  to  the  public  as 
well  as  the  courts  and  members  of  the  bar. 

Dr.  Wire's  first  assistant  was  Miss  H.  C.  Taft.  Miss  E.  A.  Clark 
was  assistant  from  1899  to  1903.  Miss  Lydia  L.  Kirschner  has  been 
assistant  since  March  31,  1903.  The  directors  in  1898  were  Francis  A. 
Gaskill,  Thomas  G.  Kent  and  Theodore  S.  Johnson.     Willis  E.  Sibley  in 


782  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


1907  succeeded  Mr.  Kent  who  had  been  a  director  from  1884,  and  Arthur 
F.  Rugg  succeeded  Mr.  Gaskill  in  1910.     Mr.  Gaskill  was  elected  in  1898. 

As  many  as  25,000  books  are  used  annually  in  the  library,  by  about 
three  thousand  persons.  On  the  walls  of  the  library  are  portraits  of 
Pliny  Merrick,  Benjamin  F.  Thomas,  Charles  Allen,  Dwight  Foster,  Pe- 
ter C.  Bacon,  George  F.  Hoar,  P.  Emory  Aldrich,  W.  S.  B.  Hopkins, 
Thomas  B.  Nelson.  Other  portraits  belonging  to  the  law  library  have 
been  hung  in  the  court  rooms.  Among  the  notable  gifts  of  later  years 
was  the  briefs  of  the  late  Frank  P.  Goulding,  covering  the  period  from 
1868  to  1900. 

Medical  Library. — The  library  of  the  Worcester  District  Medical 
Society,  a  very  valuable  collection,  is  deposited  with  the  Public  Library 
and  in  the  care  of  the  librarian,  though  not  owned  by  the  city.  The 
nucleus  of  this  library  was  the  collection  of  books  given  by  Dr.  Elijah 
Dix  to  the  County  Medical  Society,  which  preceded  the  Worcester  Dis- 
trict Medical  Society  (founded  in  1804).  In  1813  Dr.  Oliver  Fiske  and 
Dr.  John  Green  started  a  subscription  to  procure  a  library  for  the  society, 
but  the  library  amounted  to  little  or  nothing  until  1823.  In  that  year 
the  society  recevied  a  quota  of  books  from  the  Massachusetts  Medical 
Society  as  a  loan,  but  practically  as  a  gift,  for  the  books  were  never 
reclaimed.  In  1825  Daniel  Waldo  was  thanked  for  "his  splendid  and  lib- 
eral donation  of  books."  It  is  estimated  that  the  society  then  had  about 
a  hundred  volumes.  In  1836  it  had  128 ;  in  1843  over  200,  but  we  are 
informed  that  the  books  were  not  used  to  any  extent.  In  1845  a  bequest 
of  $6,000  was  made  by  Daniel  Waldo,  the  income  of  which  was  used  for 
the  purchase  of  medical  works ;  in  1851  Dr.  Charles  W.  Wilder  of  Leo- 
minster bequeathed  $500  for  the  same  purpose.  In  1882  Harrison  Bliss 
left  the  sum  of  $1,000  for  library  purposes.  Since  the  library  has  been 
in  the  care  of  the  Public  Library,  the  interest  of  its  funds  have  been 
devoted  almost  wholly  to  buying  books,  and  the  income  of  about  $500 
has  gone  a  good  way  to  keeping  a  good  medical  library  in  the  county. 
The  books  may  be  used  by  the  public  in  the  reference  library,  and  may 
be  taken  out  by  members  of  the  medical  society.  The  books  have  a  sep- 
arate card  catalogue. 

Worcester  County  Athenaeum. — This  was  formed  in  1830  for  the  pur- 
pose of  establishing  a  public  library.  The  funds  were  raised  by  issuing 
stock  at  $25  a  share  to  members.  The  first  officers  were :  Rev.  George 
Allen,  pres. ;  Rev.  John  Nelson,  vice-pres. ;  Frederick  W.  Paine,  treas.; 
William  Lincoln,  sec.  The  society  opened  rooms  in  Dr.  Green's  block. 
Main  street.  In  March,  1830,  the  society  received  the  library  of  the 
Worcester  County  Lyceum  of  Natural  History.  In  the  same  month  the 
society  was  incorporated.  Later,  the  library  of  the  society  was  deposited 
with  the  iVmerican  Antiquarian  Society,  and  it  then  ceased  to  be  active. 

Military  Library  Society. — The  first  public  library  in  Worcester  was 
organized  April  3,  1811,  under  an  act  of  the  legislature  providing  for 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  783 

the  creation  and  encouragement  of  a  library  designed  for  the  military 
inquiry  and  the  diffusion  of  military  knowledge.  The  resounding  title, 
"The  Military  Library  Society  in  the  Seventh  Division,"  was  adopted, 
and  Maj.  Levi  Lincoln,  Jr.,  Lt.  Gardner  Burbank  and  Dr.  John  Green 
appointed  a  committee  to  procure  books.  John  W.  Lincoln  was  the 
librarian  and  clerk,  June  24,  1812,  and  Dr.  Green,  Mr.  Lincoln  and  Maj. 
Isaac  Sturtevant  were  made  a  committee  to  procure  books.  As  to  the 
library,  nothing  exists  to  show  that  it  amounted  to  anything.  It  prob- 
ably contained  a  total  of  33  books  of  a  military  character,  afterward 
deposited  in  the  library  of  the  Odd  Fellows,  mentioned  elsewhere.  In 
1827  the  Odd  Fellows  had  163  books. 

Worcester  Art  Museum. — The  Art  Museum  began  with  a  meeting 
called  by  Stephen  Salisbury  (3d)  at  his  home,  Feb.  25,  1896,  attended  by 
about  forty  men  and  women  interested  in  art.  Mr.  Salisbury  announced 
plans  that  he  had  made  to  establish  an  art  museum,  offering  a  tract  of  land, 
more  than  an  acre,  on  Salisbury  street,  and  a  fund  of  $100,000,  half  for  the 
erection  of  a  building,  the  rest  to  be  an  endowment  fund.  On  March  24, 
1896,  steps  were  taken  to  procure  a  charter.  Mr.  Salisbury  planned  for  a 
corporation  of  fifty  to  hold  in  trust  the  property  given  for  the  benefit  of 
all  the  people  of  the  city  of  Worcester. 

The  first  board  of  directors  consisted  of  Daniel  Merriman,  pres. ; 
Francis  H.  Dewey,  vice-pres. ;  T.  Hovey  Gage,  Jr.,  sec;  Lincoln  N. 
Kinnicutt,  treas. ;  Charles  H.  Davis,  Lyman  A.  Ely,  George  E.  Francis, 
John  G.  Heywood,  Thomas  C.  Mendenhall,  Mrs.  Helen  B.  Merriman, 
Miss  Mary  Perley  and  Nathaniel  Paine. 

The  architects  of  the  building  were  Earle  &  Fisher  of  this  city,  and 
Norcross  Brothers  were  the  contractors.  In  1897  Mr.  Salisbury  gave 
more  land  at  the  rear  of  the  lot  and  at  his  own  expense  graded  and  laid 
out  the  grounds.  Subscriptions  to  the  Art  Museum  in  sums  ranging 
from  three  cents  to  $3,000  increased  its  funds  by  about  $50,000.  The 
cornerstone  was  laid  June  24,  and  Gov.  Roger  Wolcott  and  Mayor  A. 
B.  R.  Sprague  made  addresses.  The  building  was  formally  opened  May 
10,  1898,  with  a  loan  exhibition  of  oil  paintings  and  water-colors  arranged 
by  the  Worcester  Art  Society.  This  society  made  the  first  gift,  a  cast  of 
the  Venus  de  Melos ;  the  Woman's  Club  presented  a  cast  of  Nike  of 
Samthrake ;  and  soon  afterward  a  score  or  more  casts  were  presented  by 
other  organizations.  The  accessions  grew  from  year  to  year.  All 
classes  of  the  people  took  keen  interest  in  the  upbuilding  of  the  collection 
of  paintings,  statuary  and  other  works  of  art.  The  society  has  a  very 
large  collection  of  photographs,  colonial  silver,  the  Bancroft  collection  of 
Japanese  prints,  old  costumes,  laces,  pottery,  etc.  There  is  also  a  valu- 
able library. 

Rev.  Austin  S.  Garver  recently  said :  "It  is  difificult  to  assess  the 
value  of  the  treasures  of  all  kinds  now  in  the  Museum.  In  one  sense  they 
are  priceless.     Perhaps  half  a  million  dollars  would  not  be  an  excessive 


M'^'^ 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  7^5 


prosaic  estimate.  Paintings  constitute  the  most  important  part,  many 
of  them  of  first  rank,  and  altogether  as  choice  a  collection  as  can  be  found 
anywhere." 

The  munificent  legacy  of  Stephen  Salisbury  made  this  institution  one 
of  the  foremost  in  the  country,  as  to  endowment  and  resources.  Other 
contributions  of  money  and  works  of  art  have  continued  since  this 
princely  gift  of  about  $2,750,000.  The  trustees  in  administering  the  gift 
have  taken  into  account  all  the  expressed  wishes  of  the  doner  and  have 
made  various  gifts  to  the  city,  the  Woman's  Club,  and  for  other  purposes 
that  Mr.  Salisbury  had  in  mind. 

Raymond  Wyer,  of  New  York,  a  well  equipped  writer  and  lecturer 
on  art,  succeeded  Philip  J.  Centner  as  director,  Jan.  1,  1918. 

School  of  the  Worcester  Art  Museum. — This  was  opened  in  1898, 
and  during  the  first  three  years  the  instruction  was  limited  to  drawing 
and  painting.  In  1901  design  was  introduced;  in  1905  a  class  in  metal 
work.  After  the  death  of  Stephen  Salisbury,  his  residence  came  into 
the  possession  of  the  Museum  and  was  occupied  by  the  metal  and  design 
classes  that  had  previously  had  quarters  in  the  museum.  Shops  were 
equipped  and,  since  Sept.  23,  1907,  the  Salisbury  mansion  has  been  the 
home  of  the  school. 

In  September,  1908,  weaving  and  bookbinding  were  added  to  the 
courses  of  instruction.  In  the  next  year  H.  Stuart  Muchie,  then  instruc- 
tor in  the  George  Washington  University,  was  elected  principal  and 
teacher  of  design.  In  1912  pottery  was  added  and  George  W.  Greene 
of  Boston,  chosen  instructor.  The  glazing  and  firing  are  done  on  the 
premises.  Otto  Victor  Humann,  teacher  of  drawing  and  painting,  was 
formerly  instructor  in  the  summer  school  of  Columbia  University.  Grove 
R.  Branch  is  in  charge  of  the  metal  work.  There  are  also  classes  in  mod- 
eling. A  slight  charge  for  tuition  in  the  day  classes  is  made;  all  the 
evening  classes  are  free.  Miss  Elizabeth  G.  Marcy,  instructor  of  book- 
binding, studied  her  art  under  Cobden  Sanderson  in  London  and  M.  Do- 
mont  and  M.  Nouhlac  in  Paris.  The  school  is  designed  to  teach  students 
useful  trades  requiring  special  skill  and  gifts.  Since  1914  architecture  has 
been  taught,  Miss  M.  Sawtelle  being  first  lecturer  on  this  subject.  The 
thorough  work  of  the  school  has  been  demonstrated  by  the  success  of 
its  graduates  in  their  work  as  teachers  and  artisans.  Mr.  Michie  says: 
"The  aim  of  the  school  is  not  merely  to  assist  the  citizens  of  Worcester 
and  its  surrounding  towns  to  a  better  appreciation  of  the  beauties  of 
art  and  nature,  but  to  provide  a  thorough  all  round  training  for  students 
desirous  of  teaching  art  or  of  employing  it  for  illustrations,  advertising, 
designing  and  crafts  work,  such  as  silversmithing,  jewelry,  pottery,  book- 
binding, etc.  The  school  is  not  intended  for  the  dilettante  but  for  those 
desirous  of  employing  art  in  some  form  toward  financial  gain." 
W.— 1-50. 


786  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  trustees  in  1918  are:  Austin  S.  Garver,  pres. ;  Francis  H. 
Dewey,  vice-pres.;  Lincoln  K.  Kinnicutt,  treas. ;  Thomas  H.  Gage,  clerk, 
and  Helen  Bigelow  Merriman,  Frances  M.  Lincoln,  Charlotte  E.  W. 
Buffington,  Frederick  S.  Pratt,  Alfred  L.  Aiken,  Paul  B.  Morgan,  Frank 
F.   Dresser. 

Worcester  Art  Students  Club. — The  organizers  were  Mrs.  A.  C. 
Freeland,  Miss  Frances  A.  Knowlton,  Miss  Alice  M.  Fifield,  Henry- 
Woodward,  George  E.  Gladwin,  Charles  S.  Hale,  Andrew  O'Connor, 
John  A.  Condy,  Ward  P.  Delano,  George  H.  Davis,  Charles  K.  Hardy,  W. 
T.  Perry,  Charles  B.  Merritt  and  Norton  L.  Cook,  at  a  meeting  on  March 
24,  1880.  The  membership  was  limited  to  thirty  "earnest  students  and 
workers  in  some  branch  of  art  and  design." 

The  first  officers  were :  Pres.,  Henry  Woodward ;  \"ice-Pres., 
George  E.  Gladwin ;  Sec,  Charles  S.  Hale  ;  Treas.,  John  A.  Condy.  The 
first  room  of  the  club  was  in  the  Mutual  Insurance  Co.  block.  The 
society  was  incorporated  Jan.  13,  1887.  The  charter  members  were: 
Charles  S.  Hale,  Eben  Harrington,  Henry  Woodward,  William  C.  Ste- 
vens, Abbie  J.Trask,  Anna  C.  Freeland,  Jeanie  Lea  Southwick,  Frances  A, 
Knowlton,  George  E.  Gladwin  and  Francis  E.  Higgins.  In  1889  rooms 
were  leased  in  the  Walker  building.  The  club  outgrew  the  limit  of  thirty 
very  soon,  and  its  membership  grew  rapidly  after  the  limit  was  removed. 

In  190-t  the  Arts  and  Crafts  were  recognized  and  soon  became  an 
interesting  and  important  section  in  the  organization.  The  club  consists 
of  earnest  young  men  and  women  working  in  almost  every  branch  of  the 
fine  and  applied  arts.  Classes  have  been  maintained  in  clay,  woodcarv- 
ing,  stencilling,  leather  tooling,  basketry,  etc.,  in  later  years.  Painting, 
water  colors,  crayon  and  other  forms  of  art,  including  photography,  have 
been  taught  every  year.  The  club  received  material  assistance  from  the 
Norton  Company,  from  which  it  received  the  clay  needed  and  for  two 
seasons  the  use  of  its  kilns  without  cost.  The  St.  Wulstan  Society  has 
given  the  club  an  annual  grant  of  money  in  recognition  of  its  excellent 
work.  The  coming  of  the  Art  Museum  stimulated  the  work  of  the  club 
and  extended  its  sphere  of  usefulness  and  study.  The  Art  Museum  has 
exhibited  the  work  of  members  of  the  club  from  time  to  time  and  given 
it  other  assistance.  The  exhibitions  of  the  club  have  always  been  attrac- 
tive not  only  to  lovers  of  art  and  artists  but  to  the  general  public. 


CHAPTER  LI 

Music  and  Drama — The  Music  Festival — Worcester  Oratorio  Society — 

Friday   Morning   Club — Symphony   Orchestra — Theatres — 

Poli  and  His  Theatres 

The  Music  Festival. — In  this  Festival,  Worcester  is  unique.  No 
other  place  in  the  world,  it  is  said,  has  for  more  than  sixty  years  with- 
out interruption  maintained  an  institution  of  this  kind.  In  fact,  the  city 
of  Worcester  is  better  known  through  its  music  festival  than  by  any 
other  feature  or  institution.  For  years  it  has  been  the  first  important 
musical  event  of  the  season  in  this  country,  if  not  the  most  important 
outside  of  the  three  great  cities  of  Boston,  New  York  and  Chicago.  In 
his  historical  sketch  of  the  Festival  in  1900,  Walter  Moody  Lancaster, 
the  musical  critic  of  the  Spy,  wrote  what  is  just  as  true  at  the  present 
time : 

Evidence  of  this  eminence  is  found,  first  of  all,  in  the  eagerness  with  which  sing- 
ers seek  a  Worcester  appearance.  The  high  value  set  upon  the  festival  as  a  professional 
opening  and  opportunity  is  no  meaningless  flattery  to  provincial  pride ;  for  European 
singers  of  world-wide  reputation  cross  the  ocean  solely  that  they  may  be  heard  in 
Worcester ;  and  go  back  the  following  week  to  fulfill  engagements  in  England  or  on 
the  Continent.  Not  a  few  American  singers  owe  their  present  eminence  to  a  fortu- 
nate performance  in  Worcester,  where  they  first  made  their  artistic  abilities  known 
to  visiting  managers,  musicians  and  critics.  No  other  festival  is  so  liberally  reported 
by  the  press  of  the  large  cities.  Among  the  thousands  at  the  festival  are  music  teach- 
ers, professional  singers  and  instrumentalists,  drawn  hither  by  the  fame  of  the  solo- 
ists, the  musical  novelties  presented,  the  great  chorus  or  the  great  orchestra.  To  hun- 
dreds this  is  the  only  opportunity  for  hearing  large  choral  works  given  with  complete- 
ness and  becoming  dignity  and  instrumental  masterpieces  performed  by  one  of  the 
most  efficient  orchestras  in  the  world.  No  other  festival  draws  its  clientele  from  a 
field  broad  enough  to  cover  New  England,  the  Middle  States,  Canada  and  the  Mari- 
time Provinces.    Finally  age  lends  prestige  to  the  Worcester  institution. 

The  music  festival  was  a  natural  development  of  earlier  musical 
organizations  here.  The  signing  schools  of  colonial  days  and  later, 
encouraged  the  study  of  music  and  cultivated  promising  voices.  The 
musical  conventions  early  in  the  nineteenth  century  developed  the  love  of 
music  and  extended  the  interest  in  music  here  and  elsewhere.  In  this 
field  Edward  Hamilton,  B.  F.  Baker,  E.  H.  Frost  and  A.  N.  Johnson  were 
pioneers,  followed  later  by  L.  H.  Sotithard,  L.  O.  Emerson  and  Solon 
Wilder.  As  a  natural  sequence  came  the  choral  societies.  Before  1826 
the  Harmonic  Society  was  organized,  and  it  continued  until  about  1839. 
The  Sacred  Music  Society,  the  Mozart  Society,  the  Beethoven  Society, 
the  Choral  Union  and  other  organizations  followed.  William  Sumner, 
E.  H.  Frost,  A.  S.  and  B.  D.  Allen,  E.  N.  Anderson  and  Seth  Richards 


788  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

were  prominent  as  conductors  with  Dudley  Buck  and  Carl  Zerrahn  for 
short  periods;  Mrs.  E.  S.  Dame,  B.  D.  Allen,  Mrs.  A.  H.  Hammond,  G. 
W.  Sumner,  Messrs.  Leland,  Morrison,  Tucker  and  Ingalls  were  pianists 
and  organists;   G.  P.  Burt  and  C.  C.  Stearns,  leaders  of  the  orchestras. 

In  1852  A.  N.  Johnson  and  E.  H.  Frost  attempted  to  hold  a  musical 
convention  in  Horticultural  Hall,  but  the  experiment  was  not  a  success. 
The  first  Worcester  festival  was  held  in  response  to  a  circular  issued  by 
Edward  Hamilton  and  Benjamin  F.  Baker,  on  September  28,  29  and  30 
and  October  1,  1858.  This  convention,  as  it  was  called,  was  successful 
enough  to  warrant  another  the  following  year. 

In  1858  a  cantata,  "The  Burning  Ship,"  composed  by  the  conductor, 
Mr.  Baker;  selections  from  a  hymn  book  compiled  by  Mr.  Hamilton  and 
choruses  from  The  Messiah  and  The  Creation  were  sung.  In  1860  there 
were  two  formal  concerts ;  in  1866  there  were  four,  one  being  an  ora- 
torio. In  1863  there  were  two  festivals  or  conventions,  one  in  the  City 
Hall,  the  other  in  Mechanics  Hall,  but  the  breach  in  the  musical  organi- 
zation appears  to  have  been  healed  soon.  The  section  that  held  its  fes- 
tival in  Mechanics  Hall  organized  October  2,  1863,  as  the  Worcester 
County  Musical  Convention,  and  elected  Samuel  E.  Staples  president. 
In  1866  this  society  adopted  a  constitution  under  which  all  who  bought 
tickets  (fifty  cents  for  singer  and  seventy-five  for  visitor)  became  mem- 
bers of  the  convention.  At  the  annual  meeting  October  26,  1871,  the 
present  name,  the  Worcester  County  Musical  Association,  was  adopted 
and  the  annual  gatherings  designated  as  festivals.  In  1879  the  associa- 
tion was  incorporated,  the  charter  members  of  the  corporation  being :  A. 
C.  Munroe,  I.  N.  Metcalf,  W^illiam  Sumner,  J.  Q.  Adams,  G.  W.  Elkins, 
J,  E.  Benchley,  Charles  E.  Wilder,  Charles  M.  Bent  and  Daniel  Downey, 
all  of  Worcester;  William  R.  Hill  of  Sutton,  Israel  Plummer  of  North- 
bridge,  and  Rev.  G.  M.  Howe  of  Princeton.  Since  then  the  corporation 
has  been  small,  the  chorus  having  no  voice  in  the  management. 

During  the  earlier  years  the  festivals  were  profitable,  the  salaries 
of  the  singers  being  modest  and  the  other  expenses  low ;  and  the  associa- 
tion laid  by  a  surplus  that  carried  it  through  various  seasons  of  deficits 
in  later  years.  In  recent  years  the  association  has  grown  in  financial 
strength.     Mr.  Lancaster  says  : 

For  fifteen  years  it  was  a  convention  in  fact  as  well  as  name.  Its  aims  were  neces- 
sarily modest  and  the  materials  crude.  In  the  early  years,  chorus  and  orchestra  and 
often  soloists  as  well  were  volunteers  and  the  rustic  element  predominant.  There  was 
not  even  an  organ  for  accompaniments  till  1864,  when  a  committee  of  citizens  raised 
a  fund  of  $9,258  by  popular  subscription  and  presented  the  Mechanics  Association  with 
an  instrument  that  was  then  the  largest  in  the  country  except  that  in  Boston  Music 
Hall. 

As  the  old  conventions  were  in  session  forenoon,  afternoon  and  evening  for  four  or 
five  days,  there  was  ample  time  for  the  much  advertised  discussion  ;  but  rehearsals  for  the 
public  concerts  were  not  neglected.  At  the  close  of  the  afternoon  session  there  was  a 
social  hour,  an  improvised  concert  (subsequently  dignified  with  the  name  of  matinee) 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  7^ 


when  "contribution  of  vocal  and  instrumental  music  were  expected  and  solicited  from 
members  and  also  from  solo  artists."  One  by  one  the  social  hours  expanded  into 
formal  concerts  which  were  once  golden  opportunities  for  local  aspirants  and  for 
debutantes  from  abroad;  but  in  1892  the  last  of  the  cheaper  order  of  concerts  passed 
away,  greatly  to  the  relief  of  the  managers  and  the  increasing  dignity  of  the  festival. 

The  chorus  is  the  mainstay  of  the  festival,  the  cause  of  its  existence;  and  the 
credit  of  moulding  it  belongs  first  of  all  to  Mr.  Zerrahn,  who  served  as  conductor  for 
thirty-two  years,  coming  here  in  1866  and  resigning  after  the  festival  of  1897.  During 
eleven  years  he  was  the  sole  conductor,  but  previous  to  1897  he  had  direction  of  only 
oratorios  and  similar  works,  while  the  church  music,  glees  and  smaller  choruses  were 
intrusted  to  such  men  as  W.  O.  Perkins,  George  F.  Root,  L.  H.  Southard,  L.  O. 
Emerson  and  Dudley  Buck,  some  of  the  most  prominent  leaders  of  the  times,  or  to 
responsible  musicians  of  local  repute,  as  Solon  Wilder,  C.  C.  Stearns,  C.  P.  Morri- 
son and  B.  D.  Allen.  From  1889  to  1891  Victor  Herbert  served  as  associate  conduc- 
tor, taking  the  orchestral  music  and  accompaniments  as  his  share  of  the  burden.  Since 
then  Franz  Kneisel,  Gustave  Strube  and  Thaddeus  Rich  have  been  associates  and  the 
forceful  skill  with  which  they  have  discharged  their  duties  have  materially  enhanced 
their  fame  in  the  country. 

In  the  beginning  there  were  no  rehearsals  outside  of  festival  week,  and  subse- 
quently only  five  outside,  for  the  double  reason  that  the  managers  could  not  afiford  to 
pay  the  conductor,  and  a  majority  of  the  five  hundred  chorus  could  not  attend  be- 
cause they  lived  out  of  town.  In  course  of  time  the  attendance  upon  weekly  and  even 
semi-weekly  rehearsals  was  made  compulsory  during  the  winter,  spring  and  fall. 
Then  it  was  that  375  country  members  showed  their  grit.  Combining  by  towns  or  dis- 
tricts for  fifteen  and  even  twenty  miles  around,  they  hired  special  conveyances  to  take 
them  to  the  rehearsals  in  Worcester  and  back  the  same  night.  For  several  seasons  they 
persevered  in  this  energetic  course ;  but  one  by  one  they  dropped  away,  so  that  nowa- 
days in  a  chorus  of  rather  less  than  400  voices  the  suburban  element  is  almost  nil. 

The  year  before  Mr.  Zerrahn  came,  The  Creation  was  sung,  and  in 
his  first  festival  he  presented  Judas  Maccabeus,  repeating  it  the  following 
year.  In  1868  the  Creation  was  given  with  an  orchestra  of  eighteen 
pieces  from  Boston.  Rossini's  Stabat  Mater  was  also  on  the  program 
that  year.  In  1869  the  orchestra  numbered  twenty-five,  and  a  few  years 
later  was  increased  to  sixty  or  more.  The  Boston  Orchestral  Union, 
generally  led  by  Carl  Eichler,  served  from  1868  to  1873,  when  the  Ger- 
mania  Orchestra  was  engaged,  continuing  until  1876.  Since  then  with 
the  exception  of  the  years  1915  and  1917  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 
has  furnished  the  instrumental  music.  In  these  two  years  60  players  from 
the  Philadelphia  Orchestra  were  secured  and  are  re-engaged  for  1918. 

Since  1878  two  works  requiring  an  entire  evening  for  the  perform- 
ance of  each  have  been  undertaken.  In  that  year  Handel's  L'Allegro 
II  Pensieroso  and  Mendelsshon's  Elijah  were  sung.  In  1881  three  such 
works  as  Verdi's  Manzoni  Requiem,  Haydn's  Creation  and  Elijah  were 
given  and  since  1884  three  oratories  have  been  presented  regularly. 

One  of  the  features  of  former  festivals  was  the  singing  of  such  clubs 
as  the  Boston  Philharmonic,  the  Mendelssohn  Quintet,  the  Eicnberg 
String  Quartet;  the  English  Glee  Club  of  New  York;  the  Temple  Quar- 
tet of  Boston ;   the  Schubert  Quartet ;   the  Schubert  Concert  Company ; 


790  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

the  Weber  Male  Quartet  and  the  Uterpe  Quartet;  the  Orpheus  Club  of 
Springfield  and  the  local  German  and  Swedish  singing-  societies  and 
choirs. 

In  1897  Mr.  Zerrahn  was  succeeded  by  George  W.  Chadwick  of  Bos- 
ton. In  1901  Mr.  Chadwick  was  succeeded  by  Wallace  Goodrich.  In 
1908  Dr.  Arthur  Niees  of  New  York,  was  appointed  conductor,  a  position 
he  still  holds.  Under  his  guidance  the  advancement  of  the  society  has 
been  steady  and  rapid.  The  list  of  choral  works  performed  under 
his  leadership  have  been  as  follows:  1908,  Caractacus,  Elgar;  1909, 
Missa  Solennis,  Liszt;  Te  Deum,  Berleoz;  1910,  Omar  Khayyam,  Bau- 
tock;   1911,  Missa  Solennis  in  D,  Beethoven;   1912,  Ruth,  G.  Schumann; 

1913,  St.  Francis  of  Assisi,  Pierue;    1914,  La  Vita  Nuova,  Wolf-Ferrari; 

1914,  Te  Deum,  Bruckner;  1915,  The  Children's  Crusade,  Pierue;  1916, 
Forty-Seventh  Psalm,  Schmitt;  191T,  Marching  Song  of  Democracy, 
Grainger;    Ode  to  Music,  Hadley. 

Here  is  a  record  for  ten  years  that  cannot  be  duplicated  by  any  other 
society  in  the  United  States,  if  indeed  in  the  entire  world. 

The  presidents  of  the  association  have  been :  Samuel  E.  Staples, 
1863-73;  William  R.  Hill  of  Sutton,  1874-86;  Hon.  Edward  L.  Davis, 
1887-93;  A.  C.  Munroe,  1895-96;  Charles  M.  Bent,  1896-1902;  Samuel 
E.  Winslow,  1903;  Paul  B.  Morgan,  1904-07;  WlUiam  H.  Cook,  1908-14; 
Arthur  J.  Bassett,  the  present  president,  was  elected  in  1915.  Officers 
in  1917  were:     J.  Vernon  Butler,  vice-pres. ;   H.  R.  Sinclair,  sec. 

Worcester  Oratorio  Society. — The  following  narrative  is  con- 
tributed: 

The  Worcester  Oratorio  Society  is  the  product  of  the  musical  intelligence  and  un- 
tiring energy  of  John  Vernon  Butler,  who  in  1897  conceived  that  there  was  opportunity 
and  need  in  Worcester  for  the  presentation  of  many  choral  works  of  the  highest  musi- 
cal value  not  within  the  scope  of  the  Musical  Festival  scheme.  They  were  to  be  free 
of  charge,  for  the  education  and  pleasure  of  music-lovers  of  all  classes.  Mr.  Butler 
had  already  given  performances  of  short  choral  works  with  his  chorus  of  forty  voices, 
and  it  was  doubtless  due  to  the  public  interest  in  these  concerts  that  he  was  encouraged 
to  broaden  his  aims  and  ambitions.  Inspired  by  the  enthusiasm  and  sympathetic  co- 
operation of  the  late  Dr.  Carl  Crisand,  he  therefore  arranged  for  a  chorus  of  seventy- 
five  voices  to  inaugurate  this  new  "Free  Oratorio"  series. 

After  a  few  rehearsals  the  interest  was  so  keen  that  the  choir  grew  to  100  voices, 
and  with  this  number  the  first  concert  was  given  Nov.  23,  1897.  The  program  was  of 
a  miscellaneous  character  including  Gaul's  cantata  Israel  in  the  Wilderness,  and  the 
following  soloists  appeared :  Miss  Elizabeth  Pelton,  soprano  ;  Miss  Louise  E.  Shumway, 
contralto;  Dr.  Paul  Dufault,  tenor;  and  Mr.  Harry  C.  Robinson,  bass.  No  admission 
was  charged,  but  a  collection  was  taken  to  meet  expenses.  Pilgrim  Church  was  crowd- 
ed, and  although  a  note  on  the  program  requested  that  the  audience  refrain  from  ap- 
plause, their  approval  could  not  be  restrained. 

The  second  concert  included  The  Last  Judgment  by  Spohr,  with  the  following  so- 
loists. Miss  Mary  Mansfield,  of  New  York,  soprano ;  Mrs.  May  Sleeper  Ruggles,  con- 
tralto ;  Frank  H.  Mason,  tenor ;  and  Chester  T.  Porter,  bass.  The  church  was  again 
crowded,  and  the  collection  taken  amounted  to  ^73,  sufficient  evidence  that  the  evening 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  79^ 


was  fully  enjoyed.  Both  works  above  mentioned  received  their  first  Worcester  per- 
formances at  these  concerts.  The  following  year  the  chorus  numbered  125  voices  and 
in  1899,  when  Handel's  Messiah  was  given,  it  had  grown  to  140  voices. 

With  the  engagement  of  soloists  of  prominence  outside  of  Worcester,  the  collec- 
tions taken  at  these  concerts  were  insufficient  to  meet  expenditures,  and  it  became 
necessary  to  reserve  a  limited  number  of  seats  at  a  small  cost,  admission  still  being  free. 
It  was  not  until  1905  that  the  directors  of  these  "Free  Oratorio  Concerts,"  Dr.  Carl 
Crisand,  S.  W.  Wiley,  D.  B.  Tucker,  F.  P.  Knowles,  J.  M.  Russell,  Alfred  Thomas,  M. 
J.  Whittal,  A.  H.  Stone,  Dr.  G.  Stanley  Hall  and  Chester  T.  Porter,  moved  by  the 
growth  of  the  chorus,  its  greater  musical  proficiency  and  the  fast  widening  field  of  the 
work  of  the  society,  decided  to  give  these  concerts  under  the  title  of  the  "Worcester  Ora- 
torio Society."  There  have  been  but  five  changes  in  the  personnel  of  the  directors.  Dr. 
Crisand  served  as  president  1905-11;  Mr.  Tucker  was  secretary  and  treasurer,  1905-06. 
Mr.  Porter  succeeded  Mr.  Tucker,  and  served  until  191 1,  where  he  was  elected  presi- 
dent on  the  death  of  Dr.  Crisand.  At  that  time  Mr.  Curtis  and  Mr.  Spalding  were 
elected  secretary  and  treasurer  respectively. 

All  the  concerts  of  the  society  were  held  in  Pilgrim  Church  until  1906,  when  it  was 
voted  to  give  the  Christmastide  performance  of  the  Messiah  in  Mechanics  Hall,  with 
full  orchestral  accompaniment.  The  chorus  at  this  concert  was  made  up  of  200  voices. 
The  concert  was  a  success  in  every  way  and  proved  the  beginning  of  a  custom  which 
has  come  to  this  city  to  stay. 

In  1914,  when  Mr.  Butler  became  organist  and  choirmaster  at  Union  Church,  it  was 
decided  to  hold  all  rehearsals  as  well  as  the  opening  concert  of  the  season  (the  seven- 
teenth) in  the  auditorium  of  the  church.  In  an  environment  of  architectural  beauty 
and  dignity  a  very  impressive  performance  of  Horatio  Parker's  Legend  of  St.  Christo- 
pher was  given,  and  the  following  year  Gounod's  Redemption  was  given  there  also.  In 
1916-17-18  all  concerts  have  been  given  in  Mechanics  Hall,  those  of  this  season  for  the 
benefit  of  the  Worcester  Chapter  of  the  American  Red  Cross. 

The  list  of  choral  works  given  by  the  society  shows  that  not  only  have  there  been 
produced  many  of  the  old  standard  oratorios,  but  also  a  good  number  of  the  more 
modern  choral  compositions,  some  of  which  have  received  their  first  presentation  in 
Worcester  and  New  England,  if  not,  indeed  in  the  country.  The  list  is  too  lengthy  for 
reproduction  here,  but  it  includes  various  of  the  most  famous  works  of  Bach,  Bee- 
thoven, Brahms,  Dvorak,  Dubois,  Gaul,  Gounod,  Handel,  Haydn,  Liszt,  Mozart,  Men- 
delssohn, Rossini,  Schubert,  Sullivan,  Spohr,  and  other  masters.  In  these  performances 
have  appeared  many  of  America's  most  prominent  soloists,  and  the  list  of  names  would 
embrace  practically  all  of  note. 

The  society  has  had  for  accompanists  Mrs.  J.  Vernon  Butler,  pianist,  and  Mr. 
Charles  H.  Grout,  organist,  since  the  first  concert  in  1897  and  to  them  must  be  credited 
a  generous  share  in  the  success  of  the  society.  Among  the  many  who  have  given  gen- 
erous and  efifective  services  must  be  mentioned  J.  Edward  Bouvier,  Charles  E.  Sar- 
gent, Will  H.  Beaumont,  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  H.  Marshall. 

At  the  end  of  twenty-one  years  of  service  in  the  interest  of  choral  music,  the  so- 
ciety points  with  pride  to  the  adequate  presentation  of  thirty-eight  major  works  and 
many  more  minor  compositions  of  the  first  rank,  and  with  equal  satisfaction  to  nineteen 
annual  performances  of  the  Messiah  before  capacity  houses.  It  notes  also  the  intro- 
duction to  Worcester  of  many  soloists  who  have  achieved  remarkable  national  success. 

Its  chorus  mainly  recruited  in  the  beginning  from  the  choir  of  Pilgrim  Church 
has  been  developed  in  the  skilled  hands  of  Mr.  Butler  into  a  grand  choir  of  250  voices, 
which  in  perfect  balance,  in  tonal  beauty  and  in  musical  intelligence  and  appreciation, 
will  bear  favorable  comparison  with  the  best  choruses  of  New  England. 

To  Mr.  Butler,  who  has  given  unstintedly  of  his  time,  strength,  thought  and  sub- 
stance, Worcester  owes  more  than  it  is  likely  to  realize  or  acknowledge.  The  high  char- 
acter of  the  concerts  both  as  to  program  and  as  to  execution,  the  personal  loyalty  and 


792 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


enthusiasm  which  the  chorus  has  increasingly  shown,  the  sustained  interest  of  the  pub- 
lic in  the  society's  efforts,  all  testify  to  the  intelligence,  the  zeal,  the  character  and  the 
broad  public  spirit  of  the  conductor  of  the  society.  The  society  also  records  its  great 
debt  to  and  its  lasting  affection  for  Dr.  Carl  Crisand.  Keenly  alive  to  all  beauty,  and 
especially  a  lover  of  the  best  in  music  he  had  a  pre-vision  of  and  confidence  in  the  fu- 
ture strength  and  breadth  of  its  work.  Mr.  Butler  is  the  architect  and  builder  of  the 
society.    Dr.  Crisand  was  his  inspiring  and  never-failing  helper. 

The  Friday  Morning  Club. — This  was  for  thirty-one  years  a  distinct 
musical  feature  of  Worcester,  from  its  first  meeting  in  1883  to  its  last 
in  1914,  when,  with  its  passing  ended  the  existence  of  the  oldest  woman's 
musical  club  in  this  country.  The  club  was  formed  in  November,  1883, 
at  the  home  of  Miss  Frances  C.  Morse,  by  Miss  Morse,  Mrs.  Charles  A. 
Merrill,  and  Mrs.  Henry  A.  Stinson.  By  its  third  meeting  twelve  ladies 
had  joined,  and  later  the  number  was  increased  to  twenty  and  limited 
to  thirty.  The  meetings  were  held  at  the  different  homes,  fortnightly, 
until  1896,  when  the  scope  of  work  was  enlarged  and  an  honorary  mem- 
bership formed  of  100,  afterwards  increased  to  250.  There  were  fourteen 
to  sixteen  recitals  given  during  the  season,  some  by  active  members  and 
others  by  well  known  artists,  and  many  years  operas  studied,  with  expla- 
nations and  illustrations,  in  fact  the  club  work  was  largely  educational. 
For  many  years  four  tickets  were  bought  for  the  Symphony  rehearsals  in 
Boston,  and  used  by  members.  $100  was  annually  subscribed  toward  a 
possible  deficit  of  the  Music  Festival  and  many  concerts  were  given  for 
various  charitable  purposes,  though  never  for  the  benefit  of  the  club, 
which  was  sustained  by  membership  fees  entirely.  At  the  time,  in 
1914,  when  the  club  corporation  was  dissolved,  the  club  owned  two  Stein- 
way  pianos  and  a  very  valuable  musical  library.  The  latter,  in  its  case, 
was  presented  to  the  Free  Public  Library,  the  music  to  be  given  out  from 
the  circulating  department  to  music  students.  In  1914  but  one  of  the 
original  members  was  still  an  active  member,  Miss  Morse,  and  three  who 
were  active  in  1896,  when  the  club  was  incorporated — Miss  Mary  L. 
Starr,  Mrs.  H.  F.  A.  Schmidt  and  Mrs.  Frank  A.  Stimfson. 

Worcester  Symphony  Orchestra. — The  Worcester  Symphony  Or- 
chestra was  organized  by  Daniel  Silvester  in  March,  1914,  and  has 
already  taken  a  prominent  place  among  the  musical  organizations  of  the 
city,  its  sixty  members  all  skilled  and  experienced.  Mr.  Silvester  is 
leader  of  the  orchestra  of  the  Worcester  Theatre  and  manager  of  the 
Silvester  Violin  School.  A  society  for  the  business  management  of  the 
orchestra  was  organized  May  3,  1914.  The  officers  are :  W.  A.  Prouty, 
pres. ;  A.  R.  Chase,  vice-pres. ;  H.  G.  Taylor,  sec;  C.  A.  Thompson, 
treas. ;  Daniel  Silvester,  musical  director,  and  Thomas  Brown,  librarian ; 
William  Mullen,  Frank  J.  Chaffin,  Charles  A.  May  and  Charles  Walker, 
directors. 

The  Worcester  Symphony  Society  was  organized  May  3rd,  1914,  to 
control  the  Symphony  Orchestra. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  793 

The  name  was  copyrighted  August  12,  191-i.  The  first  public  con- 
cert was  given  with  sixty  pieces  at  Poli's  Theatre,  November  29,  1914, 
for  the  benefit  of  the  Belgian  and  British  sufferers  fund  on  account  of  the 
European  War,  under  the  auspices  of  Prince  Consort  Lodge,  Sons  of  St. 
George. 

Theatres. — Thirty  years  ago  the  late  Nathaniel  Paine  wrote  a  chap- 
ter in  the  county  history  entitled  "The  Drama  in  Worcester."  The  com- 
ing of  the  motion  picture  in  popularity  and  the  multiplication  of  the  the- 
atres in  recent  years  has  made  the  word  drama  nearly  obsolete.  There 
were  fifty-six  halls  and  theatres  in  the  city  in  1917.  At  a  dozen  or  more 
of  these  places  moving  pictures  are  given  regularly  or  occasionally.  At 
the  present  time  not  more  than  one  theatre  has  regular  theatrical  per- 
formances. Occasionally  first-class  companies  still  appear  at  the  Wor- 
cester Theatre.  Some  excellent  stock  companies  have  been  well  sup- 
ported at  the  old  Franklin  Theatre,  now  the  Grand ;  occasionally  at  the 
Worcester  during  the  past  dozen  years. 

The  theatre  was  tabooed  by  the  early  settlers.  Dramatic  exhibitions 
were  forbidden  in  this  province  in  1750,  and  the  act  was  not  repealed  until 
1794.  In  1800  or  soon  afterward,  English  companies  began  to  play  in 
four  or  five  of  the  cities  in  this  country.  There  were  occasional  amateur 
performances  in  smaller  places.  In  1787  the  play  Cato  was  given  here 
by  the  pupils  in  the  school.  A  company  from  Boston  presented  several 
plays  in  June,  1797,  in  a  hall  over  the  school  room. 

The  circus  was  more  popular  than  the  theatre  early  in  the  nineteenth 
century.  The  first  on  record  here  was  West's  Circus,  July,  1817,  on  a 
lot  between  Front  and  Mechanic  streets;  another  came  in  1818  and 
pitched  its  tents  on  the  site  of  the  Bay  State  House. 

Traveling  shows  came  here  from  time  to  time,  but  no  theatrical  com- 
panies, as  far  as  is  known,  until  Dr.  Robinson  came  with  a  play  called 
"The  Reformed  Drunkard,"  in  1846.  The  interest  in  temperance  was 
strong  at  that  time,  but  the  show  evidently  was  not  highly  satisfactory, 
as  Robinson  was  refused  a  second  permit  for  his  play.  Next  year,  how- 
ever, a  Boston  company  played  in  Brinley  Hall  for  a  fortnight  or  more. 
Mrs.  Vincent  was  in  the  casts.  But  at  that  time  the  Aegis  wrote  edi- 
torials denouncing  the  theatre.  Tableauz  Vivants  were  presented  by 
W.  B.  English  in  Brinley  Hall  in  1848,  and  drew  large  houses,  and  his 
company  came  again  in  1849.  In  1850  Charles  C.  D.  Wilkinson,  after- 
ward manager  of  the  Worcester  theatre,  made  his  first  appearance  on  the 
stage  in  Brinley  Hall,  and  in  1851  he  gave  a  series  of  plays  here. 

A  hall  in  the  Flagg  Block  provided  better  facilities  for  theatrical 
performances,  1850-51,  was  called  the  Worcester  Dramatic  Museum, 
and  was  managed  later  by  Noah  Gates.  In  1852  there  was  vigorous 
opposition  to  giving  a  license  to  the  Museum,  but  the  license  was  secured 
and  plays  given  from  April  8  to  June  18,  1852.  Persons  under  eighteen 
were  excluded.     In  1853  Denman  Thompson  came  in  a  series  of  plays. 


794  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Uncle  Tom's  Cabin  had  a  strong  run.  Opposition  to  the  theatre  again 
appeared  at  City  Hall,  but  before  the  decision  was  made,  Flagg's  Block 
was  burned,  January  29,  185-i. 

The  first  theatre  was  built  by  William  Piper,  on  Front  street,  and 
opened  February  9,  1857,  under  the  management  of  Wyzeman  Marshall 
of  Boston,  with  the  play  Ingomar.  The  season  closed  in  May.  Charles 
C.  D.  Wilkinson  was  manager  during  the  second  season  opening  August 
24,  1857;  M.  V.  Lingham  succeeded  him  in  March,  1858,  and  in  the  fall 
Jacob  Barrow  took  charge,  bringing  out  many  standard  plays  with  an 
excellent  stock  company.  The  theatre  was  reopened  March  28,  1859, 
witli-George  Pauncefort  as  manager,  and  during  the  summer  was  visited 
by  traveling  companies.  Myers  Boniface  managed  the  company  in  1860; 
William  B.  English  later  in  the  same  year, 

Charlotte  Cushman  played  here  in  May,  1861,  and  in  April  Uncle 
Tom's  Cabin  was  played  again.  During  the  Civil  War  there  were  few 
plays  in  the  theatre.  Laura  Keene  was  here  in  June,  1863.  In  October 
of  that  year  John  Wilkes  Booth,  the  assassin  of  Lincoln,  appeared  in 
Richard  III  and  Lady  of  Lyons.  The  last  performance  in  the  Front 
Street  Theatre  was  November  27,  1867,  and  the  building  was  then 
remodeled  for  offices. 

The  Worcester  Theatre,  on  Exchange  street,  built  by  a  stock  com- 
pany and  called  Music  Hall,  until  1873,  was  opened  under  the  manage- 
ment of  J.  B.  Booth,  March  9,  1869,  with  The  Lady  of  Lyons.  For 
a  dozen  years  the  theatre  was  controlled  by  the  proprietors  of  the  Bos- 
ton Theatre.  Excellent  performances  were  given.  Mrs.  Siddons  was 
here  in  1870;  the  elder  Sothern  in  1873;  John  E.  Owens,  Wyzeman 
Marshall,  J.  W.  Wallack,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Florence,  Frank  Mayo,  Patti, 
Signor  Mario,  Lester  Wallack,  Bernhardt,  Lotta,  Edwin  Booth  and  other 
famous  artists  were  here  in  the  seventies. 

In  1882  Mr.  Wilkinson  became  manager,  and  for  the  first  time  mat- 
inees were  given.  The  building  was  remodeled  in  1882.  About  this 
time  Henry  Irving,  Joseph  Jefferson,  Lawrence  Barrett,  Denman  Thomp- 
son, Edwin  Booth,  Wilson  Barrett,  Charles  Wyndham,  J.  T.  Raymond, 
Modjeska,  Salvini,  E.  A.  Sothern,  Frank  Mayo,  Mary  Anderson,  Fanny 
Davenport,  Margaret  Mather,  Fanny  Janauschek,  Rosina  Vokes,  Mrs. 
Langtry  and  other  famous  actors  appeared  here. 

After  the  death  of  Mr.  Wilkinson,  March  2,  1888,  his  widow  con- 
tinued as  manager  for  two  years.  The  theatre  was  burned  in  1889  and 
the  present  structure  erected  on  the  old  site. 

An  annual  event  at  this  theatre  since  the  Civil  War  has  been  the 
amateur  production  of  The  Drummer  Boy  for  the  benefit  of  Post  10, 
G.  A.  R. 

Before  the  days  of  motion  pictures,  Worcester  was  visited  by  the 
best  theatrical  companies  and  from  1890  until  1910  the  Worcester  Thea- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  795 


tre   was   well   supported.     During  the   season   the   theatre    was    seldom 
dark. 

It  is  proper  to  mention  here  William  Charles  White,  player,  poet, 
advocate  and  editor.  (See  Lincoln  p.  302).  In  1796  he  had  written 
Orlando,  a  tragedy  that  became  widely  popular.  In  the  same  year  he 
played  in  Boston,  and  in  1797  appeared  in  several  plays,  and  for  a  time 
was  the  chief  attraction  on  the  Boston  stage.  In  July,  1797,  he  became  a 
student  in  Levi  Lincoln's  law  office  here,  was  later  admitted  to  the  bar, 
and  began  to  practice  in  Providence.  He  returned  to  the  stage  ;  returned 
to  the  law  in  1801  with  an  office  in  Rutland ;  compiled  law  books  in  Bos- 
ton afterward;  was  county  attorney,  1811-18;  lived  here  from  1816  until 
he  died.  May  2,  1818.  He  was  a  frequent  contributor  to  the  Aegis;  he 
published  various  pamphlets  and  wrote  many  plays. 

Poli  and  His  Theatres. — The  new  era  in  theatrical  history  began 
with  the  opening  of  the  original  Poli  Theatre.  The  patrons  of  the 
theatre  prior  to  that  time  were  divided  between  the  well-to-do  who 
patronized  the  Worcester  Theatre  exclusively;  those  who  went  to  the 
vaudeville  shows  in  the  Front  Street  Opera  House,  later  called  the  Bijou, 
(see  biog.  J.  E.  OfTner)  (now  the  Park  Theatre),  and  those  who  pre- 
ferred the  melodramatic  and  sensational  plays  by  traveling  companies 
at  the  Lothrop's  Opera  House,  Pleasant  street,  erected  a  dozen  years 
before  by  R.  C.  Taylor,  and  now  known  as  the  Pleasant  Theatre. 

S.  Z.  Poli  bought  the  Crompton  Block,  Mechanic  street,  after  it  was 
gutted  by  fire,  March,  1905.  He  remodeled  into  a  theatre  opened  an 
entrance  on  Front  street,  making  what  was  at  that  time  one  of  the  finest 
theatres  in  the  State.  He  presented  the  best  of  vaudeville,  and  won  the 
hearty  support  of  the  public  here,  as  he  had  done  elsewhere. 

When  the  Worcester  Amusement  Company,  which  had  bought  the 
old  Lincoln  house  and  begun  to  erect  a  theatre  on  the  site,  suspended 
operations  on  account  of  disagreement  among  stockholders,  Mr.  Poli 
bought  the  property,  finished  the  theatre  even  more  attractively  than  the 
other,  and  gave  it  his  name.  The  old  Poli  Theatre  then  became  the 
Plaza.  About  this  time  the  motion  picture  became  a  feature  of  the 
Poli  bills.  Since  1912,  when  the  Elm  street  house  was  opened,  it  has 
been  devoted  chiefly  to  vaudeville,  while  the  Plaza  has  been  used  some- 
times by  stock  companies,  sometimes  as  a  vaudeville  house,  and  some- 
times partly  vaudeville  and  partly  motion  pictures.  The  Elm  Street 
Poli  Theatre  is  the  largest  in  the  city,  seating  2,800  persons.  He  also 
purchased  the  Franklin  Theatre  (now  the  Grand)  of  the  Taylor  estate. 
This  theatre  has  been  since  that  time  the  home  of  Poll's  stock  com- 
panies nearly  every  year.  At  other  times  it  has  been  in  various  circuits  of 
traveling  companies.  Lovers  of  the  sensational  drama  are  given  an 
opportunity  to  see  the  best  of  this  class  of  plays.  Where  others  had 
failed,  Mr.  Poli  has  had  crowded  houses.  Though  he  has  three  large 
theatres  in  this  city,  he  has  made  all  of  them  very  profitable. 


796  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  Strand  Theatre,  opened  in  1916,  is  located  between  Front  and 
Mechanics  streets.  Though  mainly  devoted  to  moving  pictures,  it  also 
presents  some  vaudeville.  It  is  one  of  the  largest  and  best-appointed 
theatres  of  its  class  in  the  State.  From  the  beginning  it  has  had  its 
capacity  tested  to  the  limits  at  almost  every  performance.  Most  of  the 
other  theatres,  now  devoted  to  moving  pictures,  have  been  located  in 
old  buildings.  Some  are  merely  stores  altered  for  the  purposes.  The 
Royal  Theatre  occupies  the  old  quarters  of  the  Worcester  Market;  the 
Court  Theatre  near  Lincoln  Square  was  erected  at  the  rear  of  an  old 
building. 


CHAPTER  LII 


Congregational    Churches — Old    South — Central — Salem    Street — Union 

Church — Memorial     Church — Plymouth — Piedmont — Pilgrim — 

Adams  Square — Park — Hope — Lake  View — Bethany — 

Greendale — Hadwen  Park — Tatnuck — 

Congregational  Club 

Old  South  Church. — The  following  narrative  is  condensed  from  the 
Worcester  Magazine  of  June,  1916 : 

In  observing  the  bi-centennial  of  the  foundation  of  Old  South  Church,  Worcester 
observed  one  of  the  iew  institutions  that  have  survived  from  the  beginning  of  the 
town  history.  This  church  was  formerly  the  Worcester  meeting  house.  The  church, 
in  fact,  was  the  organization.  It  was  not  good  form  in  the  early  days  to  call  the  build- 
ing a  church. 


/l/iDf- 


OLD  SOUTH  CHURCH. 

Though  the  first  meeting  house  was  not  erected  until  1719,  the  inhabitants  of  Wor- 
cester formed  a  religious  organization  in  1716.  In  the  previous  year  doubtless  there 
were  gatherings  on  Sunday  in  the  larger  houses,  and  preaching  by  visiting  ministers. 
Until  1715,  Jonas  Rice,  who  came  in  1713,  was  the  only  inhabitant.    Gershom  Rice,  his 


798  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

brother,  and  others  came  in  1715.  The  services  were  held  in  the  house  of  Gershom 
Rice,  later  in  the  house  of  James  Rice,  near  the  corner  of  Franklin  and  Green  streets. 
In  1719,  the  first  meeting  house  was  built  on  the  present  site  of  the  City  Hall,  and  the 
first  minister,  Rev.  Andrew  Gardner,  was  called.  Some  historians  maintain  that  an 
earlier  meeting  house  was  built  in  1717  near  the  house  of  James  Rice.  The  town  voted 
the  minister  a  settlement  of  i6o,  and  an  annual  salary  of  £40.  Daniel  Heywood  and 
Nathaniel  Moore  were  elected  deacons.  It  is  estimated  that  there  were  then  in  the  set- 
tlement 300  souls. 

Rev.  Andrew  Gardner,  the  first  minister,  was  a  native  of  Brookline  (Muddy  River) 
and  graduated  from  Harvard  College  in  1712.  His  pastorate  was  short.  A  schism  in 
1721  proved  to  be  serious,  and  he  was  dismissed  October  21,  1722.  During  the  next 
three  years  the  church  had  no  settled  minister.  Rev.  Shearjashub  Bourne  declined  a 
call  in  1724. 

In  1719,  Rev.  Edward  Fitzgerald  preached  to  the  little  Presbyterian  congregation  in 
the  garrison  house  at  the  junction  of  the  Boston  and  Lancaster  roads.  "Very  soon 
they  began  to  build  a  house  of  worship  for  themselves;  but  while  it  was  in  process  of 
erection,  a  body  of  the  inhabitants  assembled  by  night  and  demolished  the  structure." 
They  made  no  further  attempt  to  build  a  church,  but  worshipped  in  the  first  church  and 
soon  many  of  them  occupied  places  of  leadership  in  the  parish.  The  Presbyterians  in 
Worcester  withdrew  from  the  church  for  a  few  years,  under  the  pastorate  of  Rev. 
William  Johnson,  but  finally  returned  to  the  First  Church.  From  1720  to  1730  the 
Scotch-Irish  were  nearly  as  numerous  as  the  rest  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town.  A 
considerable  part  of  them  moved  to  Rutland,  Barre,  Pelham,  Palmer,  Athol,  Lunen- 
burg and  other  towns,  but  religious  differences  had  little  if  anything  to  do  with  their 
going.  It  is  fair  to  recognize  the  important  part  taken  by  the  Scotchmen  in  the  found- 
ing and  upbuilding  of  the  First  Church.  The  old  lists  of  pew  owners  show  how  sub- 
stantial a  part  of  the  congregation  they  must  have  been. 

Rev.  Isaac  Burr  was  installed  pastor  of  the  First  Church  October  13,  1725.  A 
long  and  quiet  ministry  followed.  His  relations  with  his  parishioners  were  cordial.  He 
was  voted  a  salary  of  £80,  and  a  settlement  of  £200.  During  his  pastorate  the  famous 
George  Whitefield  came  to  Worcester  and  preached  on  the  Common  October  15,  1740. 
A  controversy  arose  between  the  followers  of  the  Whitefield  and  the  more  conservative 
of  the  congregation,  and  Air.  Burr's  health  failed  under  the  strain  of  the  dissension. 
He  was  dismissed  at  his  own  request  in  March,  1745.  Mr.  Burr  was  a  son  of  Thomas 
Burr  of  Hartford,  where  he  was  born  in  1698.  He  graduated  from  Yale  College  in 
1717,  and  died  at  Windsor,  Conn.,  in  1751. 

The  town  next  made  choice  of  Rev.  Nathaniel  Gardner  as  pastor,  but  he  declined 
the  call.  In  1746  a  covenant  was  adopted.  The  famous  Rev.  Jonathan  Mayhew  and 
Rev.  Thaddeus  Maccarty  were  candidates,  and  each  preached  a  month.  The  choice  of 
the  congregation  was  Mr.  Maccarty  and  he  was  installed  June  10,  1747.  A  house  with 
about  two  acres  of  land  on  the  Common  southeast  of  the  meeting  house  was  purchased 
for  a  parsonage  and  in  1765  this  property  was  deeded  to  the  minister.  The  property 
was  recovered  from  his  heirs,  fifty  years  later,  after  a  lawsuit,  but  again  relinquished  by 
the  parish.  His  ministry  covered  a  period  of  nearly  forty  years,  including  the  Revolu- 
tionary War.  He  died  July  20,  1784,  aged  63  years.  During  his  ministry  a  new  meet- 
ing house  was  erected  in  1763  on  the  Common. 

When  Mr.  Maccarty  had  grown  old  and  his  health  failed,  Rev.  Aaron  Bancroft 
filled  his  place  for  two  months,  and  when  Mr.  Maccarty  died,  Mr.  Bancroft  was  again 
called  to  the  pulpit.  His  preaching  caused  a  division  in  the  parish.  Those  who  wanted 
Mr.  Bancroft  for  minister  brought  his  name  before  a  town  mefeting,  but  they  were  in 
a  minority.  Defeated  in  their  purpose  to  have  a  call  extended,  a  voluntary  association 
was  formed  and  the  Second  Church  (now  the  First  Unitarian)  was  formed,  having 
Mr.  Bancroft  for  pastor.  He  was  ordained  February  i,  1786.  The  second  parish  was 
known  as  a  "poll  parish,"  the  first  of  its  kind  in  the  state. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  799 

After  the  seceders  left,  Rev.  Daniel  Story  was  called  by  the  First  Church  and 
preached  for  two  years.  He  was  unsatisfactory  to  the  conservatives,  his  preaching  be- 
ing tainted  with  Arminian  sentiment,  and  he  was  never  installed  formally.  He  was 
born  in  Boston,  July  29,  1756,  graduated  from  Dartmouth  in  1780  and  died  at  Marietta, 
Ohio,  in  1804.  He  was  an  uncle  of  the  eminent  Judge  Joseph  Story  of  the  United 
States   Supreme  Court. 

After  six  tumultuous  years,  Rev.  Samuel  Austin,  D.  D.,  of  New  Haven,  was  in- 
stalled September  29,  1790.  A  new  creed  and  covenant  were  adopted  of  the  strictest 
orthodox  type.  Dr.  Austin  was  a  soldier  in  the  Revolution,  a  graduate  of  Yale  in 
1784.  He  published  the  first  complete  edition  of  the  works  of  the  elder  Rev.  Jonathan 
Edwards.  He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  General  Association  of  Massachusetts 
and  of  the  Massachusetts  Home  Missionary  Society.  He  served  often  on  church  coun- 
cils;  many  of  his  sermons  were  published.  At  the  end  of  a  quarter  of  a  century  in 
this  parish  he  was  elected  president  of  the  University  of  Vermont,  but  continued  nom- 
inally as  minister  until  1818.  From  1821  to  1825  he  was  pastor  of  the  Newport,  R.  I., 
church,  then  he  returned  to  Worcester.  Lincoln's  history  of  Worcester  gives  a  list  of 
thirty-three  of  his  publications. 

Rev.  Charles  A.  Goodrich  was  elected  colleague  of  Dr.  Austin  and  ordained  Octo- 
ber 9,  1816,  becoming  the  minister  in  1818.  During  his  pastorate  another  division  in 
the  church  resulted  in  another  secession  and  the  organization  of  the  Calvinist  or  Cen-. 
tral  Church.  After  his  resignation,  November  14,  1820,  on  account  of  ill  health,  Mr. 
Goodrich  became  a  compiler  of  school  text-books. 

Rev.  Aretius  Hull,  the  next  minister,  was  born  in  Woodbridge,  Conn.,  in  1788, 
graduated  in  1807  at  Yale,  where  he  was  tutor  six  years,  and  was  settled  in  Worces- 
ter May  22,  1821.  He  died  May  17,  1826,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Rodney  Augustus 
Miller,  who  was  ordained  June  7,  1827.  During  the  seventeen  years  of  his  pastorate 
more  than  400  joined  the  church.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Union  College  in  1821  and  of 
Princeton  Seminary.  He  was  dismissed  April  12,  1844.  He  died  at  Troy,  N.  Y.,  Sep- 
tember 29,  1876,  aged  79  years.  Mr.  Miller  was  the  first  president  of  the  first  Temper- 
ance Association  ever  formed  in  Worcester ;  was  for  some  years  one  of  the  overseers 
of  Harvard  University.  Rev.  George  Phillips  Smith,  a  graduate  of  Amherst,  1835,  was 
installed  March  19,  1845,  and  died  at  Salem,  while  pastor,  September  3,  1852. 

Rev.  Horace  James,  a  graduate  of  Yale,  was  installed  February  3,  1853.  He  was 
chaplain  of  the  25th  Massachusetts  in  the  Civil  War,  and  at  his  own  request  was  dis- 
missed as  pastor  January  8,  1863.    He  died  in  Worcester,  June  9,  1875. 

Rev.  Edward  Ashley  Walker,  a  graduate  of  Yale  in  1856,  student  in  Heidelberg 
and  Berlin,  Germany,  chaplain  of  the  First  Connecticut  Heavy  Artillery,  was  installed 
July  2,  1863,  but  his  health  failed  soon,  and  he  died  April  10.  1866.  During  his  ministry, 
September  22,  1863,  the  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  building  of  the  meeting  house 
was  appropriately  celebrated,  Hon.  Ira  M.  Barton  and  Dr.  Leonard  Bacon  being  the 
principal  speakers. 

Rev.  Royal  B.  Walker  was  pastor  from  January  2,  1867,  to  April  25,  1872.  Rev. 
William  M.  Parry  of  Nottingham,  Eng.,  was  called  but  was  never  installed.  His  resig- 
nation was  not  accepted,  but  he  left  the  pastorate,  taking  with  him  nearly  150  mem- 
bers, who  formed  what  was  called  the  Tabernacle  Church.  A  church  council  declined 
to  install  Mr.  Parry,  but  the  congregation  continued  services  until  his  death.  Rev. 
Nathaniel  Mighill,  a  graduate  of  Amherst,  was  installed  September  25,  1875,  died  June 
15.  '^877-  He  officiated  at  the  exercises  celebrating  the  hundredth  anniversary  of  the 
Declaration  of  Independence.  Rev.  Louis  Bevier  Voorhees,  a  graduate  of  Princeton 
and  Andover,  was  installed  June  15,  1877,  but  three  years  later,  on  account  of  illness, 
was  obliged  to  resign. 

During  the  pastorate  of  Rev.  Joseph  F.  Levering,  who  was  installed  Alay  5,  1880, 
the  city  took  possession  of  the  church  property  and  in  1887  the  old  meeting  house  was 
demolished.     The  cornerstone  of  the  present  structure  was  laid  July  4,  1888,  and  the 


8oo  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


first  services  held  January  30,  1889,  though  the  auditorium  was  not  occupied  until  Sep- 
tember 17,  1889.  During  the  interim,  services  were  held  in  Association  Hall.  The 
pastorate  of  Mr.  Lovering  closed  July  3,  1890. 

The  building  of  the  new  church  marked  the  beginning  of  a  new  era  in  the  life  of 
the  First  Church.  The  church  was  fortunate  in  finding  a  pastor  of  genius  peculiarly 
adapted  to  the  conditions  and  gifted  with  the  eloquence  and  magnetism  that  attracts 
new  members  to  his  congregations.  Rev.  A.  Z.  Conrad  began  his  pastorate  October  28, 
1890.  He  organized  the  activities  of  the  church  until  he  had  a  place  of  usefulness  for 
every  member.  The  membership  grew  three-fold;  the  church  debt  was  paid.  The 
twelve  years  under  Dr.  Conrad  were  a  period  of  great  expansion  and  development. 
Owing  to  ill  health  he  was  obliged  to  resign,  April  18,  1902. 

From  October  19,  1902,  to  May  6,  1906,  Rev.  Dr.  Francis  J.  Van  Horn  was  the 
pastor.  He  was  a  gifted  preacher,  and  during  his  pastorate  the  church  continued  in 
growth  and  prestige,  and  added  to  his  mission  work.  In  May,  1903,  Rev.  John  H. 
Matthews  began  his  work  as  assistant  pastor. 

Rev.  Edward  P.  Drew,  the  present  pastor,  has  been  able  to  maintain  the  high  stand- 
ing of  the  Old  South  pulpit,  and  "Old  South"  today  ranks  as  the  largest  Congregational 
church  in  New  England  and  the  sixth  in  point  of  membership  in  the  United  States. 

In  celebration  of  the  completion  of  two  hundred  years  of  history,  the  week  of  May 
,22-29,  1916,  was  devoted  to  appropriate  exercises  and  services.  Beginning  Sunday, 
May  21,  Rev.  Dr.  Edward  P.  Drew,  the  pastor,  preached  an  historical  sermon,  and  in 
the  evening  Rev.  Dr.  Van  Horn  preached.  On  Tuesday  evening  a  reception  and  ban- 
quet were  held.  There  was  an  interesting  exhibition  of  articles  of  historic  interest  in 
charge  of  Edwin  H.  Marble.  At  the  banquet  William  F.  Little  was  toastmaster.  Among 
the  speakers  were:  George  E.  Duffy,  who  gave  to  the  parish  a  large  American  flag; 
Charles  W.  Gray,  George  R.  Bliss,  William  I.  Thompson,  Miss  Mary  Ella  Whipple, 
George  B.  Farnsworth,  Deacon  H.  H.  Merriam,  W.  M.  Spaulding,  and  Genery  Stevens. 
In  a  union  service  of  all  the  Congregationalists  of  the  city  on  Wednesday,  Rev.  Dr. 
Shepherd  Knapp  spoke  on  "The  Development  of  Congregationalism  in  Worcester," 
and  Rev.  Dr.  Rockwell  Harmon  Porter,  of  the  Center  Church,  Hartford,  on  "The  Mis- 
sion of  the  Meeting  House." 

The  most  spectacular  part  of  the  celebration  was  on  Thursday  evening  when  a  his- 
torical pageant  was  given  in  Tuckerman  Hall,  designed  to  present  to  the  eye  and  ear 
old  customs  of  daily  life,  church  and  community.  Eight  episodes  were  enacted  in  cos- 
tume, entitled  "John  Eliot  preaching  to  Indians  and  Settlers  on  Pakachoag  Hill, 
1674;"  "A  Gathering  for  Worship  in  the  Meeting  House;"  "Discipline  of  Members;" 
"The  Tory  Town  Clerk,  1774;"  "Reading  the  Declaration  of  Independence  from  the 
Porch  of  Old  South  Meeting  House,  July,  1776;"  "The  Pastoral  Visit;"  "The  Spin- 
ning Wheel;"  "The  Flag-raising."  Miss  Bertha  L.  Muzzy  was  in  charge  of  the 
pageant. 

On  Friday  evening  there  was  an  interdenominational  reception.  Alayor  George  M. 
Wright  represented  the  city.  The  visiting  clergymen  who  spoke  were :  Rev.  Dr.  Vin- 
cent E.  Tomlinson,  Rev.  A.  S.  Garver,  Rev.  Dr.  Edward  B.  Simmons,  Rev.  Dr.  Lewis 
G.  Morris,  Rev.  Charles  A.  Fisher,  Rev.  Harry  Minnick,  and  Rev.  Francis  A.  Poole. 
The  concluding  services  were  on  Sunday,  May  29,  when  Rev.  Dr.  A.  Z.  Conrad  preached 
in  the  morning  and  the  oratorio  "Elijah"  was  rendered  in  the  evening. 

The  most  enduring  memento  of  the  eventful  week  was  an  illustrated  pamphlet  giv- 
ing a  brief  history  of  the  church  and  its  ministers,  a  list  of  the  deacons,  the  officers  of 
the  church.  Each  of  the  organizations  within  the  church  is  described  and  their  history 
sketched.  The  final  article  is  a  history  of  music  in  the  Old  South  Church.  A  tabulated 
report  of  the  membership  from  1848  to  1915  shows  a  growth  from  322  to  1520.  During 
that  period  3556  members  were  on  the  rolls  of  the  church.  A  list  of  the  present  mem- 
bers of  the  church,  resident  and  non-resident  will  be  of  a  great  value.  The  compila- 
tion of  the  book  required  a  vast  amount  of  research  and  labor  and  reflects  great  credit 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  8oj 

on  the  committee  in  charge.     Deacon  Henry  H.  Merriam  was  chairman  of  the  Bi- 
centennial Committee  and  Allan  B.  Miller,  secretary. 

The  present  membership  of  the  First  Church  is  more  than  1500. 
The  growth  and  development  of  the  Sunday  school  has  been  steady, 
and  the  membership  is  now  over  1200,  with  a  working  staff  of  125.  Mr. 
Morris  M.  Edgar  is  superintendent.  The  adult  department  has  a  mem- 
bership of  265,  and  one  of  the  teachers,  Deacon  H.  H.  Merriam,  has 
served  for  fifty  years ;  another,  Jeremiah  Winn,  more  than  thirty  years. 
William  I.  Thompson  is  superintendent  of  the  senior  department;  Frank 
E.  Drury  of  the  intermediate,  and  Miss  Louise  K.  Sprague  of  the  junior 
department,  organized  in  1903;  Miss  Mildred  L.  Bacon  of  the  kinder- 
garten, organized  in  1893.  The  Home  Department,  both  for  adults  and 
children,  was  organized  in  May,  1896;  Mrs.  J.  W.  Ewing  is  at  present 
acting  as  superintendent.  The  "Cradle  Roll"  is  now  in  charge  of  Mrs. 
Thomas  W.  Thomson;  it  was  organized  about  1906,  and  Mrs.  Everett  S. 
Eddy  was  the  first  superintendent.  Miss  Maude  Jacobs  is  superinten- 
dent of  the  Children's  Home  Department,  organized  by  Bertha  Chase 
in  1913. 

The  women  organized  in  August,  1864,  the  Worcester  Female  As- 
sociation, the  name  of  which  was  soon  changed  to  the  Ladies'  Missionary 
Association,  and  continued  under  that  name  until  18T1.  In  1886  the 
missionary  society  was  revived. 

Even  earlier  the  Ladies'  Benevolent  Society  was  formed  to  aid  needy 
families  and  manage  the  church  social  affairs.  The  two  organizations 
were  united  October  10,  1904,  under  the  name.  The  Woman's  Association 
of  Old  South.  In  addition  to  varied  other  activities,  the  society  raised 
$10,000  for  the  payment  of  the  building  debt.  Mrs.  H.  W.  Cobb  is  pres- 
ident, 1917-18.  ■•''■ 

The  Men's  Union,  organized  October  22,  1896,  for  social  purposes 
and  the  support,  of  the  church,  has  had  many  delightful  banquets, 
instructive  and  entertaining  lecture  courses.  The  presidents  have  been : 
Edward  R.  Goodwin,  Dr.  Julius  Garst,  Otis  R.  Parker,  Geo.  B.  Farns- 
worth,,  Dana  J.  Pratt,  Geo.  R.  Bliss,  Edgar  E.  Thompson,  Wallace  A. 
Corey,  Geo.  D.  Barber,  Dr.  Henry  P.  Cooke,  Oliver  M.  Dean,  Geo.  K. 
Tufts,  Jno.  M.  Kendall,  Dr.  Philip  H.  Cook,  Leon.  G.  Fairchild,.  Chas. 
E.  Goodrich,  Frederic  L.  Stone,  Jos.  B.  Howe  and  Allie  K.  Gannon.  The 
membership  is  150. 

The  Christian  Fellowship  League,  founded  in  1908,  is  an  organiza- 
tion for  adults  similar  in  purpose  to  the  Y.  P.  S.  C.  Ira  A.  Adams  is 
president  (1917). 

The  Yjoung  People's  Society  of  Christian  Endeavor  of  Old  South 
was  one  of  the  first  of  this  organization,  founded  in  1882.'  Arthur  E. 
Gray  was  the  first  president.  A  second  society  was  formed  in  1896, 
when  the  new  church  was  occupied,  called  the  Second  Society,  but  the 

W.-I-5I. 


802 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


^^K 


CENTRAL  CHURCH. 


^c;i 


^&5^^S 


OLD  CENTRAL  CH13RCH,  MAIN  STREET. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  803 

two  were  merged  afterward.  Howard  M.  Pomeroy  president  in  1917. 
In  1893  the  Intermediate  Y.  P.  S.  C.  E.  was  organized,  the  first  of  its 
kind,  Emma  D.  Gates  being  superintendent.  The  Junior  Society  was 
organized  in  1891  by  Rev.  Dr.  Conrad.  Miss  NeUie  Jerome  was  the 
first  superintendent. 

The  society  known  as  the  Little  Light  Bearers  was  organized  about 
1895  by  Mrs.  Edward  Jerome  as  an  auxiliary  mission  society.  Mrs.  Ev- 
erett W.  Durgin  is  the  present  superintendent. 

Other  Old  South  organizations  of  recent  date  are  the  Boy  Scouts, 
the  Go-to-Church  Band,  the  Camp  Fire  Girls,  the  Altruria  Club,  formed 
March  6,  1903,  by  Mrs.  Herbert  E.  Chandler;  the  Olds  Club,  organized 
in  1903  by  Mrs.  L.  O.  Whiteman  to  assit  the  work  in  Japan ;  the  Rho 
Kappa  Society,  organized  in  1910,  previously  known  as  the  Sunshine 
Band,  to  assist  the  work  of  Mrs.  Rachel  Coan  Felt  in  India  and  for  local 
charity  work.  The  Sigma  Club  of  young  girls  was  formed  for  the  same 
purpose  as  the  Rho  Kappa.  The  Norwegian  department  is  mentioned 
in  the  sketch  of  the  Norwegian  people. 

Central  Church. — The  following  historical  narrative  is  by  Mr.  U. 
Waldo  Cutler: 

Central  Church,  first  called  the  Calvinist  Church,  originated  in  a  violent  and  long- 
continued  dii^erence  of  opinion  in  the  mother  church  of  Worcester.  Individual  liberty- 
over  against  responsibility  to  the  existing  order  had  asserted  itself  in  the  world  of 
men  many  times  before  this  trouble  began,  in  1816,  and  has  asserted  itself  many  times 
since;  but  patience  and  judicious  counsel  and  common-sense  then,  as  always,  have 
brought  peace  in  the  end.  Ever  since  the  final  reconciliation,  in  1827,  there  has  been 
the  best  of  good  feeling  between  the  first  two  Congregational  churches  here. 

The  new  church  attained  to  definite  and  duly  recognized  standing  through  an  ec- 
clesiastical council,  held  August  16-17,  1820,  of  which  Rev.  Nathaniel  Emmons,  D.  D., 
of  Franklin,  was  moderator.  For  nearly  a  year  and  a  half  religious  services  were  main- 
tained, without  parish  organization  or  regular  minister,  chiefly  at  the  home  of  Dea. 
David  Richards,  in  what  was  known  as  Conference  Hall,  near  where  the  Government 
Post  Ofiice  building  now  stands.  In  the  spring  of  1822  the  Calvinist  Parish  was  formed, 
and  on  April  3  regular  public  services  were  begun  in  the  County  Court  House,  Rev. 
Thos.  F.  Murdock  and  others  acting  as  supply. 

At  that  time,  besides  the  original  First  Church,  long  housed  on  the  historic  spot 
at  the  head  of  the  Common,  only  two  other  ecclesiastical  organizations  existed  in 
Worcester.  For  a  generation  the  Second  Parish  (First  Unitarian)  had  been  main- 
taining its  religious  center  on  Summer  street,  near  Lincoln  Square,  and  for  ten  years 
the  First  Baptist  had  been  holding  services  at  Salem  Square.  Central  is,  then,  the 
fourth  in  age  among  the  one  hundred  and  eleven  or  more  churches  and  synagogues 
making  up  the  ecclesiastical  system  of  the  present  city. 

Among  the  come-outers  from  the  Old  South  in  1820,  was  Daniel  Waldo,  whose 
name  is  among  the  most  honorable  in  Worcester's  earlier  history.  He  had  already 
served  as  one  of  the  twelve  Massachusetts  delegates  to  the  famous  Hartford  Con- 
vention of  1814,  and  was  firmly  established  in  his  profitable  business  on  Main  street, 
north  of  George,  and  firmly  established,  also,  in  the  confidence  and  regard  of  his  fel- 
low-citizens. He  was. able  and  ready  to  give  financial  help  to  the  new  North  End 
movement,  and  on  October  15,  1823,  the  Calvinist  Church  was  able  to  move  out  from 
the  Court  House  into  the  $14,000  meeting-house  that  Daniel  Waldo  had  built  for  it,  on 


8o4  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

his  own  land  next  to  his  store.  On  the  same  day  the  first  pastor,  Rev.  Loammi  Ives 
Hoadly,  from  Andover  Seminary,  was  ordained  and  installed,  Dr.  Lyman  Beecher 
preaching  the  sermon.  Three  years  later,  in  1826,  the  church  property  was  legally  made 
over  to  the  trustees  of  the  Calvinist  Society.  A  later  gift  of  $5000  from  the  same 
benefactor  further  established  what  we  now  know  as  Central  Church  on  its  long  career. 
Additions  to  the  early  building  were  soon  and  repeatedly  necessary,  down  to  the  time 
for  leaving  the  old  building  for  the  new,  in  1885,  when  the  sale  of  the  Daniel  Waldo 
foundation  provided  a  substantial  part  of  the  sum  needed  for  the  new  venture  near 
Armory  Square. 

The  records  show  Mr.  Hoadly's  salary  to  have  been  $800  without  provision  for  a 
vacation.  Aside  from  the  income  from  the  Waldo  fund,  the  expenses  were  met  through 
sale  and  rental  of  pews  and  a  tax  upon  the  membership,  the  wealthy  Waldo  and  Salis- 
bury families  representing  about  three-fifths  of  the  required  amount,  till  Mr.  Waldo's 
death  in  1845. 

For  some  years  the  social  work  of  the  church  was  all  carried  on  in  a  "vestry," 
owned  by  Mr.  Waldo,  on  the  north  side  of  Thomas  street,  next  the  Blackstone  Canal. 
In  1842,  however,  he  built  a  chapel  to  take  the  place  of  this,  on  the  site  of  the  present 
Swedish  Methodist  Church,  at  what  is  now  the  corner  of  Thomas  and  Commercial 
streets. 

Like  so  many  other  clergymen  of  earlier  generations  in  New  England  churches, 
Mr.  Hoadly  was  firmer  in  his  doctrine  and  in  gracious  pulpit  and  parish  helpfulness 
than  in  health,  and  in  1829  he  asked  dismission,  though  he  lived  on  through  many 
more  years  of  varied  usefulness,  dying  at  the  age  of  93. 

Later  pastors  have  been  successively :  Rev.  John  S.  C.  Abbott,  1830-35  ;  Rev.  David 
Peabody.  1835-38;  Rev.  Seth  Sweetser.  D.  D.,  1838-78;  Rev.  Henry  E.  Barnes,  asso- 
ciate pastor,  1874-76;  Rev.  Daniel  M-erriman,  D.  D.,  1878-1900;  Rev.  Leon  D.  Bliss,  as- 
sistant pastor,  1889-91;  Rev.  Edward  M.  Chapman,  associate  pastor,  1892-99;  Rev.  Al- 
bert W.  Hitchcock,  Ph.  D.,  1900-07 ;  Rev.  Shepherd  Knapp,  D.  D.,  1908 — .  All  these 
have  been  able  men,  whose  services  have  by  no  means  been  limited  to  the  years  or  the 
duties  of  the  Worcester  pastorate.  Mr.  Abbott  became  widely  known  as  a  popular  and 
gifted  author.  Air.  Peabody,  a  rare  personality,  died  early  as  professor  of  rhetoric  in 
Dartmouth  College.  It  was  during  his  pastorate  that,  in  1836,  the  first  organ  was  placed 
in  the  church,  in  the  gallery  over  the  Alain  street  entrance.  Dr.  Sweetser,  toward  the 
end  of  his  long  and  distinguished  term  of  service  in  church  and  community,  was  re- 
lieved from  active  responsibilities,  partly  through  the  settlement  of  Rev.  Henry  E. 
Barnes,  as  associate  pastor. 

Early  in  the  term  of  Dr.  Alerriman,  the  name  Calvinist  was  changed  to  Central 
Church  and  Society  in  Worcester,  it  being  a  mistake,  as  he  said,  "to  emphasize  the 
mischievous  fact  of  sect  by  giving  the  name  of  a  man  or  of  a  theological  system  to  a 
Christian  church."  A  little  later  in  the  same  pastorate  the  project  of  erecting  a  new 
and  more  useable  centre  for  the  varied  activities  of  a  live  modern  church  was  con- 
ceived and  with  marked  success  carried  out,  largely  through  the  practical  efficiency, 
artistic  talent  and  skill,  wide  experience  and  financial  co-operation  of  Dr.  and  Airs. 
Merriman.  Upon  resigning  the  active  pastorate,  in  1900,  Dr.  Alerriman  was  made 
pastor  emeritus. 

Under  the  zest  of  new  and  more  attractive  quarters  the  membership  of  the  church 
more  than  doubled  in  a  few  years.  Three  years  after  the  new  church  was  finished  the 
Central  Church  parsonage  was  built,  on  the  adjoining  lot,  fronting  on  Institute  Road. 
In  less  than  a  decade  the  debt  on  the  whole  church  property  was  extinguished,  and 
the  coming  into  the  new  section  of  the  city  of  important  public  buildings  and  very 
many  new  homes  soon  justified  the  selection  of  the  corner  of  Institute  road  and  Salis- 
bury street  as  a  strategic  position  for  the  renewed  life  of  Daniel  Waldo's  church  enter- 
prise. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  805 


Of  the  most  recent  pastors,  Mr.  Barnes,  Mr.  Bliss  and  Mr.  Chapman  withdrew  to 
important  pastorates  elsewhere.  Dr.  Hitchcock  died  far  too  soon,  almost  at  the  begin- 
ning of  what  promised  to  be  great  usefulness  in  Worcester.  During  the  pastorate 
still  current  many  important  steps  have  already  been  taken  looking  toward  a  better 
organized,  more  effective  church  life  in  the  new  age  than  even  that  of  the  first  century 
of  its  history,  now  drawing  to  an  end.  In  this  connection  it  should  be  noted  that  in 
1917,  the  church  was  incorporated,  and  the  parish  as  such  passed  into  inactivity. 

While  still  in  the  old  Main  street  building,  the  Central  Mission  Board  was  estab- 
lished for  the  better  exercise  of  the  local  benevolences.  From  1876  to  1903,  Miss  Sarah 
Cummings  was  the  beloved  church  missionary  and  parish  visitor.  This  office  was  later 
merged  into  that  of  pastor's  assistant,  ably  filled  between  1905  and  1913  by  Miss 
Ethel  M.  Shepard,  and  more  recently  by  Miss  Annie  M.  Hanchett. 

Twelve  years  after  the  starting  of  the  first  real  Sunday  School  in  America,  in 
Beverly,  Mass.,  in  1810,  the  Central  Church  Sunday  school  was  under  way.  At  least 
there  is  an  unsigned  statement  to  that  effect  enclosed  among  the  church  records.  This 
bears  the  date  April  7,  1822.  The  earliest  formal  record,  of  August  31,  1827,  states 
that  Purly  Torrey  was  elected  superintendent  and  Parley  Goddard  and  Samuel  Tay- 
lor were  chosen  Sunday  school  directors.  During  the  pastorate  of  Mr.  Abbott  the 
organization  of  the  church  school  was  advanced  materially.  The  first  mention  of  a 
Sunday  school  library  is  under  the  year  1831,  though  it  was  then  apparently  no  new 
feature  of  the  work.  In  1840  the  church  passed  a  vote  that  the  superintendent  should 
be  chosen  annually.  In  1841  action  was  taken  relative  to  gathering  colored  children 
into  the  Sunday  school,  a  year  before  the  vote  of  the  church  denouncing  slavery.  In 
1846  female  members  of  the  church  were  allowed  to  vote  in  electing  Sunday  school 
officers. 

Since  the  first  superintendent,  above  mentioned,  the  office  has  been  filled  by  the 
following  in  succession:  Simon  S.  Gates,  1833-38;  Henry  Wheeler,  1838-40;  Geo.  W. 
Russell,  1840-43;  Rodolphus  B.  Hubbard,  1843-46;  Simon  S.  Gates,  1846-50;  Wm.  R. 
Hooper,  1850-51;  John  H.  Brooks,  1851-54;  Geo.  H.  Estabrook,  1854-56;  David  Whit- 
comb,  1856-60;  James  K.  Lombard,  1860-63;  David  Whitcomb.  1863-4;  HAiry  M. 
Wheeler,  1864-67  ;  Henry  Griffin,  1867-69 ;  Chas.  O.  Thompson,  1869-73  ;  Geo.  I.  Alden, 
1873-75  ;  Nathan  F.  Heard,  1875 ;  Jos.  W.  Fairbanks,  1875-77 ;  Geo.  E.  Mackintire,  1877- 
83 ;  John  C.  Woodbury,  1883-87 ;  James  Logan,  1887-88 ;  Geo.  L.  Sanford,  1888-89 ;  Rev. 
Leon  D.  Bliss,  1889-91;  John  S.  Brigham,  1891-95;  U.  Waldo  Cutler,  1895-98;  Clinton 
Alvord,  1898-00;  D.  M.  Wheeler,  1900-03;  John  C.  Woodbury,  1903-04;  Clarence  W. 
Hobbs,  1904-11;  Arthur  D.  Butterfield,  1911-12;  Edwin  G.  Norman,  1912-15;  Chas.  F. 
Fuller,  1915-. 

Almost  from  the  beginning  the  women  of  Central  Church  have  met  for  mission- 
ary and  social  activities.  Such  meetings  were  at  first  held  often  in  the  Waldo  home, 
which  stood  near  the  present  site  of  Mechanics  Hall,  and  the  three  sisters  of  Daniel 
Waldo  were  the  leaders  in  all  womanly  activities,  and  generous  in  their  support.  A 
definite  organization  was  first  formed  at  Dr.  Sweetser's  house  on  November  21,  1839. 
Mrs.  Sweetser  was  chosen  president,  and  Miss  Urania  Woodward  was  the  first  secre- 
tary. This  was  called  the  Centre  Missionary  Circle,  and  fortnightly  meetings  were  held 
in  homes  of  the  members,  for  benevolent  work  and  social  intercourse.  The  records 
show  a  large  amount  of  good  accomplished  both  at  home  and  abroad.  This  early  so- 
ciety for  women  continued,  under  changed  names  and  with  varied  responsibilities, 
that  were  often  shared  with  other  societies  as  they  were  from  time  to  time  thrown  off 
from  the  original  nucleus,  down  to  1894,  when  all  woman's  work  in  the  church  was 
reassembled  under  one  organization  with  co-operating  departments, — The  Woman's 
Association.  The  list  of  presidents  of  the  older  society  previous  to  1894  included  such 
names  as  Mesdames  Emory  Banister,  S.  P.  Miller,  Samuel  Banister,  William  H.  San- 
ford, George  H.  Estabrook,  Charles  E.  Stevens,  Martin  Lathe,  Thomas  H.  Gage,  George 
W.  Russell,  Fred  J.  Barnard,  E.  A.  Summer,  John  S.  Brigham,  R.  B.  Fowler,  J.  H. 
Robinson,  Miss  Georgie  Bacon. 


go5  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Among  other  organizations  in  the  extensive  Central  Church  system  has  been  the 
Handicraft  Society,  started  in  1883  to  give  substantial  aid  to  the  building  fund.  It  is 
still  active  as  opportunity  for  its  special  form  of  service  offers.  Its  first  officers  were: 
Mrs.  Daniel  Merriman,  president ;  Mrs.  George  L.  Brownell,  treasurer ;  Aliss  Charlotte 
B.  Cheever  (later  Mrs.  William  J.  Tucker),  secretary. 

The  Children's  Charitable  Society,  organized  in  1864  for  the  purpose  of  training 
children  in  work  for  others,  was  continued  by  The  Captains  of  Ten  and  its  sister  so- 
ciety, The  Heart  and  Hand.  The  former  of  these  was  followed  by  the  Central  Church 
Cadets,  in  1887.  Out  of  these  boys'  organizations  and  the  later  Boys'  Club  emerged  the 
present  church  troop  of  Boy  Scouts  of  America.  The  Heart  and  Hand,  as  the  church 
sewing  school,  is  still  an  important  feature  of  the  work  for  little  girls. 

The  social  activities  of  the  young  people  were  early  centralized  in  the  Young  Peo- 
ple's Guild,  among  the  various  departments  of  which  the  Literature  Department  was 
the  most  active.  As  successor  to  this  the  Study  Club  was  started,  in  1904,  and  is  still 
doing  good  work  by  furnishing  incentive  to  thoughtful  discussion  of  books  and  matters 
of  the  higher  life.  A  Christian  Endeavor  Society,  in  1887,  grew  out  of  the  less  formal 
Young  People's  Meeting.  In  1906  all  the  activities  of  the  young  people  were  merged 
into  the  present  Young  People's  Association. 

For  many  years  George  W.  Mackintire  has  been  treasurer  of  the  church,  and  Rev. 
Robert  A.  Hume,  D.  D.,  has  been  supported  as  foreign  missionary  pastor  since  1900. 
Since  1910  the  church  has  issued  annually  a  Year  Book,  containing  a  review  of  the 
previous  year's  activities,  a  calendar  of  church  events  for  the  year  to  follow,  the  list  of 
officers  in  the  various  departments,  etc.  A  Central  Church  Brotherhood  has  recently 
been  formed  among  the  men  in  any  way  connected  with  the  work  of  the  parish.  For 
seven  years,  from  1887  to  1894,  Edward  N.  Anderson  was  choir  master,  and  did  very 
much  to  establish  the  musical  interests  of  Central  Church  on  a  high  plane.  With  the 
exception  of  one  year,  Mr.  Charles  H.  Grout  has  been  the  constant  and  efficient  or- 
ganist since  April,  1887. 

The  deacons  from  the  beginning  have  been  as  follows:  David  Richards,  1820-29; 
Samuel  Taylor,  1824-64;  John  Coe,  1830-46;  Simon  S.  Gates,  1846-61;  Estes  H.  San- 
ford,  1849-88;  Wm.  R.  Hooper,  1852-66;  Orrin  P.  Gilbert,  1852-59;  John  H.  Brooks, 
1863-79;  Luther  Phillips,  1865-69;  Marcus  Moore,  1869-77;  Geo.  E.  Gladwin,  1869-83; 
Aldus  M.  Chapin,  1877-81;  B.  J.  Boutwell,  1879-85;  Geo.  I.  Alden,  1881-83;  Henry  M. 
Smith,  1881-83;  Geo.  W.  Russell,  1883-88;  Stephen  H.  Earned,  1883-86;  Lewis  C. 
Batson,  1883-87;  O.  S.  Gordon,  1886-92;  John  C.  Woodbury,  1887-91;  U.  Waldo  Cutler, 
1888-1905;  James  Logan,  1888- ;  Wm.  E.  Sawtelle,  1888-92;  E.  O.  Price,  1889-03;  G.  L. 
Sanford,  1892-94;  Frank  Colegrave,  1894-04;  John  Brigham,  1896-97;  E.  A.  Put- 
nam, 1897-06;  Clarence  W.  Hobbs,  1901-07;  George  Sieurin,  1903-09;  D.  M.  Wheeler, 
1904-08;  Hobart  A.  Whitman,  1905-11 ;  Frank  Drew,  1906-08;  John  C.  Woodbury,  1906. 
07;  Chas.  F.  Fuller,  1907-13;  John  C.  Woodbury,  1908-14;  Clinton  Alvord,  1909-15; 
Wallace  E.  Sargent,  1910-16;  Geo.  L.  Clark,  1911-17;  Wendell  L.  Parker,  1912-16;  Ho- 
bart A.  Whitman,  1912-14;  Francis  Bergstrom,  1912-13 ;  Fred.  L.  Willis,  1913-17;  Ar- 
thur D.  Butterfield,  1913-;  Chas.  F.  Fuller,  1914-;  U.  Waldo  Cutler,  1914-;  Clarence  W. 
Hobbs,  191S-;  Clinton  Alvord,  1916-;  Edwin  G.  Norman,  1916-;  Burtis  W.  Fames, 
1917-;  Wendell  S.  Parker,  1917-- 

The  successive  clerks  of  the  church  have  been:  Samuel  Taylor,  1824-27;  Laommi 
I.  Hoadley,  1827-30;  John  S.  C.  Abbott,  1830-35;  Henry  Wheeler,  1835-40;  Walter 
Johnson,  1840-41  ;  John  C.  Newton,  1841-48;  John  Rice,  1848-76;  Geo.  I.  Alden,  1876-81 ; 
Thos.  W.  Thompson,  1881-83;  Geo.  L.  Brownell,  1883-85;  Orange  S.  Gordon,  1885-87; 
U.  W.  Cutler,  1887-89;  Wm.  B.  Childs,  1889;  Geo.  W.  Mackintire,  1889-95;  Clinton 
Alvord,  1895-98;  Wm.  H.  Sanford,  1898-02;  Chas.  F.  Fuller,  1902-05;  Frank  Colgrove, 
1905-17;  Carl  R.  Brownell,  1917-- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  807 

Salem  Street  Church. — This  was  formed  from  the  congregations  of 
Old  South,  the  Calvinist  and  Union  churches.  The  church  was  formally 
recognized  June  14,  1848.  It  began  with  a  membership  of  133,  eighty 
being  former  members  of  Union  Church.  The  place  of  worship  was  in 
the  old  City  Hall  until  December  12,  1848,  when  the  structure  on  Salem 
street  was  occupied.  The  cost  was  $28,000,  and  the  funds  were  raised 
in  the  three  older  churches.  Rev.  George  Bushnell  was  ordained,  De- 
cember 13,  1848,  and  installed  as  pastor ;  the  sermon  was  preached  by 
his  brother.  Rev.  Dr.  Horace  Bushnell.  The  pastor  was  educated  in  Yale 
College  (1842)  and  at  Auburn  and  New  Haven  seminaries.  He  resigned 
nine  years  later  to  accept  the  office  of  superititendent  of  schools  in  this 
city,  but  was  not  dismissed  until  Jan.  27,  1858. 

A  call  was  extended  to  Merrill  Richardson  of  Fall  River,  and 
declined.  He  accepted  a  second  call,  and  was  installed  January  27,  1858, 
and  was  pastor  twelve  years,  being  dismissed  at  his  own  request  on 
account  of  failure  of  eyesight.  He  was  afterward  pastor  of  the  New 
England  Congregational  Church,  New  York,  and  of  the  Milford  Church. 
He  died  in  1876.  He  was  a  liberal  preacher,  a  faithful  pastor  and  pre- 
served harmony  in  his  congregation.  Rev.  Charles  M.  Lamson  of  North 
Bridgewater  accepted  a  call  dated  March  8,  1871,  and  was  installed  May 
3.  The  creed  was  made  more  liberal.  After  fourteen  years  of  entire 
harmony  and  affection  between  pastor  and  people,  he  resigned  on 
account  of  ill  health,  and  was  dismissed  Sept.  28,  1885.  Rev.  Isaac  J. 
Lansing  of  Brooklyn,  the  next  pastor,  was  of  the  Methodist  denomina- 
tion. He  was  installed  Nov.  11,  1886;  resigned  in  1891.  He  was 
rather  sensational  in  preaching,  but  was  successful  in  drawing  large 
congregations  and  in  providing  funds  to  pay  the  church  debt.  Rev. 
William  W.  Sleeper  became  assistant  pastor  October  18,  1888,  and  had 
charge  of  the  music  of  the  church,  besides  other  special  duties.  Rev. 
Frank  H.  Vrooman  was  pastor,  1892-94;  Rev.  Samuel  A.  Harlow, 
1895-96. 

The  church  was  consolidated  with  Union  church  in  1896.  The 
meeting  house  was  sold  to  the  First  Swedish  Congregational  Church 
(q.  v.). 

Union  Church. — The  following  historical  narrative  is  contributed : 

Union  Church  was  incorporated  March  11,  1835,  and  at  a  council  of  churches  held 
February  3,  1836,  the  church  was  formally  approved.  The  society  held  its  first  meeting 
March  5,  and  the  new  house  of  worship  was  dedicated  July  6.  It  was  a  plain  brick 
house,  54  by  90  feet  on  Front  street,  opposite  the  Common ;  enlarged  in  1845-6.  A  new 
edifice  was  built  on  the  same  site  in  1880. 

The  first  pastor  was  Rev.  Jonathan  E.  Woodbridge,  who  was  installed  Nov.  24, 
1836.  Because  the  society  voted  to  permit  anti-slavery  speakers  in  the  church,  the 
pastor  resigned  on  Feb.  2,  1838,  and  was  dismissed  Feb.  14.  He  was  afterward  editor 
of  the  New  England  Puritan. 

The  second  pastor,  Rev.  Flam  Smalley,  was  installed  Sept.  19,  1838,  and  his  m.in- 
istry  was  successful,  the  church  growing  constantly,  making  additions  to  the  meeting 


8o8 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


X 
u 

u 
o 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  809 

house  necessary.  Deacon  Ichabod  Washburn,  the  principal  founder  of  this  church, 
provided  at  this  time  a  vestry  in  the  basement.  At  the  request  of  Dr.  Smalley,  Ma> 
8,  1854,  he  was  dismissed  to  become  pastor  of  the  Third  Street  Presbyterian  Church, 
Troy,  N.  Y.,  where  he  died  July  30,  1858.  In  1851  he  published  "The  Worcester  Pul- 
pit" a  valuable  source  of  church  history. 

The  church  called  Rev.  J.  W.  Wellman,  graduate  and  later  a  trustee  of  Dartmouth 
College,  but  he  declined.  Rev.  Ebenezer  Cutler  of  St.  Albans,  Vt,  accepted  a  call  and 
was  installed  Sept.  6,  1855.  He  was  pastor  until  1865  when  he  was  elected  president  of 
Vermont  University  and  declined ;  made  professor  in  Hartford  Theological  Seminary, 
but  declined,  at  the  urgent  request  of  his  congregation.  He  was  prime  mover  in  form- 
ing the  Congregational  Club  and  became  its  first  president.  On  account  of  throat 
trouble,  he  resigned  in  1878  and  was  dismissed  Oct.  11,  1880.  He  continued  to  worship 
here  and  was  made  pastor  emeritus.     Dr.  Cutler  died  January  16,  1898. 

For  nearly  two  years  Rev.  George  H.  Gould  supplied  the  pulpit.  During  this  period 
the  new  meeting  house  was  erected  on  Front  street  at  a  cost  of  $37,500  and  dedicated 
Oct.  ID,  1880,  the  sermon  being  preached  by  the  pastor-elect  Rev.  Henry  A.  Stimson, 
who  was  installed  on  the  14th.  He  was  a  Yale  graduate  and  had  been  a  successful 
pastor  in  Minneapolis.  He  introduced  new  ideas ;  printed  a  weekly  bulletin ;  established 
free  seats  at  Sunday  evening  services.  His  congregations  were  large.  He  was  dis- 
missed in  June,  1886,  to  accept  a  call  in  St.  Louis. 

Rev.  William  V.  W.  Davis  was  the  fifth  pastor  and  was  installed  April  15,  1887. 
He  was  a  graduate  of  Amherst  College  and  his  first  pastorate  was  in  Manchester, 
N.  H.  From  Manchester  he  went  to  Cleveland,  Ohio,  as  pastor  of  the  Euclid  Avenue 
Presbyterian  Church  and  from  this  church  he  came  to  Worcester.  On  the  first  of 
September,  1889,  at  the  request  of  Dr.  Davis,  the  church  engaged  Rev.  W.  S.  Kelsey 
as  pastor's  assistant,  coming  here  from  Windham,  Conn.  He  took  charge  of  the  Sun- 
day school,  the  Christian  Endeavor  Society  and  assisted  Dr.  Davis  in  his  pulpit  and 
pastoral  work.  After  remaining  in  this  position  until  October,  1890,  he  resigned  to  ac- 
cept a  call  to  a  similar  position  at  Berkeley  Temple,  Boston.  The  pastorate  of  Dr. 
Davis  continued  until  July  9,  1893,  on  which  date  his  resignation  was  read,  but  he 
continued  to  be  responsible  for  the  supply  of  the  pulpit  until  October  ist.  In  the  early 
part  of  Dr.  Davis'  ministry  he  agitated  the  idea  of  having  a  parsonage  and  within  a 
short  time  a  lot  was  secured  on  Ashland  street.  Dr.  Davis  drew  the  plans  of  such  a 
house  as  he  wished  which  were  accepted  by  the  Union  Society.  A  building  committee 
was  chosen  and  the  result  was  the  large  and  beautiful  residence  on  the  east  side  of 
Ashland  street.  Dr.  Davis  and  family  continued  to  live  in  this  house  until  he  left 
Union  Church  when  it  was  then  sold.  He  was  a  man  of  a  "warm  sympathetic  nature, 
had  a  wide  acquaintance  with  literature  and  took  a  deep  interest  in  current  events. 
While  he  was  liberal  in  his  interpretations  of  the  scriptures  he  essentially  maintained 
the  faith  of  the  fathers  and  his  utterances  were  in  accord  with  the  articles  of  faith  of 
this  church  and  with  the  accepted  standards  of  our  own  and  other  evangelical  denomi- 
nations." Shortly  after  he  resigned  he  received  and  accepted  a  call  to  the  Congrega- 
tional Church  in  Pittsfield,  Mass.,  where  he  remained  until  he  met  with  an  accident  in 
falling  over  a  precipice  which  caused  his  death. 

The  two  or  three  years  following  the  departure  of  Dr.  Davis,  Union  Church  was 
without  a  permanent  pastor.  During  that  interval  Rev.  F.  F.  Emerson  was  engaged 
most  of  the  time  as  acting  pastor  and  his  sermons  were  always  very  interesting  and 
scholarly. 

It  was  in  January,  1896,  that  a  communication  was  received  from  Salem  Street 
Church  asking  for  a  conference  with  Union  Church  with  a  view  to  uniting  the  two 
churches.  Union  Church  had  a  new  meeting  house  under  construction  on  Chestnut 
street  which  was  nearing  completion  and  at  a  meeting  of  representatives  of  the  two 
churches  the  opinion  was  that  the  time  had  come  when  the  best  interests  of  Christ's 
kingdom  in  our  city  would  be  promoted  by  such  a  union.    Consequently  by  a  vote  taken 


8io  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

February  19,  1896,  the  union  of  the  two  churches  was  consummated  and  the  name  of 
Union  Church  was  retained  and  to  date  from  1836,  the  time  of  the  organization  of  the 
older  church.  This  union  of  the  two  churches  was  made  complete  by  the  calling  of  a 
mutual  council  which  met  May  8,  1896,  in  the  Salem  street  meeting  house  and  declared 
its  approval  and  extended  to  the  united  church  the  recognition  and  fellowship  of  their 
sister  churches.  The  two  churches  were  authorized  to  unite  by  a  special  act  of  the 
legislature  April  28,  1896.  The  first  services  of  the  united  churches  were  held  on  the 
second  Sunday  in  May,  1896,  in  the  large  hall  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  on  Pearl  street  and 
were  conducted  by  Rev.  Dr.  C.  M.  Lamson,  who  was  pastor  of  Salem  Street  Church 
from  May  3,  1871,  to  Sept.  28,  1885.  The  church  continued  to  worship  there  until 
Sept.  6,  1896. 

At  a  special  meeting  of  Union  Society  October  23rd,  1894,  a  committee  of  fifteen 
was  elected  to  act  with  the  Prudential  Committee  to  "consider  ways  and  means  and  so- 
licit subscriptions  for  a  new  lot  and  church  building,  and  in  case  sufficient  funds  are 
in  their  judgment  subscribed,  they  are  hereby  empowered  to  sell  the  present  property, 
select  and  purchase  a  new  location  and  erect  a  new  church  building."     The  Kinnicutt 
estate  on  Chestnut  street  opposite  Pearl  street  was  the  site  selected  and  was  purchased 
in  February,   1895,  for  $55,000.     Ground  was  broken  July  24,   1895,  and  the  corner- 
stone was  laid  by  Albert  Curtis,  a  charter  member  of  Union  Church,  February  3,  1896, 
on  the  sixtieth  anniversary,  with  appropriate  services.     An  address  was  made  by  the 
acting  pastor,  Rev.  F.  F.  Emerson,  and  the  benediction  was  pronounced  by  the  pastor 
emeritus,  Rev.  Ebenezer  Cutler,  D.  D.     This  edifice  may  be  said  to  consist  of  three 
buildings,  the  Memorial  Chapel,  Parish  House  and  Church  Auditorium.     The  Chapel 
and  Parish  House  being  completed  the  first  services  were  held  in  them  Sunday,  Septem- 
ber 6,  1896.    The  Auditorium  being  completed  the  first  services  were  held  there  Sunday, 
February  14,  1897.     In  the  construction  of  this  edifice  the  Gothic  style  was  adopted 
with  twin  towers  at  the  front  ninety-two  and  a  half  feet  high.     The  matericil  selected 
is  pink  Milford  granite  with  its  natural  split  face  for  the  walls,  relieved  for  the  cut 
work  with  Longmeadow  brownstone  which  is  both  easy  to  work  and  very  durable.  The 
Auditorium  is  cruciform  in  plan,  the  roof  of  which  is  covered  with  Vermont  red  slate, 
the  color  of  which  tones  in  with  the  copper  covered  slender  spire  rising  to  a  height  of 
one  hundred  and  eighty  feet  at  the  crossing  of  nave  and  transepts.     The  main  facade 
shows  a  symmetrical  treatment  on  which  are  grotesque  forms  as  gargoyles  which  are 
symbolical  of  evil  spirits  fleeing  in  all  directions  from  the  sacred  precincts,  while  archi- 
tecturally their  salient  forms  give  life  and  vigor  to  the  skylines  of  the  building.     The 
Auditorium  is  fifty-seven  feet  in  its  widest  diameter,  the  nave  and  transepts  each  forty- 
five  feet  wide,  flanked  by  aisles  about  six  and  a  half  feet  wide.    Its  total  length  is  nine- 
ty-three and  a  half  feet  and  greatest  width  across  transepts  is  eighty-nine  feet. 

The  semi-detached  Memorial  Chapel  is  complete  in  itself,  with  its  special  entrance 
through  a  picturesque  mosaic-floored  open  porch  and  vestibule.  Directly  opposite  the 
porch  entrance  is  a  bronze  mural  tablet,  designed  in  style  to  harmonize  with  the  archi- 
tecture of  the  building,  commemorating  the  gift  of  the  chapel  dedicated  to  the  purposes 
of  divine  worship  in  loving  memory  of  Philip  Louis  Moen.  The  chapel  is  thirty-four 
by  fifty  feet  and  has  sittings  for  three  hundred  and  fifty  people.  It  is  provided  with  a 
very  superior  two  manual  pipe  organ  filling  a  projecting  bay  near  the  platform.  A 
rich  stained  glass  window  over  the  platform  has  for  its  subject  the  Angel  of  Praise. 
The  parish  house  has  a  Sunday-school  room  forty-six  and  a  half  by  fifty-eight  and  a 
half,  and  twenty-four  feet  high,  with  two  stories  of  class  rooms,  nine  in  number,  about 
twelve  feet  square,  each  separated  from  the  main  room  by  flexible  sliding  doors. 

The  first  pastor  of  this  united  Union  Church,  Rev.  John  EUery  Tuttle,  D.  D., 
was  pastor  of  the  College  Church  at  Amherst  and  Professor  of  Biblical  Literature.  A 
unanimous  call  was  sent  to  him  October  18,  1896,  was  accepted  by  him  October  23rd, 
and  he  began  his  work  Sunday,  November  29th,  1896.  During  his  pastorate  the  church 
was  in  a  prosperous  condition,  large  congregations  filled  the  church  every  Sunday.    On 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  8ii 

account  of  impaired  health  after  a  pastorate  of  four  years,  he  resigned  September  i6, 
1900.  At  a  special  meeting  the  following  Wednesday  evening  the  church  voted  to  lay 
his  resignation  on  the  table  and  the  following  week  at  a  special  meeting  the  Union 
Society  voted  to  grant  him  six  months  leave  of  absence.  After  four  months  however, 
a  letter  was  received  from  him  from  California  stating  that  his  physicians  advised 
him  not  to  return  to  New  England  for  the  present  and  urging  the  church  to  accept  his 
resignation.  Consequently  at  a  special  meeting  of  the  church  March  20,  1901,  his  resig- 
nation was  accepted  and  on  the  twenty-second  of  April  the  pastoral  relations  were  dis- 
solved by  a  mutual  council.  An  Outlook  Committee  was  appointed  by  the  church  to 
secure  a  success  or  to  Dr.  Tuttle,  and  after  an  interval  of  nearly  a  year  the  Outlook  Com- 
mittee had  found  a  minister  whom  they  desired  to  recommend  to  the  church.  A  special 
meeting  of  the  church  was  therefore  called  on  February  5,  1902,  and  the  Rev.  Nacy 
McGee  Waters,  D.  D.,  of  Binghamton,  N.  Y.,  was  the  minister  recommended.  The 
church  voted  unanimously  to  extend  the  call.  This  call,  however,  was  declined  by 
Dr.  Waters  and  the  Outlook  Committee  were  obliged  to  look  further.  It  was  not  until 
July  30,  1902,  that  a  special  meeting  of  the  church  was  called  to  listen  to  another  report 
from  the  Outlook  Committee.  At  this  meeting  they  reported  the  name  of  the  Rev. 
Frank  Crane,  D.  D.,  of  Chicago.  The  report  of  the  committee  was  accepted  and  by  a 
ballot  being  taken  the  call  was  extended  to  Dr.  Crane.  The  letter  sent  to  Dr.  Crane 
was  dated  August  i,  1902,  and  the  call  was  accepted  by  him  August  24th.  He  began  his 
labors  with  this  church  September  7,  1902,  and  was  installed  by  a  Council  October 
2ist.  He  remained  with  the  church  nearly  seven  years,  reading  his  own  resignation 
at  the  annual  reunion  January  6,  1909.  in  which  he  gave  six  months  notice  in  accordance 
with  the  contract  when  he  was  called.  At  a  meeting  of  the  church  February  10,  1909, 
it  was  voted  to  accept  his  resignation  and  on  Sunday,  June  27th,  he  preached  his  fare- 
well sermon.  Dr.  Crane  "from  Sabbath  to  Sabbath  for  nearly  seven  years  presented  the 
deepest  and  most  important  truths  in  such  a  clear  and  forcible  manner  as  to  impress 
both  young  and  old.  He  spared  not  sin  in  high  as  well  as  in  low  places.  He  brought 
to  his  people  the  results  of  incessant  study  and  thought  in  messages  enlightening, 
warning  and  full  of  inspiration."  An  Outlook  Committee  was  appointed  February  10, 
1909,  by  the  church  to  secure  a  pastor  to  succeed  Dr.  Crane.  On  the  29th  of  June  this 
committee  made  its  report  to  the  church  recommending  the  name  of  the  Rev.  Francis 
Alden  Poole,  of  Barre,  Vermont.  The  report  of  the  Outlook  Committee  was  accepted 
and  Mr.  Poole  was  given  a  unanimous  call  to  the  pastorate.  In  a  letter  from  him  dated 
July  15th,  Mr.  Poole  accepted  the  call  and  stated  that  he  would  begin  his  work  Octo- 
ber 1st.  From  October  ist,  1909,  to  October  ist,  1917,  Mr.  Poole  was  the  pastor  of 
Union  Church.  During  the  summer  of  1917  while  on  his  vacation  at  his  summer  home 
in  Vermont  he  received  a  call  to  the  South  Congregational  Church,  St.  Johnsbury, 
Vermont,  and  on  the  first  Sunday  in  September  his  resignation  from  Union  Church  was 
read.  During  his  pastorate  of  eight  years  he  established  the  free  pew  system,  had  the 
church  incorporated  so  that  the  Union  Society  was  done  away  with,  and  succeeded  in 
materially  reducing  the  church  debt.  He  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy 
during  his  pastorate.  Although  Dr.  Poole  was  not  a  strong  man  physically  he  was  a 
faithful  worker  for  the  best  interests  of  Union  Church.  Being  a  man  of  saintly  char- 
acter he  was  respected,  esteemed  and  loved  by  all  who  knew  him. 

After  an  interval  of  nearly  three  months  the  Outlook  Committee  at  a  meeting  in 
December,  1917,  recommended  the  name  of  the  Rev.  Benjamin  F.  Wyland  of  Brooklyn, 
N.  Y.,  to  succeed  Dr.  Poole  as  pastor  of  the  church.  The  church  accepted  the  report 
and  unanimously  voted  to  extend  the  call  to  Mr.  Wyland.  On  the  20th  of  December, 
Mr.  Wyland  accepted  the  call  and  began  his  labors  January  20,  1918.  He  is  a  man 
thirty-five  years  of  age  and  has  had  several  years  experience  of  church  and  pulpit  work 
at  the  Tompkins  Avenue  Congregational  Church  of  Brooklyn,  the  largest  church  of 
our  denomination  in  the  country.  He  is  the  much  loved  pastor  of  Union  Church  at 
the  present  time. 


8i2  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Memorial  Congregational  Church. — The  follo^ving  is  from  the  pen 
of  Rev.  E.  E.  Eels : 

The  Memorial  Church,  corner  of  Summer  and  Bridge  Sts.,  was  founded  by 
Ichabod  Washburn,  who  caused  its  building  to  be  erected  in  1854.  Unlike  Mr.  Wash- 
burn's other  foundations — Memorial  Hospital,  the  Home  for  Aged  Women,  the  Wor- 
cester Polytechnic  Institute  or  Mechanics'  Hall,  this  church  was  a  part  of  his  life 
work,  growing  out  of  a  Sunday  school  which  he  organized  in  Pine  Meadows  (as  the 
locality  was  then  called)   soon  after  coming  to  Worcester. 

The  object  of  the  foundation  is  set  forth  in  the  preamble  to  that  legacy  of  Mr. 
Washburn's  will,  which  reads  as  follows  : 

"Whereas  I  have  long  felt  it  was  desirable  to  devise  some  means  by  which  a 
pretty  numerous  class  of  persons  in  the  city  of  Worcester,  who  are  living  without  the 
benefits  of  moral  and  religious  instruction  and  restraint  which  grows  out  of  an  habitual 
attendance  upon  the  ministrations  of  the  gospel  should  be  supplied  with  opportunities 
and  inducements  to  enjoy  the  same. 

"And  whereas,  it  has  seemed  to  me  that  the  readiest  way  of  accomplishing  this 
purpose  would  be  to  open  for  the  use  of  all  who  may  be  disposed  to  avail  themselves 
of  the  same  a  suitable  and  respectable  place  of  worship,  etc." 

The  enterprise  was  known  as  "the  Mission  Chapel"  until  it  was  organized  into  "The 
Church  of  the  Summer  St.  Mission  Chapel,"  on  Jan.  22nd,  1865.  Up  to  this  time  its 
pastors  were  Revs.  W.  T.  Sleeper,  1855-6 ;  Samuel  Souther,  1856-63 ;  W.  P.  Reynolds, 
1863-64;  and  Mr.  Cheever  again  at  the  time  of  the  church's  organization.  Mr.  Souther 
was  the  founder  of  the  Industrial  School  in  connection  with  the  church.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  state  legislature.  He  enlisted  in  the  army  and  fell  in  the  battle  of  the 
Wilderness  May  6th,  1864.     His  widow  and  descendants  still  reside  in  Worcester. 

Mr.  Sleeper  again  became,  pastor  in  1865,  serving  till  May,  1894.  Like  his  predeces- 
sors, he  was  also  superintendent  of  the  Worcester  City  Missionary  Society  and  founded 
Lake  View  Church,  the  Church  of  the  Covenant  on  Hoten  St.,  Bethany,  and  Park 
Church.  He  was  followed  by  Rev.  O.  C.  Bailey  1894  to  1903,  John  W.  Norris,  1904,  and 
Rev.  O.  J.  Billings,  1905  to  '08. 

The  aim  of  the  present  pastor  has  been  to  restore  tho  former  intimate  relation  be- 
tween the  church  and  the  Worcester  City  Missionary  Society,  and  to  carry  out  the  far- 
sighted  purpose  of  the  founder  in  developing  a  modern  institutional  church  with  the 
pastor  residing  again  in  the  manse  connected  with  the  church  building,  to  make  it  a 
Christian  community  house  and  social  center.  The  Industrial  School  has  been  broad- 
ened into  a  varied  group  of  helpful  social  agencies  and  the  attraction  of  the  Sunday 
evening  services  has  been  increased  by  the  sacred  use  of  motion  pictures. 

Plymouth  Congregational  Church. — The  following  narrati\'e  is  con- 
tributed : 

Fourteen  young  men,  members  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  at  a 
meeting  in  Mechanics  Hall  building,  April  15.  1869,  decided  to  form  a  new  Congrega- 
tional church.  Francis  B.  Knowles  was  chairman,  Lucius  P.  Goddard,  secretary.  Oth- 
ers present  were  Henry  M.  Wheeler,  Lyman  Drury,  Charles  H.  Morgan,  Charles  G. 
Reed  and  Asa  L.  Kneeland.  Six  men  pledged  themselves  each  to  be  one  of  fifty  to 
guarantee  the  expenses.  Mr.  Knowles  was  active  in  organizing  and  arranging  for  the 
finances.  A  week  later  another  meeting  was  held  and  Rev.  R.  B.  Stratton,  pastor  of 
Old  South,  spoke  in  favor  of  the  new  church;  Deacon  Luther  Philips  presided.  It  was 
decided  to  hold  services  in  Mechanics  Hall,  and  it  was  engaged  for  Sundays  for  the 
following  year.  At  the  third  meeting  a  finance  committee  was  appointed,  viz :  Francis 
B.  Knowles  from  Union  Church  ;  Charles  G.  Reed  from  Old  South  ;  Henry  M.  Wheel- 
er from  the  Calvinist ;  David  F.  Parker  from  the  Salem  street  and  Charles  H.  Morgan 
from  the  Mission  Chapel  Church.  Moses  Church  was  afterward  added  to  the  com- 
mittee. Subscriptions  to  the  amount  of  $3,340  were  made.  E.  A.  Goodnow  gave  $500. 
At  the  next  two  meetings  the  amount  was  increased  to  $4,260. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  813 

The  first  services  were  held  in  Mechanics  Hall,  May  9,  1869,  Rev.  Dr.  Webb  being 
the  preacher.  At  the  first  session  of  the  Sunday  school  the  same  day,  over  which  Jo- 
seph B.  Knox  presided  450  persons  were  present.  Rev.  Julius  H.  Seelye  of  Amherst 
College  preached  the  following  Sunday  ;  Charles  H.  Morgan  was  elected  superintendent 
of  the  Sunday  school. 

An  agreement  to  form  a  society,  dated  May  8,  was  signed  by  seventy-one  persons, 
and  the  meeting  to  organize  was  held  May  20.  C.  B.  Metcalf  was  elected  moderator; 
Edward  M.  Rockwell,  clerk  ;  Edward  A.  Goodnow,  treasurer ;  and  Constant  Shepard, 
collector.  The  first  assessors  were  S.  R.  Heywood,  C.  B.  Metcalf,  William  P.  Daniels, 
F.  B.  Knowles  and  S.  J.  Wilcox. 

The  church  was  organized  May  13;  Charles  H.  Morgan,  presiding,  and  the  Arti- 
cles of  Faith  adopted  June  13.  It  was  voted  to  call  it  the  Sixth  Congregational  Church.  The 
council  to  recognize  the  new  church  met  in  Old  South  meeting  house  July  7,  1869,  and 
127  joined  by  profession,  67  by  letter.  At  a  church  meeting  soon  afterward,  S.  R.  Hey- 
wood was  elected  permanent  moderator ;  Charles  G.  Reed,  clerk  and  treasurer ;  P.  B. 
Gilbert  and  Jonas  White,  deacons ;  Charles  H.  Morgan,  Luther  Phillips  and  William 
F.  Fames,  standing  committee;  C.  B.  Metcalf  and  F.  B.  Knowles,  supply  committee. 

The  name  Plymouth  Church  was  adopted  August  26,  to  accord  with  the  name  of 
the  society.  A  communion  service  was  given  by  E.  A.  Goodnow  and  Mrs.  Catherine  B. 
Goodnow,  Sept.  2,  1869,  and  at  the  same  time  C.  H.  Morgan  and  Luther  Phillips  were 
elected  deacons ;  Lyman  Drury  and  F.  B.  Knowles  succeeding  them  on  the  standing 
committee.  During  the  five  years  in  which  services  were  held  in  Mechanics  Hall,  the 
congregations  were  large,  and  on  one  Sunday  the  attendance  in  the  Sunday  school 
reached  679. 

Rev.  Nelson  Millard  of  Montclair,  New  Jersey,  was  called  as  pastor,  but  he  de- 
clined. Oct.  5,  1870,  Rev.  W.  J.  Tucker,  afterward  president  of  Dartmouth  College, 
was  called  and  he  also  declined.  Rev.  B.  F.  Hamilton,  called  April  19,  1871,  declined. 
Rev.  George  W.  Phillips  of  Columbus,  Ohio,  called  Oct.  18,  1871,  accepted  on  condi- 
tion that  a  meeting  house  be  erected.  He  was  installed  Dec.  28,  1871.  Rev.  Dr.  Webb 
preached  the  installation  sermon.  Mr.  Phillips  was  a  graduate  of  Amherst  College 
and  Andover  Theological  Seminary,  and  his  ministry  was  long  and  fruitful. 

When  it  was  decided  to  build  the  new  church  at  the  Pearl  and  Chestnut  street  lo- 
cation, April  18,  1872,  those  who  favored  the  south  end,  decided  to  separate  and  es- 
tablished Piedmont  Church.  (See  Piedmont).  The  following  building  committee  was 
elected  May  16,  1872;  C.  B.  Metcalf,  Alfred  Parker,  William  L.  Clark,  William  P. 
Daniels,  John  Boyden,  W.  C.  Barbour,  Osgood  Bradley,  A.  M.  Howe,  Jonas  White, 
S.  A.  Porter,  William  F.  Fames  and  John  E.  Spaulding,  and  later  C.  H.  Morgan  and 
S.  R.  Heywood,  to  fill  vacancies.  The  cornerstone  was  laid  April  26,  1873.  The  chapel 
was  dedicated  April  19,  1874,  and  the  first  sermon  preached  there  May  2,  1874,  and  it 
was  used  for  services  until  the  church  was  completed.  The  church  was  dedicated  April 
29,  1875,  Rev.  Dr.  Alex.  McKenzie  preaching  the  sermon.  The  building  is  of  Fitwilliam 
granite,  having  a  spire  193  feet  in  height;  it  cost  $150,000;  the  main  auditorium 
seats  1250.  The  chapel  seats  800.  A.  P.  Cutting  was  the  architect ;  Jones  &  Linker, 
master  masons.  The  chime  of  bells  was  given  by  Edward  A.  Goodnow  in  memory  of 
Mrs.  Catherine  B.  Goodnow :  he  also  gave  the  organ  in  memory  of  his  only  son.  In 
1881  the  society  was  free  of  debt.  The  pews  for  which  owners  had  paid  $20,500  were 
surrendered  to  the  society  and  since  then  the  pews  have  been  free.  Since  April,  1889, 
weekly  calendars  have  been  printed. 

Mr.  Phillips  resigned  April  4,  1886.  Rev.  Arthur  Little,  D.  D.,  of  Chicago,  was 
called,  but  declined.  Rev.  Charles  Wadsworth  of  Philadelphia  was  installed  April  7, 
1887,  Rev.  Dr.  Harper  of  Philadelphia  preaching  the  sermon.  In  May,  1888,  he  re- 
signed to  accept  a  call  in  San  Francisco,  but  the  council  advised  against  accepting,  and 
he  decided  to  remain.  Edward  Grier  Fullerton  was  ordained  as  -Evangelist  June  13, 
1889,  and  became  pastor's  assistant.    Rev.  Charles  Wadsworth  resigned  Oct.  27,  1889,  on 


gj^  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


account  of  ill  health ;  his  preaching  attracted  large  congregations  and  he  drew  many 
young  people  into  the  church.  Rev.  Dr.  Noble  of  Chicago  declined  a  call  in  1889.  Rev. 
Archibald  McCullagh,  D.  D.,  of  Brooklyn,  accepted  and  began  his  ministry  Oct  5. 
1890,  being  confirmed  by  the  council  Dec.  9.  Rev.  Samuel  H.  Virgin,  his  successor,  was 
pastor  from  1900  to  1903.  Rev.  Andrew  Burns  Chalmers  became  pastor  in  1903.  He 
was  succeeded  by  the  present  pastor.  Rev.  Robert  McDonald  in  1915. 

The  church  has  six  deacons,  for  six  year  terms.  Since  1891  a  lady  visitor  has 
assisted  the  pastor;  Mrs.  L.  B.  Hoit,  the  first  visitor,  served  for  many  years. 

The  twenty-fifth  anniversary  was  celebrated  with  elaborate  exercises  beginning 
Sunday,  May  6,  1894,  and  continued  four  days,  Piedmont  Church  joining  in  the  cele- 
bration.' Rev.  Dr.  McCullagh  preached  an  historical  sermon.  The  Sunday  school  had 
its  celebration  in  the  evening.  On  Monday  evening  an  historical  sketch  of  the  church 
was  read  by  Lucius  P.  Goddard,  and  addresses  delivered  by  clergymen  of  various  de- 
nominations. There  was  a  social  reunion  on  Tuesday  evening  and  addresses  by  Rev. 
Dr.  Edwin  B.  Webb  and  Rev.  Dr.  George  W.  Phillips.  On  Wednesday  evening  there 
was  a  prayer  and  praise  service.  A  pamphlet  containing  a  report  of  all  the  proceedings 
was  afterward  published. 

The  Ladies'  Benevolent  Society  was  organized  Oct.  6,  1869,  and  the  following  of- 
ficers elected  at  the  home  of  Mrs.  P.  B.  Gilbert:  Mrs.  E.  A.  Goodnow,  Pres.;  Mrs. 
C.  B.  Metcalf,  Vice-Pres. ;  Mrs.  C.  L.  Gilbert,  Sec. ;  Sarah  L.  Phillips,  Treas.  Direc- 
tors :  Mesdames  Luther  Phillips,  H.  M.  Wheeler,  Nancy  Chapman,  P.  B.  Gilbert,  C.  H. 
Morgan.  Meetings  were  held  at  first  in  the  homes  of  members.  Afterward  Mesdames 
C.  A.  Lincoln,  C.  H.  Morgan,  D.  F.  Parker,  E.  A.  Goodnow,  Drury,  C.  G.  Reed 
and  C.  H.  Stearns  were  presidents.  This  society  contributed  very  effectively  to  raising 
the  building  fund  and  furnishing  the  church  and  chapel,  providing  carpets  and  keeping 
them  in  order ;  repairing  cushions  and  attending  to  the  housekeeping  of  the  church.  It 
has  contributed  to  educational  and  charitable  organizations  regularly.  At  the  end  of 
the  first  twenty-five  years  nearly  $30,000  had  been  raised  by  this  society,  of  which  more 
than  $15,000  was  for  the  church  building. 

Archibald  IM'CuUagh,  D.  D.,  former  pastor,  graduated  from  Princeton  in  1868, 
B.  A.,  and  graduated  from  Princeton  Theological  Seminary  in  1871.  He  was  licensed 
by  the  Presbytery  of  New  York  City  to  preach  in  1870,  and  for  three  months  supplied 
tiie  pulpit  of  Rev.  Dr.  William  Blacwood  of  Philadelphia,  and  was  afterward  asked 
to  become  his  colleague  but  declined  the  appointment.  Before  he  graduated  he  received 
unanimous  calls  from  two  churches  in  Philadelphia  and  from  the  Second  Presbyterian 
Church  of  Germantown,  and  accepted  the  last,  being  installed  May,  1871.  In  1877  he 
received  a  call  from  the  Ross  Street  Presbyterian  Church  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  and, 
after  declining  several  times,  finally  accepted,  and  began  his  work  there  April  2,  1878. 
During  his  pastorate  of  twelve  years  more  than  $200,000  was  raised  for  various  pur- 
poses in  this  church,  including  payment  of  a  church  debt  of  $50,000;  and  550  names 
were  added  to  the  church  rolls.  ,     •       o  j 

Dr.  McCullagh  became  pastor  of  Plymouth  Congregational  Church  in  1890  and 
served  with  great  success.  Not  only  as  a  preacher  but  as  an  author  Dr.  McCullagh  is 
widely  known.  He  took  rank  among  the  foremost  preachers  of  New  England.  In  his 
pastoral  work  he  made  many  friends.  He  was  tactful,  sympathetic  and  cheerful;  his 
presence  in  the  sick-room  and  the  house  of  mourning  was  always  welcome.  He  was 
pre-eminent  as  an  organizer,  and  in  managing  the  business  affairs  that  fell  to  him  in  the 
course  of  duty.  He  received  the  honorary  degree  of  D.  D.  from  the  University  of  the 
City  of  New  York.  For  a  number  of  years  after  resigning  his  pastorate  here,  he  was 
engaged  in  the  real  estate  business.  At  present  he  is  preaching  from  time  to  time.  He 
is  always  in  demand  on  public  occasions ;  few  public  speakers  have  such  a  degree  of 
popularity  and  none  hold  it  longer  in  a  community  than  has  Dr.  McCullagh. 

Robert  AlacDonald,  D.  D.,  pastor  of  Plymouth  Church  since  1915,  was  born  July 
22,  i860,  in  Liverpool.  Nova  Scotia  ;  a  graduate  from  Harvard  College.  B.  A.,  in  1894, 
and  from  Harvard  Divinity  School  the  fololwing  year.  He  received  the  degree  of  Ph.D., 
from  New  York  University  in  1910.  He  married,  in  Methuen,  Massachusetts,  Sep- 
tember 15,  1889,  Ada  Tenney,  born  in  Salem,  N.  H.,  in  1865.  Children:  Robert  T., 
born  January  23,  1893 ;  Milton  T.,  October  22,  1895 ;  Donald,  July  5,  1897 ;  Frances,  De- 
cember I,  1898. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  815 


Piedmont  Church. — The  following  is  contributed : 

It  being  the  conviction  of  the  friends  of  Congregationalism  in  Worcester  that 
the  cause  of  Christ  could  be  effectually  promoted  by  the  organization  of  a  church  in 
the  rapidly  growing  southern  section  of  the  city,  a  meeting  was  called  by  Francis  B. 
Knowles,  a  prominent  member  of  Plymouth  Church,  then  recently  organized  and 
worshipping  in  Mechanics  Hall,  April  25th,  1872.  The  proposal  was  freely  discussed 
and  favorable  action  decided  upon.  Public  notice  was  given  of  the  project  and  the 
co-operation  of  all  interested  solicited.  So  much  interest  was  manifested  that  the  site 
for  the  new  church  was  selected  July  ist,  at  the  corner  of  Main  and  Piedmont  streets, 
at  a  cost  of  $25,000.  It  being  the  seventh  organization  of  the  order  in  the  city,  the  name 
at  first  agreed  upon  was  the  Seventh  Congregational  Church ;  later  counsel,  led  to  the 
selection  of  the  name  "Piedmont,"  by  virtue  of  the  location  at  the  foot  of  Oread  hill, 
the  derivative  meaning  of  the  word  "Piedmont"  being  "at  the  foot  of  the  hill." 

The  brethren  of  the  Main  Street  Baptist  Church  offered  the  use  of  their  building 
on  afternoon  of  Sundays,  and  the  offer  was  gratefully  accepted.  Rev.  George  W. 
Phillips,  pastor  of  Plymouth  Church,  preached  the  first  sermon.  The  first  public 
service  was  held  June  2nd,  1872.  A  Sunday  school  was  organized  with  190  members ; 
Francis  B.  Knowles,  superintendent;  Charles  H.  Hutchins,  assistant. 

Building  operations  proceeded  rapidly,  and  the  chapel  was  ready  for  use  April  12, 
1874,  on  which  date  the  hospitality  of  the  Baptist  church  was  relinquished.  Until  this 
date  no  formal  organization  of  the  church  had  been  effected;  it  had  been  a  purely  vol- 
untary affair.  A  council  of  churches  was  called  Sept.  i8th,  1874,  at  the  Baptist 
Church,  at  which  legal  steps  were  taken  looking  towards  formal  organization.  Rev. 
Wm.  P.  Paine,  D.  D.,  was  moderator,  and  Rev.  George  W.  Phillips  was  scribe.  The 
council  voted  favorably  upon  the  action  of  the  new  organization,  its  confession  of 
faith  and  covenant.  Ninety-seven  were  proposed  for  charter  membership— 47  from 
Plymouth  Church,  18  from  Old  South,  14  from  Union,  4  from  Salem  street,  and  14 
from  churches  in  other  places. 

A  building  committee  of  eleven  prominent  members  of  the  new  society,  with  a 
finance  committee  of  six,  undertook  to  provide  a  new  house  of  worship.  The  corner 
stone  was  laid  Aug.  5th,  1873,  with  appropriate  exercises  under  the  general  charge  of 
Rev.  George  H.  Gould,  D.  D.  No  attempt  was  made  to  secure  a  permanent  pastor 
during  the  progress  of  the  building  enterprise,  but  Rev.  George  H.  Gould,  D.  D.,  a 
resident  minister  without  charge,  was  the  unanimous  selection  for  the  time  being.  He 
would  have  been  settled  over  the  young  organization  if  his  assent  to  such  action  could 
have  been  secured.  The  church  was  dedicated  Jan.  30,  1877.  The  first  minister  in- 
stalled (July  3,  1877)  was  Rev.  David  O.  Mears,  former  pastor  of  North  Avenue 
Congregational  Church,  Cambridge.  His  most  successful  pastorate  continued  over  six- 
teen years,  during  which  the  church  was  completed  at  a  cost  of  $125,500,  including 
furnishings;  an  indebtedness  of  $83,000  provided  for,  as  the  membership  increased  in 
numbers  and  financial  ability,  and  the  membership  was  added  to  from  year  t9  year  to 
the  total  number  of  707.  Under  the  leadership  of  Dr.  Mears  the  activities  of  the 
church  became  numerous  and  varied ;  no  general  movement  in  city  or  State  failed  to 
receive  the  active  co-operation  of  the  church  and  its  aggressive  pastor.  The  great  wave 
of  No  license  and  Anti-saloon  leagues  set  in  motion  in  the  early  eighties  was  started 
at  Piedmont  Church.  The  formation  of  the  local  Y.  W.  C.  A.  was  inspired  if  not  act- 
ually promoted  by  the  activities  of  Dr.  Mears.  Immanuel  Church  was  the  direct  re- 
sult of  the  activities  of  the  membership  under  the  lead  of  Dr.  Mears.  For  many  years 
this  branch  organazition  was  supported  and  its  equipment  furnished  by  Piedmont 
Church,  on  the  east  side  of  the  city.  The  pastorate  of  Dr.  Mears  ended  amid  universal 
regrets,  March  19,  1893.  The  farewell  reception  was  attended  by  about  one  thousand 
citizens  of  the  city  and  adjoining  towns,  denominational  lines  being  obliterated  in  this 
expression  of  appreciation. 


8i6 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


PIEDMONT  CHURCH. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  817 

Dr.  Elijah  Horr,  D.  D.,  the  next  pastor,  was  installed  June  27,  1893.  During  his 
pastorate  the  parsonage  was  purchased  at  the  corner  of  May  and  Woodland  streets. 
After  a  successful  ministry  with  the  church  Dr.  Horr  was  dismissed  by  council  June 
23,  1897.  Rev.  Willard  Scott,  D.  D.,  was  called  from  Chicago,  and  installed  Oct.  6, 
1898.  He  became  widely  known  and  influential  as  a  pulpit  orator,  and  his  occasional 
addresses  outside  of  the  pulpit  marked  him  as  a  scholar  of  aggressiveness  and  of  deep 
mental  acumen.  His  pastorate  was  distinguished  by  a  large  increase  in  membership 
and  all  the  early  traditions  of  the  church  were  maintained  and  significantly  advanced. 
He  was  dismissed  by  council  May  loth,  1909.  The  fifth  pastor,  Henry  Stiles  Bradley, 
D.  D.,  came  from  St.  John's  M.  E.  Church,  South  St.  Louis,  Oct.  3,  1909.  He  was  in- 
stalled by  council  Jan.  18,  1910.  His  pastorate  has  been  distinguished  by  the  mainte- 
nance of  the  usual  activities  of  a  vigorous  organization  of  this  type,  and  has  added 
many  new  features  to  its  religious  and  secular  endeavors.  Among  the  significant  en- 
terprises undertaken  under  his  pastorate,  are  the  entire  support  of  a  medical  mission- 
ary in  South  Africa,  undertaken  in  1910;  the  organization  of  the  men  of  the  church 
in  a  social  brotherhood ;  a  Boy  Scouts  organization  in  1910  and  since  continued ;  the 
standard  of  general  benevolences  raised  beyond  any  previous  record;  articles  of  faith 
and  a  revised  covenant  adopted,  of  such  simplified  form  as  to  give  new  emphasis  to 
church  membership  and  its  obligations.  A  new  organ  was  presented  by  a  few  of  its 
members  at  a  cost  of  nearly  $20,000;  the  sub-basement  was  transformed  into  social 
assembly  quarters.  Dr.  Bradley  headed  a  vigorous  general  civic  movement  in  protest 
against  Sunday  moving  picture  entertainments ;  a  considerable  addition  was  made  to 
.  the  church  in  1916,  providing  an  adequate  kindergarten  department  and  a  pastor's 
room,  the  gift  of  a  few  members. 

The  record  of  Piedmont  Church  for  over  40  years  has  been  particularly  strong 
along  lines  having  to  do  with  the  furtherance  of  civic  and  religious  enterprises  outside 
of  its  immediate  organization  and  which  have  ministered  to  the  broader  demands  of 
good  citizenship  and  community  welfare. 

Pilgrim  Congregational  Church. — The  history  of  this  church  begins 
with  a  Sunday  school  service  held  May  13,  1883,  at  the  home  of  Mrs. 
Fannie  H.  Mighill,  widow  of  Rev.  Nathaniel  Mighill,  former  pastor  of 
Old  South,  Hancock  street.  The  Sunday  school  organized  at  that  time 
was  made  permanent  and  chose  for  its  name  Pilgrim ;  in  seven  weeks  the 
attendance  had  reached  sixty-nine  and  the  school  afterward  met  in  the 
Woodland  street  school  house.  Arthur  E.  Gray  succeeded  Mrs.  Mig- 
hill as  superintendent,  July  8,  1883.  A  prayer  meeting  was  held  Thurs- 
day evenings  at  the  homes  of  members  of  the  school,  beginning  Nov.  8; 
then  preaching  services.  Rev.  Albert  Bryant,  superintendent  of  the 
City  Missionary  Society,  was  the  first  to  preach,  and  undertook  the 
organization  of  a  church.  At  the  end  of  the  first  year  fifty-seven  had 
joined  the  organization  to  establish  a  church,  and  a  lot  at  the  corner  of 
Main  and  Gardner  streets  had  been  given  by  Francis  B.  Knowles,  of 
Piedmont  Church,  and  Mrs.  Helen  C.  Knowles  of  Union  Church.  Rev. 
Charles  M.  Southgate  of  Dedham  was  called  as  pastor,  and  began  pas- 
toral work  Nov.  16th.  The  wooden  chapel  which  had  been  begun  in  the 
meantime,  was  first  occupied  for  worship  Jan.  24,  1885. 

Pilgrim  Church  was  received  into  the  Congregational  fellowship 
and  the  pastor  installed  March  19,  1885,  at  a  council  of  twenty-five 
churches.  At  the  second  anniversary  the  sum  of  $13,000  was  pledged  to 
W.— 1-52. 


8i8  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


build  a  new  church.  The  cornerstone  was  laid  Oct.  22,  1887,  on  the 
same  day  as  that  of  Clark  University,  and  the  trustees  and  officers  of 
the  two  institutions  attended  both  exercises  in  a  body.  Stephen  C. 
Earle  was  the  architect;  Cutting  &  Bishop,  the  contractors.  The  church 
was  dedicated  July  1,  1888,  Rev.  Dr.  George  W.  Phillips  preaching  the 
sermon.  Through  the  generosity  of  Francis  B.  Knowles,  the  old  chapel 
was  enlarged  and  refitted  for  the  use  of  the  Sunday  school,  for  social  and 
various  church  purposes.  Mr.  Knowles  not  only  gave  part  of  the  land 
and  remodeled  the  chapel,  but  he  guaranteed  the  pastor's  salary;  made 
the  largest  gift  to  the  building  fund  ;  gave  $500  to  the  organ  fund,  and 
gave  often  for  other  work  in  the  church. 

After  eleven  years,  Mr.  Southgate  resigned  to  become  pastor  of  the 
Congregational  Church  at  Auburndale,  and  was  dismissed  October  27, 
1895.  He  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Alexander  Lewis,  Ph.D.,  pastor  of  the 
New  England  Congregational  Church  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  who  began  his 
pastorate  Jan.  1,  1896.  During  the  next  eight  years  491  members  were 
received;  the  large  debt  was  greatly  reduced,  largest  contributors  being 
Loring  Coes,  Frank  P.  Knowles  and  John  M.  Russell.  Rev.  Clifton  H. 
Mix  succeeded  Mr.  Lewis  in  March,  1895,  and  in  March,  1914,  he  resigned 
on  account  of  ill  health.  His  pastorate  was  exceedingly  pleasant  and 
successful.     Rev.  George  L.  Hanscom  has  been  pastor  since  1915. 

Adams  Square  Congregational  Church.— Owing  to  the  growth  of 
the  city  in  its  vicinity,  Adams  Square  Congregational  Church  has  had  a 
very  rapid  and  healthful  development  since  it  was  established  in  1898. 
The  meeting  house  is  at  24  Burncoat  street.  The  first  pastor  was  Rev. 
John  E.  Dodge,  formerly  of  West  Boylston.  He  was  succeeded  in  1900 
by  Rev.  John  Addison  Seibert,  whose  pastorate  lasted  five  years.  From 
1905  Re-^  Percy  H.  Epler  was  pastor.  He  was  exceedingly  popular  and 
took  an  active  part  in  public  aflfairs ;  he  resigned  in  1916.  Since  1916 
Rev.  Edward  C.  Boynton  has  been  pastor. 

Park  Congregational  Church. — This  church  was  the  outgrowth  of  a 
Sunday  school  established  by  Lydia  A.  Giddings  in  1884.  In  May,  1885, 
the  first  sermon  was  preached  in  Agricultural  Hall  by  J.  F.  Lovering, 
pastor  of  Old  South.  Rev.  Dr.  A.  E.  P.  Perkins  then  took  charge,  and  in 
1886  a  chapel  was  erected  and  dedicated,  Sept.  26,  that  year.  The  site, 
Elm  and  Russell  streets,  was  the  gift  of  David  Whitcomb,  and  the  title 
of  the  property  valued  at  $9,000,  remained  for  some  years  in  the  Chy  Mis- 
sionary Society.  The  church  was  formally  constituted  Feb.  24,  1887, 
and  Rev.  George  S.  Pelton,  formerly  of  Omaha,  installed.  A  society  was 
also  organized  according  to  Congregational  custom,  but  later  the  church 
was  incorporated  under  the  State  law  Jan.  17,  1888,  and  since  then  parish 
and  church  have  been  identical.  The  present  building  was  erected  on 
the  site  of  the  original  chapel.  Rev.  Inman  L.  Wilcox  was  pastor,  1891- 
1910.  He  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  C.  F.  Hill  Crathern,  whose  pastorate 
ended  in  1915.     His  successor,  Rev.  J.  Farland  Randolph,  was  pastor  in 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  819 


1916.     Since  then  Rev.  James  Wylie,  who  came  from  England  to  accept 
the  call  to  this  church,  has  been  pastor. 

Hope    Congregational   Church. — The    following   is   principally   con- 
densed from  an  historical  pamphlet  printed  in  1915 : 

In  1856  Mr.  Anson  Bangs  of  the  Union  Church  opened  a  Sunday  school  in  the 
schoolhouse,  now  the  ell  of  the  old  school  building  on  Cambridge  street.  For  eighteen 
years  Mr.  Bangs  successfully  superintended  the  school;  the  average  attendance  dur- 
ing his  term  was  about  sixty.  In  1875  the  school  was  moved  to  the  hall  of  the  new 
school  building.     The  name  of  "Union  Sunday  School"  was  taken. 

In  1881  the  City  Missionary  Society  sent  Miss  Fannie  C.  Mason.  Through  her  in- 
fluence, preaching  services  were  held  occasionally  by  volunteers  from  city  churches. 
The  hall  had  been  made  into  a  schoolroom  and  the  Sunday  school  and  preaching  ser- 
vices were  held  in  Miss  Boyden's  room.  In  December,  1882,  the  present  chapel  was 
dedicated,  free  from  debt,  the  cost  being  about  $2,450.  Of  this  amount  $1,000  was 
raised  in  South  Worcester,  the  remainder  being  contributed  by  city  churches.  The 
deed  of  the  property  was  given  to  the  Congregational  churches — Union,  Piedmont, 
Salem  and  Plymouth — to  hold  until  such  time  as  the  organization  should  be  found 
strong  enough  to  hold  and  manage  its  own  property. 

Rev.  E.  D.  Bailey  was  the  first  pastor;  he  remained  during  1883.  After  this  there 
was  no  regular  preacher  for  a  year,  when  Rev.  Albert  Bryant  was  sent  by  the  Wor- 
cester City  Missionary  Society.  He  conducted  services  from  November,  1884,  until 
December,  1885,  when  the  church  was  organized.  At  this  time,  at  Houghton  street, 
The  Church  of  the  Covenant  was  organized  to  embrace  various  missions  in  the  city, 
under  the  care  of  the  Worcester  City  Missionary  Society.  In  connection  with  this,  the 
present  Hope  Church  was  formed  as  the  South  Worcester  Branch  of  the  Church  of  the 
Covenant.  The  following  were  the  charter  members :  Henry  Gaunt,  Mary  J.  Mee,  Ann 
E.  Foskit,  Hattie  E.  Scott,  Mary  L.  Gaunt,  Emma  G.  Hall,  Ann  E.  Coburn,  S.  Alicia 
Fay,  Lorin  Foskit,  Sarah  Jones  and  Eva  L.  Carleton,  and  on  Dec.  29,  1885,  officers  were 
elected :  Deacon,  Lorin  Fosket ;  secretary,  Mrs.  Emma  G.  Hall ;  treasurer,  Henry 
Gaunt.  Rev.  Albert  Bryant  remained  as  pastor  until  June,  1889,  when  he  resigned  his 
position  as  superintendent  of  the  City  Missionary  Society. 

On  June  18,  1889,  the  Houghton  street  branch  decided  to  dissolve  the  relationship 
between  itself  and  the  branch  missions ;  thus  the  South  Worcester  and  the  Lake  View 
Branches  were  left  to  themselves.  Up  to  September,  1889,  services  were  held  each 
Sunday  afternoon ;  thereafter  the  services  were  held  in  the  forenoon.  At  the  same 
time  an  additional  deacon,  George  Mitcheson,  was  chosen.  Mr.  Foskit  still  retained  his 
office. 

During  1888  and  1889  the  church  saw  its  hardest  times.  Few  attended  the  services 
and  money  was  scarce.  We  then  heard  of  a  young  man  who  was  attending  the  Wor- 
cester Academy  and  conducting  a  mission  on  Hacker  street,  Mr.  Joseph  Walthur.  We 
secured  his  services  as  a  supply  until  July,  1889,  when  he  became  acting  pastor.  On 
Dec.  21,  1889.  the  church  was  formally  received  by  the  Congregational  churches  of  the 
city,  and  the  name  Hope  Congregational  Church  was  adopted.  At  the  beginning  of  1890 
there  were  fifty  names  on  the  membership  list.  The  first  officers  were:  Permanent 
chairman,  Lorin  Foskit;  deacon  for  three  years,  Mr.  Foskit;  deacon  for  two  years,  Mr. 
Mitcheson ;  deacon  for  one  year,  Mr.  Holmes ;  deaconesses,  Mrs.  Sarah  Jones,  Mrs, 
Bertha  Chace  and  Mrs.  Emma  G.  Hall ;  clerk,  Mr.  Frank  Thompson ;  treasurer,  Mrs. 
Eva  L.  Carleton;  auditor,  Mr.  Lorin  Foskit;  collector,  Mr.  John  Holmes.  Standing 
Committee,  John  Holmes,  James  Gaunt,  W.  Hamilton,  George  Mitcheson,  George  Al- 
len, Lorin  Foskit,  Mrs.  Emma  Hall,  Mrs.  Nellie  Dollen ;  Pastoral  Committee,  Mrs. 
Hattie  Scott,  Mrs.  Eva  L.  Carleton,  Mr.  Henry  Norris. 


820  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


In  November  of  the  same  year  (1890),  Mr.  Walthur's  resignation  was  accepted 
with  much  regret.  Previous  to  Rev.  Mr.  Walthur's  ordination,  Rev.  W.  T.  Sleeper, 
pastor  of  the  Summer  Street  Church,  officiated  at  communion  services.  At  such  times 
the  pastor,  Mr.  Walthur,  conducted  services  at  the  Summer  Street  Church. 

On  September  i,  1891,  after  successfully  supplying  the  pulpit  for  some  time,  Rev. 
Ellsworth  W.  Phillips  was  installed  as  pastor.  Before  the  close  of  the  year,  the  church 
decided  to  build  a  new  church  edifice,  not  to  exceed  $7,000  in  cost.  The  mortgage  was 
cancelled  on  January  19,  1903. 

On  Sept.  6,  1906,  Rev.  E.  W.  Phillips,  accepted  a  call  to  Whitman,  Mass.  During 
his  pastorate  the  church  grew  from  87  to  235  members ;  the  benevolent  offerings  were 
greatly  increased;  the  church  became  self-supporting;  the  new  church  edifice  was 
erected  and  paid  for;  a  legacy  from  the  estate  of  Miss  Boyden,  one  of  the  most  loyal 
supporters  the  church  ever  had,  made  possible  the  purchase  of  the  present  parsonage. 

Rev.  Mr.  King  supplied  about  a  year;  then  we  were  fortunate  in  securing  Rev. 
Peter  McMillan  for  three  years.  The  Rev.  Frederick  B.  Kellogg,  present  pastor,  came 
in  1909.  He  resigned  Dec.  31,  1917,  to  become  pastor  of  Pilgrim  Church,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 
Under  his  pastorate  the  church  has  grown  rapidly,  making  necessary  additions  to  the 
meeting  house.  He  has  been  president  of  the  Ministers'  Club  and  active  in  the  Y.  M. 
C.  A.  and  Congregational  Club.  His  father.  Rev.  S.  G.  Kellogg,  was  for  forty  years 
in  the  Methodist  ministry  in  New  Hampshire.  He  prepared  for  college  at  the  Metho- 
dist Seminary  at  Montpelier,  and  then  studied  at  Boston  University,  Massachusetts  In- 
stitute of  Technology  and  Union  Theological  Seminary  at  New  York,  from  which  he 
was  graduated. 

For  many  years  the  Y.  P.  S.  C.  E.  has  supported  a  native  worker,  in  China,  and  the 
church  is  supporting  the  only  ordained  native  minister  in  the  district.  The  Rev.  E.  H. 
Smith,  the  American  missionary  in  charge,  says,  "Rev.  Ling  Jak  Nok  is  my  right  arm 
in  this  field."  The  Senior  Department  of  the  Sunday  school  is  keeping  a  day  school  at 
Zara,  Turkey,  in  Asia,  by  paying  the  salary  of  the  teacher.  The  Junior  C.  E.  pays  for 
four  tuition  tickets  for  poor  children  at  Harpoot,  Turkey,  in  Asia. 

In  1881  a  few  ladies  formed  a  society  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  means  for  so- 
ciety purposes  and  for  mutual  social  intercourse.  In  1883  the  Social  Union  thus  or- 
ganized had  thirty  members.  The  first  president  was  Mrs.  Cyrus  Taft.  It  was  chiefly 
through  the  work  and  influence  of  these  few  ladies  that  the  Sabbath  school  was  housed 
in  a  new  and  commodious  chapel  in  1883.  The  society  was  known  as  the  South  Wor- 
cester Social  Union.  In  honor  of  the  tenth  anniversary  of  the  Union,  in  1892,  a  re- 
ception was  tendered  to  the  pastor  and  his  wife.  Rev.  E.  W.  and  Mrs.  Phillips.  In  1892 
the  name  of  the  society  was  changed  to  the  Ladies'  Social  Union  of  Hope  Congrega- 
tional Church.  There  have  been  but  six  presidents :  Mesdames  Cyrus  Taft,  Emma  G. 
Hall,  Henry  Brown,  E.  C.  Carleton,  Mary  Goddard  and  E.  C.  Carleton.  The  following 
have  been  treasurers :  Mesdames  Frank  Moulton,  Emma  G.  Hall,  Hattie  Scott,  Ken- 
drick,  Miss  Whittaker  and  Mrs.  Ezekiel  May. 

Lakeview  Congregational  Church. — The  following  narrative  is  con- 
tributed by  Caroline  F.  Baker: 

Lake  View  Congregational  Church  came  into  existence  as  a  separate  body  Feb. 
23,  1890,  but  as  a  branch  of  the  Church  of  the  Covenant,  organized  Dec.  22,  1885,  it  had 
an  earlier  birth.  Rev.  William  T.  Sleeper,  then  a  resident  of  Lake  View,  commenced 
holding  meetings  in  the  schoolhouse  April  13,  1879,  which  were  continued  Sunday  after- 
noons through  the  summer,  and  were  soon  supplemented  by  a  Union  Sunday  school. 
During  this  summer  what  was  called  an  Evangelical  Religious  Society  was  organized 
with  trustees  to  whom  Mr.  J.  J.  Coburn  deeded  the  double  lot  on  which  the  church 
building  stands,  and  during  1880  Mr.  Sleeper  raised  the  money  by  private  subscription 
for  building  the  church.     The  first  meeting  of  any  kind  ever  held  in  this  was  for  a 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  821 

Christmas  tree,  December  25,  1880,  and  the  next  day  Rev.  G.  W.  Phillips,  of  Ply- 
mouth Church,  preached  the  first  sermon  in  the  same  room,  the  basement  being  still 
unfinished,  and  continuing  so  for  several  years. 

The  church  was  dedicated  January  30,  1881,  Rev.  George  H.  Gould  preaching  the 
sermon.  From  that  time  religious  services  and  a  Sunday  school  continued  to  be  regu- 
larly held  in  the  church,  largely  through  the  help  of  pastors  coming  down  from  the 
city  churches  Sunday  afternoons.  In  1883  the  Sunday  school  came  under  the  care  of 
Mr.  Andrew  Hamilton  as  superintendent,  who  so  continued  till  his  death  in  1887.  In 
1885  this  congregation,  with  the  one  at  South  Worcester  and  that  on  Houghton  street, 
were  under  the  care  of  Rev.  Albert  Bryant,  superintendent  of  city  missions,  and  it  was 
determined  to  organize  a  church  of  three  branches  from  these  separate  congregations. 
An  ecclesiastical  council  from  the  Congregational  churches  of  the  city  met  Dec.  22, 
1885,  to  advise  with,  and  if  thought  wise  to  organize  such  a  church.  This  being  deemed 
advisable,  six-  persons  from  the  Lake  View  congregation  became  united  in  the  Church 
of  the  Covenant.  Mr.  Andrew  Hamilton  was  elected  deacon  of  this  branch  and  con- 
tinued to  be  so  till  his  death.  The  articles  of  faith  and  covenant  common  to  the  whole 
Church  of  the  Covenant  were  approved  by  this  branch  of  it.  After  the  death  of  Dea- 
con Hamilton  in  1887,  Mr.  F.  E.  Goddard  was  chosen  to  serve  in  his  place  as  deacon. 
In  process  of  time  the  three  branches  of  the  Church  of  the  Covenant  grew  in  numbers 
and,  as  was  contemplated  in  the  first  place,  one  after  the  other  was  organized  into  a 
separate  church — the  Houghton  street  first,  followed  by  the  South  Worcester  branch 
soon  after,  and  lastly,  Feb.  23,  1890,  the  Lake  View  branch  was  organized  into  a 
separate  church. 

Pastors:  Rev.  Albert  Bryant,  Supt.  City  Missions,  Nov.,  1883,-Dec.,  1888;  Rev. 
William  G.  Tuttle,  Jan.,  1889,-Sept.,  1889;  Rev.  Wm.  S.  Kelsey,  Asst.  Pastor  of  Union 
Church,  Sept.,  1889,-Nov.,  1890;  Rev.  Lawrence  Perry,  May,  1891,-Oct.,  1891 ;  Rev.  J. 
K.  Thompson,  Nov.,  1891,-Dec.,  1892;  Rev.  John  E.  Dodge,  Apr.,  1893, -Dec,  1896; 
Rev.  John  H.  Matthews,  Jan.,  1897,-Apr.,  1903;  Rev.  A.  V.  House,  Dec,  1903, -Jan.,  191 1 ; 
Rev.  J.  L.  Sewall,  July,  1911,-Apr.,  1917. 

Bethany  Congregational  Church. — The  church  was  organized  in 
1891,  in  which  year  Rev.  Joseph  Walker  became  pastor.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded in  1892  by  Rev.  Henry  E.  Barnes.  From  1893  to  1914  Rev.  Al- 
bert G.  Todd  was  pastor.  Rev.  Frederick  K.  Brown  has  been  pastor 
since  1915.  The  place  of  worship  was  originally  on  Leicester  street,  now 
Main  street.     The  chapel  at  1189  Main  street  w^as  occupied  first  in  1892. 

Greendale  People's  Church — This  church  (Independent  Congrega- 
tional) was  organized  at  Greendale  in  1895.  The  pastors  have  been : 
Rev.  J.  Charles  Villiers,  1896-97;  Rev.  Gavin  H.  Wrght,  1898-02;  Rev. 
Samuel  B.  Haslett,  1903-16.  Rev.  J.  Farland  Randolph  was  acting  pas- 
tor in  1917. 

Hadwen  Park  Church. — For  a  dozen  years  the  City  Missionary  So- 
ciety maintained  a  Sunday  school  at  Trowbridgeville,  and  during  most  of 
the  time  furnished  preaching  services.  In  late  years  it  has  been  known 
as  Trowbridgeville  Chapel.  At  a  council  Feb.  10,  1916,  it  was  decided 
to  organize  the  Hadwen  Park  Congregational  Church.  There  were 
forty-two  charter  members,  when  the  organization  was  incorporated 
March  30,  1916.  The  church  is  on  Clover  street,  corner  of  Knox.  The 
acting  pastor  is  Rev.  Ellsworth  W.  Phillips.     In  1917  Lloyd  B.  Hibbard 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


was  superintendent  of  the  Sunday  school,  with  eighty  members.  The 
Christian  Endeavor  Society  has  36  members;  the  Ladies'  Aid  Society  90 
members. 

Tatnuck  Congregational  Church. — This  church  was  organized  in 
1908  as  the  result  of  Sunday  school  and  Christian  Endeavor  work  on  the 
part  of  several  city  churches  for  a  long  time.  It  was  a  community  move- 
ment which  Iniilt  the  building  in  11)14,  several  local  organizations  giving 
property  and  funds.  Their  very  commodious  building  stands  in  the 
centre  of  what  was  once  Tatnuck  Square,  and  affords  a  meeting  place  for 
several  organizations  not  connected  with  the  church,  as  the  Farmers' 
Club  and  the  Tatnuck  Sewing  Circle,  an  organization  with  seventy  years 
of  history.  The  church  is  in  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and  rapidly 
growing  sections  of  the  city.  Rev.  John  H.  Mathews  was  acting  pastor 
1908-10;  Rev.  Frank  J.  Lombard,  acting  pastor  1910-11;  Rev.  H.  E. 
Lombard  became  the  first  regular  pastor  in  1911,  and  was  succeeded  in 
1914  by  the  present  pastor,  Rev.  x\lbert  S.  Hawkes.  The  Woman's 
Association,  which  handles  the  women's  activities  in  the  church  and  in 
missions,  was  organized  in  1912. 

Worcester  Congregational  Club. — The  following  narrative  is  con- 
tributed : 

When  the  Worcester  Congregational  Club  was  organized,  only  three  others  were 
in  existence— the  Congregational  Club  in  Boston,  the  Essex  Ct)ngregational  Club  in 
Essex  county,  and  the  North  Bristol  Congregational  Club  in  Taunton.  The  first  steps 
towards  forming  the  club  were  taken  late  in  the  autumn  of  1874.  Upon  invitation  of 
Rev.  E.  Cutler,  D.  D.,  of  Union  Church,  a  few  gentlemen  from  each  of  the  Congrega- 
tional societies  in  Worcester,  with  others  from  neighboring  towns,  assembled  on  Nov. 
23rd  in  the  parlors  of  the  Central  Church  and  effected  a  temporary  organization  by 
the  choice  of  Dr.  Cutler  as  chairman  and  Charles  E.  Stevens  as  secretary.  Subse- 
quent meetings  were  held ;  a  constitution  and  by-laws  were  adopted,  and  the  club  was 
constituted.  The  first  annual  meeting  was  held  in  the  Bay  State  House,  Monday,  Jan. 
18,  1875,  and  a  permanent  organization  was  effected  by  election  of  officers.  The  num- 
ber of  members  on  the  roll  at  this  meeting  was  71,  all  of  whom,  however,  did  not  per- 
fect their  membership,  and  the  number  of  full  members  at  the  close  of  the  same  year 
was  87. 

The  place  of  meeting  was  in  hotels,  halls  and  church  chapels,  the  club  finally  set- 
tling upon  the  Association  building.  Since  Association  Hall  has  passed  out  of  the 
hands  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  the  meetings  have  been  held  in  the 
main  dining  room  of  the  State  Mutual  Restaurant.  Later  at  Washburn  Hall,  now  at 
the  Bancroft. 

In  April,  1878,  the  membership  was  limited  to  135 ;  this  was  enlarged  to  175  in 
April,  1882;  in  January,  1891,  it  was  enlarged  to  200;  and  again  in  January,  1897,  it  was 
enlarged  to  225.  On  January  16,  191 1,  it  was  voted  to  fix  the  limit  of  membership  at 
250,  where  it  now  stands. 

In  1915  the  club  published  a  pamphlet  containing  a  history  with  a  list  of  the 
speakers  and  their  subjects.  Many  of  the  addresses  have  been  of  high  educational  value 
and  most  of  them  interesting  and  instructive.  The  speakers  have  been:  Revs.  Dr.  E. 
Cutler,  J.  E.  Fullerton,  Stacy  Fowler,  C.  M.  Lamson ;  Hon.  P.  Emory  Aldrich ;  Revs. 
DeWitt  S.  Clark,  Dr.  Seth  Sweetser,  A.  P.  Marvin,  A.  H.  Coolidge;  Messrs.  C.  O. 
Thompson,  B.  D.  Allen ;  Rev.  Dr.  A.  E.  P.  Perkins ;  Hartley  Williams,  Chas.  E.  Stev- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  823 

ens;  Revs.  H.  P.  DeForest,  G.  H.  DeBevoise,  Geo.  W.  Phillips;  A.  G.  Biscoe;  Revs. 
Geo.  M.  Howe,  J.  H.  Windsor,  Dr.  D.  O.  Mears,  J.  L.  Ewell,  Dr.  Daniel  Merriman, 
A.  B.  Emmons;  Geo.  I.  Alden,  W.  H.  Briggs;  Rev.  Chas.  Wetherby;  F.  W.  Russell, 
Edward  P.  Smith ;  Revs.  W.  DeLoss  Love,  J.  L.  Scudder ;  Edward  Whitney ;  Revs. 
Dr.  S.  L.  Blake,  J.  F.  Gaylor,  H.  A.  Stimson,  T.  F.  Levering;  C.  T.  Symmes ;  Prof. 
Egbert  C.  Smyth,  D.  D.,  of  Andover;  Rev.  E.  H.  Byington ;  Prof.  Timothy  Dwight, 
LL.D.,  of  Yale;  Rev.  Geo.  A.  Putnam;  Homer  T.  Fuller,  Ph.  D.,  Henry  M.  Smith; 
Revs.  H.  A.  Stimson,  C.  P.  Blanchard;  Jos.  A.  Dodge;  Revs.  G.  S.  Dodge,  A.  Bryant; 
Prof.  Benj.  C.  Blodgett;  Revs.  S.  P.  Wilder,  W.  T.  Sleeper;  Geo.  W.  Cable,  Wm.  T. 
Forbes ;  Revs.  A.  H.  Coolidge,  C.  M.  Southgate,  Caleb  T.  Symmes,  Frank  H.  Allen ; 
Prof.  John  B.  Clark;  Burton  W.  Potter;  Revs.  Sylvanus  Hayward,  L  J.  Lansing,  B.  A. 
Robie,  Dr.  G.  H.  Gould,  J.  F.  Gaylord,  Dr.  W.  V.  W.  Davis ;  Edwin  H.  Baker ;  Revs. 
F.  B.  Makepeace,  W.  F.  Crafts,  Marshall  M.  Cutter,  Dr.  Graham  Taylor,  Alfred  T. 
Perry,  Edward  G.  Fullerton ;  A.  W.  Edson,  T.  M.  Balliet,  Amos  Armsby ;  Revs.  O.  P. 
Gififord,  Dr.  A.  McCullagh ;  G.  Henry  Whitcomb ;  Revs.  Dr.  A.  Z.  Conrad,  John  L. 
Scudder,  J.  Winthrop  Hegeman  ;  Robert  Woods,  Samuel  B.  Capen ;  Revs.  Hugh  Mont- 
gomery, Daniel  Merriman;  S.  C.  Willis,  Jr.;  Revs.  Albert  Bryant,  Percy  S.  Grant; 
Hon.  Geo.  F.  Hoar;  Revs.  Dr.  C.  L.  Thompson,  Dr.  Elijah  Horr,  Dr.  Geo.  A.  Gordon, 
W.  D.  P.  Bliss,  Geo.  P.  Eastman,  Dr.  A.  T.  Pierson,  J.  E.  Hurlbut;  Miss  O.  M.  E. 
Rowe,  Chas.  Carleton  Coffin,  Chas.  F.  Carroll ;  Rev.  Dr.  John  Hall,  T.  G.  Mendenhall, 
LL.D.,  P.  W.  Moen;  Revs.  W.  B.  Oleson,  Dr.  Josiah  Strong,  C.  M.  Southgate;  M.  M. 
Taylor ;  Rev.  F.  F.  Emerson,  E.  R.  Goodwin,  Sherman  W.  Brown,  Geo.  H.  Mellen, 
L.  C.  Muzzy,  W.  H.  Bartlett,  L.  P.  Goddard,  Dr.  E.  A.  Murdock,  Edgar  E.  Thomp- 
son, Jesse  Allen ;  Revs.  Dr.  Edward  L.  Clark,  Stephen  B.  L.  Penrose,  Dr.  A.  H.  Brad- 
ford, W.  W.  Jordan,  Dr.  Wallace  Nutting,  H.  A.  Blake,  Dr.  Eldridge  Mix,  Dr.  Chas. 

E.  Jefferson;  Dr.  John  E.  Tuttle,  John  E.  Sewall,  Dr.  Geo.  F.  Pentecost;  Mrs.  Alice 
Freeman  Palmer;  Revs.  Dr.  A.  F.  SchaufBer,  Alex.  Lewis,  Dr.  W.  H.  Harris;  F.  O. 
Winslow,  William  Woodward ;  Revs.  Dr.  Chas.  M.  Allen,  Dr.  David  J.  Burrill,  Dr.  Wil- 
lard  Scott,  A.  J.  F.  Behrends,  Frank  L.  Goodspeed,  David  M.  Means;  Prof.  Wm.  H. 
Ryder;  Rev.  N.  Dwight  Hillis ;  Arthur  R.  Kinball,  Thomas  J.  Gargan ;  Rev.  Amos 
H.  Coolidge;  Amos  R.  Wells;  Dr.  John  C.  Berry;  Rev.  Dr.  John  H.  Barrows;  Prof. 
Edwin  A.  Grosvenor,  Prof.  Williston  Walker ;  Rev.  Dr.  A.  E.  Dunning,  Rev.  Dr. 
Samuel  H.  Virgin,  Rev.  A.  W.  Hitchcock ;  Booker  T.  Washington ;  Revs.  Dr.  Edwin 
P.  Parker,  J.  F.  Gaylord;  John  A.  Sherman,  C.  Henry  Hutchins,  G.  Stanley  Hall, 
LL.D. ;  Revs.  S.  Parkes  Cadman,  Dr.  Frank  Crane ;  John  S.  Gould ;  Rev.  Joseph  W. 
Cochran;  Helen  M.  Cole;  Rev.  Francis  J.  Van  Horn;  E.  W.  Wilder,  Homer  P. 
Lewis,  Frank  H.  Robson,  J.  Chauncey  Lyford,  E.  H.  Russell,  Louis  Elson,  Albert  M. 
Shattuck,  M.  D. ;  Rev.  Chauncy  Hawkins ;  Prof.  W.  H.  Burnham ;  Rev.  Dr.  John 
W.  Platner;  Geo.  P.  Morris;  Rev.  Andrew  B.  Chalmers;  S.  B.  Carter;  Revs.  F.  E. 
Emrich,  Dr.  Reuben  A.  Beard,  Dr.  Chas.  C.  Hall,  W.  E.  Darby,  B.  F.  Trueblood,  Arte- 
mas  J.  Haynes ;  Clinton  Alvord,  M.  P.  Higgins,  James  Logan ;  Revs.  John  L.  Evans, 
Thos.  E.  Babb ;  John  F.  Tobin,  Hon.  David  J.  Brewer ;  Rev.  Dr.  William  E.  Griffis, 
Rev.  Percy  H.  Epler;  Robert  S.  Gailey,  Rev.  Chas.  L.  Close;  Prof.  John  Duxberry; 
Rev.  Dr.  Washington  Gladden;   Prof.  George  E.  Gardner;   Rev.  Clifton  H.  Mix;   Prof. 

F.  C.  Sumicharst;  Rev.  Dr.  John  J.  McCoy;  Prof.  Hugh  Block;  Rev.  Lyman  Abbott, 
Hon.  E.  C.  Potter;  Rev.  E.  G.  Zellars ;  Rev.  Nacy  McGee  Waters,  Rev.  J.  H.  Mat- 
thews, Rev.  Dr.  E.  P.  Drew,  Rev.  Samuel  McComb ;  Dr.  E.  H.  Trowbridge,  Hon. 
Geo.  B.  Utter ;  Rev.  Rockwell  H.  Potter ;  Gov.  John  L.  Bates,  Geo.  C.  Whitney,  Chas. 
N.  Prouty,  E.  T.  Chapin,  W.  M.  Spaulding,  Richard  Watson  Gilder,  Jacob  A.  Riis; 
Revs.  Dr.  Chas.  H.  Parkhurst,  Peter  McMillan;  Prof.  Edward  A.  Steiner;  Revs. 
Dr.  F.  W.  Gunsaulus,  Dr.  Henry  C.  King,  Dr.  Nehemiah  Boynton,  Dr.  Henry  S. 
Bradley,  Dr.  Charles  R.  Brown;  Hon.  Leslie  M.  Shaw;  Revs.  Dr.  Gains  G.  Atkins,  Dr. 
Newell  D.  Hillis,  John  L.  Kilborn ;  Gustatvus  J.  Esselen,  Jr. ;  Rev.  Edward  M.  Noyes ; 
Drs.  George  Hodges,  Cornelius  H.   Patton,  Dr.  Ernest  F.  Nichols;  Rev.  Dr.  James 


824  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

B.  Gregg;  Prof.  William  Pickens;  Rev.  Jesse  Halsey;  Hon.  A.  J.  Beveridge,  Hon. 
Samuel  W.  McCall,  P.  P.  Claxton,  Robert  A.  Woods,  Hon.  Simeon  D.  Fess,  Hon. 
John  W.  Weeks ;  Rev.  Dr.  Raymond  Calkins. 

Presidents.— Rev.    E.    Cutler,    D.    D.,    1875-76;     Philip    L.    Aloen,    1877-78;     Rev. 

C.  M.  Lamson,  1879;  C.  O.  Thompson,  1880-81;  Rev.  A.  P.  Marvin,  1882;  Samuel 
R.  Heywood,  1883;  Edward  Whitney,  1884-85;  G.  Henry  Whitcomb,  1886-87;  Rev.  A. 
H.  Coolidge,  1888;  Arthur  M.  Stone,  1889-90;  Rev.  Geo.  H.  Gould,  1891 ;  Rev.  I. 
J.  Lansing,  1892;  W.  T.  Forbes,  1893;  Rev.  C.  M.  Southgate,  1894;  Chas.  A.  Denny, 
1895;   Rev.  A.  McCullagh,  D.  D.,  1896;    C.  Henry  Hutchins,  1897;    Rev.  A.  Z.  Conrad, 

D.  D.,  1898;  James  Logan,  1899;  Rev.  Geo.  P.  Eastman,  1900;  John  C.  Berry,  M.  D., 
190 1  ;  Rev.  Alexander  Lewis,  1902;  Clarence  F.  Carroll,  1903;  Geo.  L  Alden,  1903; 
Rev.  John  A.  Thurston,  1904;  John  S.  Gould,  1905;  Rev.  A.  W.  Hitchcock,  1906; 
Frank  H.  Robson,  1907-8;  Rev.  A.  B.  Chalmers,  D.  D.,  1909;  Charles  F.  Marble,  1910; 
Rev.  Edward  P.  Drew,  D.  D.,  1911 ;  Charles  E.  Burbank,  1912;  Rev.  Percy  H.  Epler, 
1913;  Hon.  Clarence  W.  Hobbs,  Jr.,  1914;  Rev.  Francis  A.  Poole,  1915;  Elmer  C.  Pot- 
ter, 1916;  Rev.  H.  S.  Bradley,  1917;  Julius  Garst,  1918. 

Vice-Presidents. — Philip  L.  Moen,  1875-76 ;  C.  L.  Swan,  1875-76 ;  Rev.  C.  M.  Lamson, 
1877-78;  Sam.  M.  Lane,  1877;  Arthur  G.  Biscoe,  1878;  L.  J:  Knowles,  1879 ;  J.  L.  Bush, 
1879-80-81;    Geo.  H.  Gould,  D.  D.,  1880-81;    William  R.  Hill.  1882;    Dan'l  Merriman, 

D.  D.,  i882-'94;    Rev.  G.  H.  DeBevoise,  1883;    Samuel  E.  Hildreth,  1883;    Charles  E, 
Stevens,   1884-85;    Rev.  A.   H.   Coolidge,   1884-5,   '87;    Rev.   Henry   A.   Stimson,    1886 
Rev.  J.  L.  Ewell,  1886-87;    P.  Emory  Aldrich,  1888;    Arthur  M.  Stone,  1888;    Rev.  I 
J.  Lansing,   1889-90;  W.   T.   Forbes,   1889-92;   Chas.  A.   Denny,    1890-91;   Rev.   C.   M 
Southgate,   1891-92;   Rev.   W.  V.  W.   Davis,   D.   D.,   1893;   William  Woodward,    1893 
George  K.  Nichols,  1894;    Rev.  A.  McCullagh,  D.  D.,  1895;    G.  Henry  Hutchins,  1895 
Rev.  A.  Z.  Conrad,  D.  D.,   1896;    L.  L.  Whitney,   1896;    Sherman  W.   Brown,   1897 
James  Logan,  1897-98;    Rev.   Geo.  P.   Eastman,   1898;    Rev.  Alexander  Lewis,    1899 
Homer  P.  Lewis,  1899-1900;  Rev.  I.  L.  Willcox,  1900;  Charles  N.  Prouty,  1901 ;  W 
T.  Forbes,  1901  ;    Henry  H.  Merriam,  1902;    Rev.  A.  W.  Hitchcock,  1902;    George  I 
Alden,  1903;    John  S.  Gould,  1903-04;    Rev.  F.  J.  Van  Horn,  D.  D.,  1904;    Willis  E 
Sibley,  1905 ;    George  L.  Brownell.  1905 ;    Rev.  A.  B.  Chalmers,  D.  D.,  1906 ;    Rev.  J 
J.  Walker,  1906;    Henry  H.  Merriam,  1907,  1908;    Rev.  C.  H.  Mix,  1907,  1908;    M.  P 
Higgins,  1909 ;  Rev.  E.  P.  Drew,  D.  D.,  1909 ;  Rev.  Shepherd  Knapp,  1910 ;   Hon.  Elmer 
C.  Potter,  1910;    Paul  B.  Morgan,  191 1;    Rev.  G.  H.  Cummings,  191 1;    Rev.  John  L. 
Sewall,  1912;    Hon.  Charles  N.  Prouty,  1912;    Rev.  Henry  S.  Bradley,  D.   D.,   1913; 
George  F.  Booth,  1913;   Rev.  Francis  A.  Poole,  1914;    Hon.  Julius  Garst,  191 1. 

Secretaries. — Charles  E.  Stevens,  1875-77;  Edward  P.  Smith,  1878-79;  Rev.  Geo. 
W.  Phillips,  1880;  C.  Henry  Hutchins,  1881-82;  Henry  M.  Smith,  1883;  Charles  F. 
Mann,  1884-86;  F.  W.  Southwick,  1887;  U.  W.  Cutler,  1888;  F.  W.  Ruggles,  1889; 
W.  P.  Rowell,  1890-92;  Elmer  G.  Tucker,  1893-96;  A.  W.  Edson,  1897;  C.  W.  White, 
1898;  Geo.  L.  Brownell,  1899;  Geo.  W.  Mackintire,  1900-01;  John  W.  Higgins,  1902- 
06;  Fred  L.  Willis,  1907,  1908;  Elmer  G.  Tucker,  1909-13;  J.  Harvey  Curtis,  1914; 
George  F.  Booth,  1913;  Rev.  Francis  A.  Poole,  1914;  Hon.  Julius  Garst,  1914. 

Treasurers. — G.  Henry  Whitcomb,  1875-79;  Charles  A.  Lincoln,  1880-82;  Edwin 
Eldred,  1883 ;  Arthur  M.  Stone.  1884-86 ;  George  H.  Estabrook,  1887 ;  William  Wood- 
ward, 1888;  A.  C.  Munroe,  1889;  E.  M.  Bond,  1890-91;  Clinton  AL  Dyer,  1892-1901  ; 
A.  H.  Stone,  1902;  H.  Ward  Bates,  1903-05;  Frank  A.  Drury,  1506;  Dana  M.  Dustan, 
1907-1915;    Thos.  Macduff,  1916-17-18. 

Auditors. — Joseph  B.  Adams,  1875-76;  S.  R.  Heywood,  1877;  Hartley  Williams, 
1878-81  ;  George  L  Alden,  1882 ;  Arthur  E.  Gray,  1883 ;   C.  H.  Hutchins,  1884-85 ;   Thos. 

E.  N.  Eaton,  1886;  Chas.  A.  Peabody,  M.  D.,  1887;  Charles  H.  Morgan,  1888;  William 
Woodward,  1889;  Amos  Armsby,  1890;  E.  H.  Baker,  1891  ;  H.  F.  Wing,  1892;  Ben- 
jamin Brierly,  1893;    S.  C.  Willis,  Jr.,  1894;    A.  W.  Edson,  1895;    H.  P.  Starr,  1896; 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  825 

A.  L.  Joslin,  1897;  Arthur  E.  Gray,  1898;  Wilber  W.  Hobbs,  1899;  A.  L.  Fisher, 
1900;  E.  E.  Howe,  1901-17;  Joseph  A.  Dodge,  1902;  J.  D.  Gregory,  1903-04;  Geo. 
W.  Mackintire,  1905-13 ;    Edward  C.  Whitney,  1914-16. 

Speakers. — Prof.  Edward  C.  Moore,  D.  D. ;  Hon.  Stephen  Panaretoff,  Bulgarian 
Minister  to  U.  S. ;  Amos  P.  Wilder,  former  Consul-General  at  Shanghai,  China ;  Prof. 
Albert  Bushnell  Hart,  of  Harvard  University;  Prof.  Edward  A.  Steiner,  of  Grinnell 
College,  la.;  Prof.  John  Winthrop  Piatner,  of  Andover  Theo.  Seminary;  Dr.  Howard 
W.  Beal,  of  Worcester;  Rev.  Chas.  E.  Jefferson,  D.  D.,  of  New  York;  F.  A.  Upham, 
of  Three  Rivers,  Mass. ;  Hon.  Herbert  Knox  Smith,  of  Hartford,  Conn. ;  Prof.  Al- 
bert E.  Bailey,  of  Worcester;  Hamilton  S.  Conant,  of  Boston;  Margaret  Slattery; 
Rev.  James  Wylie,  D.  D.,  of  Worcester;  Rev.  Albert  Parker  Fitch,  D.  D.,  Pres.  An- 
dover Theo.  Sem. ;  Rev.  Hugh  Black,  D.  D.,  of  New  York ;  Rev.  Frederick  Lynch,  D. 
D.,  of  New  York;  Robert  E.  Speer,  D.  D.,  of  New  York;  Dr.  Eugene  A.  Crockett,  of 
Boston. 


826 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


FIRST  BAPTIST  CHURCH. 


CHAPTER   LIII 

Baptist     Church — The     First — Main     Street — Pleasant     Street — Dewey 
Street — Lincoln    Square — Newton    Square — South    Church — Adams 
Square — Greendale — Quinsigamond — Oak  Hill — First  Free- 
will— City  Mission  Board — Jamesville — City  Mission 
Board — Missions — Social  Union 

First   Baptist  Church. — The  following  narrative   is  contributed  by 
Mr.  Arthur  J.  Bean,  clerk  of  the  church: 

The  First  Baptist  Church  of  Worcester  was  the  third  organized  body  of  wor- 
shippers in  the  town,  and  in  its  early  days  met  active  opposition  from  the  First  or 
town  church,  now  known  as  the  Old  South  Congregational ;  while  the  Second,  or 
Unitarian  church,  possibly  remembering  its  own  struggle  in  1785,  was  more  friendly 
to  the  new  organization.  The  only  Baptists  known  here  in  colonial  times  were  brought 
by  the  constables  of  neighboring  towns  to  be  held  in  jail  for  non-payment  of  their 
ministerial  rates. 

In  1795  came  James  Wilson,  from  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  England.  He  was  an  ardent 
Baptist,  having  left  England  to  enjoy  religious  freedom,  and  became  active  in  mis- 
sionary endeavor.  Occasional  meetings  were  held  by  itinerant  elders  at  the  house  of 
Mr.  Wilson.  The  first  converts  were  baptized  in  May,  1812,  and  the  whole  Baptist  en- 
deavor was  carried  on  as  a  mission  under  the  care  of  the  Baptist  church  at  Tiverton, 
R.  I.,  whence  came  the  first  pastor  of  the  local  church,  Rev.  William  Bentley,  who  settled 
here  in  the  summer  of  181*2  to  be  the  resident  preacher  at  a  salary  of  $300  per  year. 
On  Dec.  9,  1812,  the  church  was  formally  organized  with  twenty-eight  members,  four- 
teen each  of  men  and  women.  The  young  church  grew  rapidly,  and  the  first  meeting 
house  was  built  at  Salem  Square  at  a  cost  of  $2,459.31,  being  opened  for  worship,  Dec. 
23,  1813.  Because  of  the  small  number  of  Baptist  churches  in  this  vicinity,  the  new 
church  was  made  a  part  of  the  Warren  Association  and  so  continued  for  some  years. 

In  June,  1815,  Pastor  Bentley  resigned,  and  in  September  following  the  church 
called  Rev.  Jonathan  Going.  On  assuming  his  pastoral  duties  in  December,  he  began 
to  build  foundations  that  yet  remain  in  the  policies  and  methods  of  the  church.  In 
1816  Elder  Going  organized  the  Sabbath-school,  the  first  in  Worcester  county.  He  was 
especially  active  in  temperance  work,  being  considered  a  most  radical  extremist  in 
those  days. 

June  8,  1819,  the  Legislature  granted  an  act  of  incorporation  to  the  Baptist  Society 
in  Worcester,  it  not  being  until  then  a  legal  corporate  body.  From  the  beginning,  a 
society  had  charge  of  the  place  of  worship  and  of  the  raising  of  money  for  payment 
of  its  pastor  and  other  expenses.  This  society  now  became  the  corporate  body  for  le- 
gal purposes,  and  was  distinct  from  its  church  proper,  which  embraced  only  baptised 
believers. 

Pastor  Going  was  a  man  of  great  powers  of  organization,  and  to  him  must  be 
given  the  credit  for  forming  in  1819  the  Worcester  Baptist  Association.  He  also 
called  the  meeting  from  which  resulted  what  is  now  known  as  Worcester  Academy. 
One-half  of  the  first  funds  for  this  school  were  given  by  members  of  the  First  Bap- 
tist Church.  In  1816  Dr.  Going  introduced  a  custom  since  maintained  by  the  church 
of  giving  in  a  systematic  manner  for  benevolent  purposes.  In  1826  the  church  build- 
ing was  enlarged,  and  forty  pews  were  added  in  a  manner  much  more  efficient  than 
beautiful.    A  tower  was  also  added,  and  a  bell  hung  therein.     Dr.  Going  resigned  in 


828 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


December,  1831,  to  become  corresponding  secretary  of  the  American  Baptist  Home 
Mission  Society,  which  had  been  founded  through  his  efforts. 

The  pastorate  of  Rev.  Frederick  A.  Willard,  who  succeeded  Dr.  Going,  was  three 
and  a  half  years,  and  that  of  Rev.  Jonathan  Aldrich,  the  next  pastor,  was  two  and  a 
half  years.  Both  these  pastorates  were  marked  by  intense  revivals,  93  baptisms  being 
reported  in  1832,  the  first  year  of  Mr.  Willard's,  while  79  united  in  1837,  the  first  year 
of  Mr.  Aldrich's  pastorate. 

The  church  had  now  become  "very  large"  and  it  was  decided  to  build  in  a  new 
location  and  form  two  churches.  In  April,  1836,  the  Elm  St.  Baptist  Society  was  in- 
corporated and  preparations  were  made  to  build  upon  the  lot  where  the  church  of  the 
Unity  now  stands,  when  on  May  21.  1836,  the  First  Church  building  and  contents  were 
burned,  supposedly  by  an  incendiary.  There  was  no  insurance,  and  the  proposed  divi- 
sion was  abandoned.  The  new  building,  erected  at  a  cost  of  $17,000,  was  dedicated  in 
October,  1836,  and  is  still  standing  on  the  site  at  Salem  Square. 


SALEM  SQUARE   ("BAPTIST  HILL"), 
Showing  Church  and  Brick  School  House  at  the  foot  of  the  Common. 

Rev.  Samuel  B.  Swain  was  pastor  from  April,  1839,  to  May,  1854,  and  his  pastor- 
ate was  one  of  power  in  his  church,  the  town,  and  the  denomination.  In  1841,  67  mem- 
bers were  dismissed  to  form  the  Second  Baptist  Church,  known  as  the  Pleasant  St. 
Church,  and  thirty  other  members  were  soon  after  dismissed  \q  the  new  body.  Rapid 
growth  marked  both  bodies  ;  and  in  1844  the  First  Church  again  enlarged  the  build- 
ing and  a  baptistry  was  installed.  Previous  to  this,  baptisms  had  been  made  usually  in 
Flagg's  pond,  where  St.  John's  Church  now  stands  on  Temple  street,  or  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  old  Crompton  Mill.  In  a  few  instances  the  ordinance  was  observed  at  Salis- 
bury's Pond,  and  also  at  a  place  near  the  corner  of  Thomas  and  Union  streets.  In  1853 
the  pews  in  the  First  Church  were  held  as  private  property,  and  more  than  $10,000  was 
raised  to  purchase  these  rights,  and  all  but  one  or  two  were  thus  acquired.  A  rental 
system  was  then  established. 

Rev.  J.  D.  E.  Jones,  pastor  from  1855  to  1859,  resigned  to  become  superintendent 
of  public  schools.    He  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Lemuel  Moss,  who  was  pastor  from  Au- 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  829 

gust,  i860,  to  July,  1864.  On  December  9,  1862,  the  church  celebrated  its  fiftieth  anni- 
versary, the  address  being  given  by  Hon.  Isaac  Davis,  a  notable  benefactor  of  the 
church,  its  historian,  and  a  munificent  contributor.     His  address  was  printed. 

Rev.  H.  K.  Pervear  was  pastor  from  April,  1865,  to  December,  1872,  and  the  church 
had  so  marked  a  growth  that  the  meeting  house  was  enlarged  in  1868-69  at  a  cost  of 
$13,000.  In  the  plans  for  church  work  are  to  be  noted  a  church  census,  and  other  very 
advanced  means  of  evangelistic  endeavor. 

The  ninth  pastor,  B.  D.  Marshall,  D.  D.,  began  his  labors  in  April,  1873.  This 
pastorate  marked  an  interval  in  church  life  that  has  been  called  the  family  period,  as  it 
was  especially  a  time  for  the  cultivation  of  the  home  people  and  the  children  of  the 
parish.  Much  missionary  work  was  done  and  several  of  the  endowment  funds  of  the 
church  were  established  to  further  special  features.  Missions  were  established  and 
maintained  at  Quinsigamond  (1875),  Lincoln  Square  (1879),  Greendale  and  Valley 
Falls  (1876).  Dr.  Marshall  resigned  in  April,  1887. 

In  January,  1888,  Rev.  George  G.  Craft  became  pastor  and  served  until  October, 
1894.  In  1889  the  building  was  renovated  and  a  new  organ  installed.  In  1891  the  mis- 
sion at  Quinsigamond  was  organized,  as  a  branch  church.  Rev.  Mr.  Craft  resigned  in 
November,  1894,  being  succeeded  in  January,  1896,  by  Spencer  B.  Meeser,  D.  D.,  under 
whose  pastorate  the  church  reached  its  largest  membership  at  Salem  Square,  having 
531  members  in  1897,  the  same  year  that  saw  the  change  of  the  Greendale  mission  into 
another  independent  church.  In  1902  Dr.  Meeser  resigned  to  accept  a  call  to  Cleveland, 
Ohio. 

After  Dr.  Messer  left,  steps  wer6  taken  to  again  unite  into  one  body  the  First 
Church  and  the  Main  St.  Church,  and  in  June,  1902,  the  final  union  was  made,  the  first 
service  being  on  Children's  Sunday,  when  as  a  body  the  old  First  Church  went  to  the 
Main  street  edifice.  The  consolidated  church  called  as  its  first  pastor.  Dr.  Lemuel  Call 
Barnes,  who  began  his  work  in  November,  1902.  Land  was  bought  on  Main  street  at 
the  corner  of  Ionic  avenue,  and  the  present  new  stone  building  was  erected,  the  corner 
stone  being  laid  in  December,  1905 ;  the  first  service  was  held  in  the  vestry  in  April, 
1907,  and  the  dedication  took  place  October  27,  1907.  The  entire  cost  of  land  and 
buildings  were  slightly  more  than  $200,000.  Funds  were  obtained  from  the  sale  of  both 
the  old  meeting  houses,  and  by  subscriptions,  the  largest  individual  gift  being  $50,000  re- 
ceived from  William  H.  Dexter. 

Dr.  Barnes  resigned  in  February,  1908,  to  become  field  secretary  of  the  American 
Baptist  Home  Mission  Society,  leaving  a  church  strongly  organized  in  all  respects. 
The  membership  at  this  time  was  834  in  the  main  church,  while  three  branches  at  Bea- 
con St.,  Jamesville  and  Manchaug,  brought  the  total  enrollment  to  1,071.  During  Dr. 
Barnes'  pastorate  over  500  names  were  added  to  the  church  rolls. 

After  an  interval  without  a  pastor,  Rev.  AUyn  King  Foster  assumed  the  office 
in  November,  1909,  and  until  December,  1915,  he  occupied  the  pulpit  of  what  has  been 
called  the  most  strategic  of  any  Baptist  church  in  New  England.  In  1913  the  entire 
mortgage  indebtedness  of  about  $40,000  was  paid.  Mr.  Foster  resigned  in  December, 
191S,  having  accepted  a  call  to  a  Brooklyn,  (N.  Y.)  pulpit. 

The  centennial  celebration  of  the  church  was  observed  during  the  week  beginning 
November  10,  1912.  On  SuViday,  Dr.  Barnes  and  Dr.  Spencer  B.  Meeser  preached. 
A  family  gathering  was  held  Monday  evening,  attended  by  500,  and  addressed  by  form- 
er pastors  Craft,  Pendleton,  Thomas,  Bakeman ;  Charles  H.  Moss,  son  of  Lemuel,  a 
former  pastor,  and  F.  B.  Cressy,  grandson  of  another  pastor.  On  Tuesday  evening  a 
great  gathering  of  the  Young  People's  societies  of  the  city  was  addressed  by  Rev. 
Allen  A.  Stockdale  of  Boston.  All  Baptist  churches  omitted  Wednesday  evening 
prayer  meetings  to  unite  with  the  church  in  a  meeting  at  which  Rev.  Dr.  F.  W.  Padel- 
ford  and  Rev.  Dr.  Weeks  were  the  speakers.  On  Thursday  there  was  a  conference  of 
Boy  Workers  under  Ernest  R.  Whitman ;  on  Friday  Rev.  S.  Parkes  Cadman  spoke  at 
a  great  interdenominational  meeting.     (See  Worcester  Mag.  Dec,  1912). 


830  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

In  October,  1916,  the  present  pastor,  Rev.  William  Roy  McNutt,  began  his  service 
and  the  church  is  well  entered  on  a  phase  of  activity  that  may  well  be  called  institutional 
in  character.  The  present  membership  is  906  in  the  main  church,  while  the  branches 
bring  the  total  to  1103.  The  yearly  budget  includes  $14,000  for  local  work  and  support, 
while  total  beneficence  funds  reach  $4,700.  In  1916  a  floating  indebtedness  of  $9,000 
was  paid,  leaving  the  church  entirely  free  of  any  debt  of  any  kind. 

A  year's  leave  of  absence  was  granted  to  Rev.  Mr.  McNutt  in  January,  1918,  to 
permit  him  to  go  to  France  for  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  National  War  Work.  He  sailed 
January  i6th.     A  farewell  reception  was  given  by  the  church. 

Throughout  its  existence  this  church  has  been  a  missionary  body,  and  has  in- 
cluded in  its  membership  more  than  the  usual  number  of  active  missionaries  and  mis- 
sion workers.  By  its  activity  in  the  local  field  it  has  truly  become  the  mother  of  the 
Baptist  churches  of  the  region.  Marked  by  a  particularly  happy  and  harmonious 
existence  the  church  stands  today  a  worthy  monument  to  the  early  efforts  of  the  Bap- 
tists of  the  city. 

Pleasant  Street  Baptist  Church. — At  a  meeting  of  twenty-five  mem- 
bers of  the  First  Baptist  Church  at  the  home  of  Daniel  Goddard,  Novem- 
ber 23,  1841,  a  conference  for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  new  church,  was 
formed,  with  Martin  Jacobs  as  chairman  and  Austin  G.  Fitch  as  clerk. 
Separate  public  service  was  held  for  the  first  time  December  12,  1841, 
and  at  a  council  held  December  28,  the  Second  Baptist  Church  was  for- 
mally recognized.  Of  the  ninety-eight  constituent  members,  eighty-nine 
w^ere  from  the  First  Church.  Within  a  year  the  membership  was 
doubled.  The  name  was  changed  afterward  to  Pleasant  Street  Baptist 
Church. 

Rev.  John  Jennings,  the  first  minister,  accepted  a  call  January  1, 
1842;  he  resigned  November  27,  1849.  Rev.  Charles  K.  Culver,  of 
Watertown,  succeeded  him,  serving  from  April  14,  1880,  to  1854.  Rev. 
Daniel  W.  Faunce  had  a  very  successful  pastorate  from  September  1, 
1854,  to  April  30,  1860.  Rev.  J.  J.  Tucker  was  pastor  from  June  18,  1860, 
to  September  1,  1861;  and  Rev.  David  Weston  from  June  9,  1862,  to 
December  4,  18T0.  "He  was  a  remarkably  able  preacher,  a  wise  and 
judicious  leader  and  teacher.  During  his  years  of  service  100  were 
admitted  by  baptisms,  125  by  letter  and  experience." 

Rev.  I.  R.  Wheelock  was  pastor  from  July  10,  18T2,  to  March  31, 
1875;  Rev.  Sullivan  L.  Holman,  installed  June  10,  1875,  resigned  March 
10,  1882;  Rev.  Henr>'  F.  Lane,  January  7,  1883,  to  March  1,  1888;  Hor- 
ace Jerome  White,  August  1,  1888,  to  August  30,  1896;  Rev.  Woodman 
Bradbury,  April  8,  1897,  to  March  10,  1901,  (a  most  scholarly  and  spir- 
itual preacher;  one  of  the  happiest  and  sweetest  pastorates  of  our  recol- 
lection). Rev.  George  B.  Lawson  was  pastor  from  September,  1901,  to 
August  19,  1902;  Rev.  Simeon  Spidle,  June  14,  1903,  to  June  7,  1908;  Mr. 
Spidle  is  at  present  professor  in  Acadia  College,  Wolfville,  Nova  Sco- 
tia. Rev.  Thomas  J.  Cross,  "one  of  the  kindest  and  most  faithful  pas- 
tors this  church  ever  had,"  served  October  4,  1908,  to  October  1,  1911. 
Rev.  William  A.  Lee  began  February  4,  1912,  and  closed  it  February  29, 
1916,  to  become  pastor  of  the  Central  Congregational  Church  of  Atlanta, 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  831 

Georgia,  "he  was  an  interesting  and  eloquent  preacher."  The  present 
pastor,  Rev.  Charles  J.  Jones,  was  called  October  10,  1916,  and  installed 
in  December.  He  had  been  for  ten  years  and  a  half  pastor  of  the  Tren- 
ton Street  Baptist  Church  of  East  Boston. 

The  first  place  of  worship  was  in  the  Town  Hall.  The  first  meeting 
house  was  built  on  Pleasant  street,  about  200  feet  from  Main,  on  a  lot 
80  feet  square,  costing  $1,600.  No  society  was  organized,  the  church 
itself  being  incorporated  to  hold  real  estate.  The  church  was  occupied 
January  4,  1844.  In  1856  the  building  was  remodeled.  Steps  were  taken 
in  1889  to  build  a  new  meeting  house  and  a  building  committee  consisting 
of  J.  P.  Cheney,  R.  F.  Comstock,  F.  H.  Pelton,  C.  F.  Brooks  and  C.  A. 
Goddard,  was  appointed  May  7,  1889.  The  old  building  and  lot  were 
sold  for  $48,000,  and  the  present  structure  erected  at  the  corner  of  Pleas- 
ant and  Ashland  streets.  Ground  was  broken  June  9,  1890;  the  corner- 
stone laid  August  4,  1890 ;  the  first  service  in  the  new  church  held  Jan- 
uary 18,  1891.  The  total  cost  was  $65,000,  and  the  house  was  dedicated 
April  21,  1891,  free  of  debt. 

The  church  has  been  loyal  in  support  of  home  and  foreign  missions, 
and  has  been  represented  by  a  member  in  the  foreign  field.  Miss  Eliza- 
beth Lawson,  since  1880.  Aid  has  been  given  to  the  younger  Baptist 
churches  from  time  to  time.  Nearly  seventy-five  members  formed  the 
colony  that  established  the  Lincoln  Square  Baptist  Church. 

In  seventy-five  years  there  have  been  but  five  clerks:  Charles  H. 
Hill,  about  fourteen  years;  Joel  Howe,  about  nine  years;  Alden  Howe, 
about  five  years;  Charles  Ballard,  about  five  years;  Joseph  P.  Cheney, 
since  1874.  The  following  have  been  deacons:  Daniel  Godard  (41 
years)  ;  Jeremiah  Bond ;  Martin  Jacobs  (27  years)  ;  Jonas  Hartshorn 
(25  years) ;  Luther  Ross  (17  years)  ;  Robert  F.  Comstock  (41  years)  ; 
Albert  N.  Chase;  Joseph  P.  Cheney  (since  1874);  George  W.  Eames; 
Woodbridge  Burnham ;  Abram  Everett ;  Lyman  E.  Hastings  (20  years)  ; 
George  F.  Brooks  (since  1895)  ;  Frank  H.  Howe  (since  1899)  ;  James  F. 
Upham;  H.  Joseph  Knight;  Benjamin  F.  Porter;  Willis  B.  Chamber- 
lain; Fred  E.  Waring;  Wright  E.  Burnham;  Harry  Pickwick;  John 
Partridge.  (See  pamphlet  written  by  Joseph  P.  Cheney,  on  the  occa- 
sion of  the  seventy-fifth  anniversary,  Jan.  1,  1917). 

Main  Street  Baptist  Church. — The  second  colony  from  the  First 
Baptist  Church  was  led  by  Eli  Thayer  and  others  in  June,  1852.  Rev. 
Dr.  Sharp  of  Boston,  preached  the  first  sermon  to  the  new  church  in  the 
City  Hall,  and  public  worship  continued  there  until  November,  after 
which  Brinley  Hall  was  the  place  of  worship.  A  Sunday  school  was 
organized,  and  Rev.  S.  S.  Cutting  preached  during  the  winter  of  1852-53. 
A  parish  was  formed  February  26,  1853,  under  the  name  of  the  Third 
Baptist  Society  of  Worcester.  On  March  6  the  "New  Hampshire  Ar- 
ticles of  Faith  and  Covenant"  were  adopted,  and  Rev.  William  H,  F. 
Hansel  called  as  pastor,  but  he  declined. 


832  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

The  parish  voted  May  18,  1853,  to  build  a  chapel  at  corner  of  Lei- 
cester (now  Hermon)  and  Main  streets.  The  new  church  was  formally 
recognized  June  23,  when  Rev.  Dr.  Ide  of  Springfield,  preached.  The 
land  and  building  cost  $6,461.17,  and  the  first  services  were  held  in  the 
chapel  on  the  first  Sunday  in  January,  1854.  Rev.  H.  L.  Wayland,  the 
first  pastor,  was  ordained  Nov.  1,  1854.  After  a  highly  successful  pastor- 
ate he  resigned  in  October,  1861,  to  become  chaplain  of  the  Seventh  Con- 
necticut Regiment,  and  was  afterward  a  college  instructor  and  editor. 
His  successor,  Rev.  Joseph  Banvard,  began  his  pastorate  in  May,  1862, 
and  served  four  years. 

The  plans  for  the  first  meeting  house  were  adopted  February  12, 

1855.  Ground  was  broken  in  May,  and  the  church  occupied  in  January, 

1856.  The  cost  of  the  property  was  over  $25,000.  The  parish  adopted 
the  name,  "Main  Street  Baptist  Society,"  February  15,  1864.  In  1877 
the  chapel  was  enlarged  at  a  cost  of  about  $5,000. 

Under  Rev.  George  B.  Gow,  the  third  pastor,  April,  1867, — Nov., 
1872,  Dewey  Street  Church  was  organized  as  the  outcome  of  a  mission 
conducted  by  the  church.  During  this  time  Worcester  Academy  was 
kept  as  a  separate  and  local  institution  by  the  gift  of  funds  by  the  church 
members. 

The  fourth  pastor  was  Rev.  F.  W.  Bakeman,  May,  1873, — July, 
1876. 

Services  for  the  French  people  then  begun  resulted  in  the  present 
French  chapel  and  work  on  Beacon  street.  Rev.  George  E.  Hoar,  pas- 
tor from  November,  1877,  to  November,  1881,  was  active  in  forming 
the  City  Mission  Board,  and  during  his  term  the  building  was  enlarged. 

Rev.  Henry  A.  Rogers  of  Montpelier,  Vt.,  was  the  sixth  pastor,  from 
January,  1883, — October  27,  1886.  Canterbury  Street  Chapel  was  built, 
and  in  1884  the  Jamesville  Branch  was  organized,  and  under  the  leader- 
ship of  Rev.  Mr.  Rogers  fifty-five  members  left  to  form  the  South  Baptist 
Church.  Prof.  Charles  R.  Brown,  of  the  Newton  Theological  Seminary, 
was  acting  pastor  for  a  time. 

Rev.  Charles  H.  Pendleton  served  Sept.,  1887,— April,  1894,  to  be 
followed  by  Rev.  Leo  B.  Thomas,  July,  1896,— Dec,  1901.  In  1895, 
Rev.  Howard  B.  Grose  was  in  charge.  In  this  period  the  meeting  house 
was  renovated  at  a  cost  of  about  $9,000,  and  an  new  organ  installed. 
The  largest  Main  street  membership  was  in  1901,  384  members.  In  1902 
this  church  again  joined  with  the  First  Church. 

The  twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  the  ordination  of  the  first  pastor 
was  appropriately  celebrated  November  2,  1879.  Dr.  Wayland  himself 
preached  and  his  discourse  was  published.  After  February  10,  1881, 
membership  in  the  parish  was  limited  to  members  of  the  church.  In 
1883  a  unique  way  of  abolishing  the  double  government  was  found.  The 
property  was  deeded  to  the  deacons  in  trust  for  the  church  and  the  parish 
meeting  adjourned  and  though  not  formally  dissolved,  it  was  afterward 
defunct. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  833 


Dewey  Street  Baptist  Church. — A  Sunday  school,  organized  in  the 
Mason  street  school  house,  the  first  Sunday  in  August,  1867,  by  L.  M. 
Sargent  and  others,  was  the  foundation  of  this  church.  For  many 
years  Hon.  Joseph  H.  Walker  was  superintendent,  and  the  school  grew 
rapidly.  A  chapel  was  built  on  Dewey  street  on  a  lot  given  by  Hon. 
Francis  H.  Dewey,  Sr.,  and  Joseph  Mason,  the  property  valued  at  about 
$5,000.  After  the  chapel  was  dedicated,  February  8,  1872,  religious 
services  were  held  there  and  a  church  was  organized  July  8,  with  twenty- 
eight  members. 

The  first  pastor  was  L.  M.  Sargent,  a  layman,  founder  of  the  church; 
he  was  called  May  2,  1872.  The  church  was  formally  recognized  in  a 
council  held  September  5.  Mr.  Sargent  resigned  on  account  of  ill  health. 
May  2,  1873.  Rev.  D.  F.  Lamson,  the  second  pastor,  served  from  June 
1,  1973,  to  January  1,  1882;  Rev.  B.  H.  Lane  from  June  1,  1882,  to  Octo- 
ber 15,  1884;  Rev.  Darius  H.  Stoddard  from  October  19,  1884,  to  Mar. 
24,  1893;  Rev.  Albert  W.  Weeks,  Aug  1,  1893,  to  May  19,  1895;  Rev. 
Harlan  Page  Smith,  Apr.  1,  1895,  to  June  30,  1898 ;  Rev.  Orson  E.  Mal- 
lory,  Oct.  1,  1898,  to  Oct.  1,  1911;  Rev.  John  C.  Breaker,  Mar.  20,  1912, 
to  Nov.  5,  1916;   Rev.  Matthew  Francis  came  March  1,  1917. 

The  meeting  house  at  305  Park  avenue  was  built  during  Mr.  Stod- 
dard's pastorate.  He  was  aided  by  the  City  Mission  Board,  which  con- 
tributed $7,000,  and  more  land  was  purchased.  The  church  cost  $14,- 
666.18.  It  was  first  used  for  services  on  Thanksgiving  Day  in  1886,  and 
dedicated  January  13,  1887.  There  is  no  parish  organization ;  the  seats 
are  free.     From  time  to  time  the  church  has  been  altered  and  improved. 

Lincoln  Square  Baptist  Church. — This  church  was  organized  April 
4,  1881,  with  thirty-one  members,  coming  chiefly  from  the  Pleasant  Street 
Church.  During  the  following  summer  Rev.  D.  F.  Lamson  of  the  Dewey 
Street  Church  filled  the  pulpit.  The  first  pastor.  Rev.  Judson  J.  Miller, 
came  in  October.  Services  were  first  held  in  a  hall,  but  through  the 
energy  and  industry  of  the  pastor  funds  were  raised,  and  in  May,  1882, 
the  lot  on  Highland  street  near  Main  was  occupied  by  the  present  meet- 
ing house  was  bought  and  the  church  dedicated  June  10,  1884.  The 
total  cost  was  about  $30,000,  the  largest  contributors  being  Hon.  Joseph 
H.  Walker  and  the  Main  Street  Baptist  Church.  The  seats  are  free; 
there  is  no  parish. 

The  church  has  been  favored  with  able  and  popular  ministers.  Mr. 
Miller's  pastorate  ended  in  1892.  He  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Frank  S. 
Weston,  1892-95;  Rev.  Frank  D.  Penny  was  pastor  from  1897  to  1902; 
Rev.  Edward  M.  Saunier,  1903-1913;  Rev.  David  Miller,  since  1914. 
The  church  had  an  Italian  Mission  on  Shrewsbury  street.  Gaetano  Lisi 
was  in  charge  1911-12;  and  Antonio  Sannella  has  been  pastor  since  1914. 

Newton  Square  Baptist  Church. — This  church  was  organized  as  the 
First  Free  Baptist  Church  of  Worcester,  April  7,  1881.  For  several 
W.-I-S3. 


834  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

years  the  place  of  meeting  was  a  hall  in  the  Clark  Building.  The  brick 
church  building  erected  on  Wellington  street  was  first  occupied  in 
March,  1892. 

The  Wellington  street  property  was  sold  to  the  United  Presbyterian 
Church  in  May,  1903,  and  used  jointly  by  the  two  bodies  until  the  com- 
pletion of  the  new  frame  building  erected  at  the  corner  of  Pleasant  street 
and  Elm  avenue,  now  Elmwood  street.  This  building  was  first  occupied 
March  30,  1905. 

The  church  was  recognized  as  a  regular  Baptist  church  April  10, 
1911,  and  the  corporate  name  was  changed  to  "Newton  Square  Baptist 
Church  of  Worcester,  Mass." 

The  church  has  been  served  by  eleven  pastors  as  follows :  Revs.  A. 
J.  Eastman,  1880-1882;  Hibbert  Lockhart,  1883-87;  D.  D.  Mitchell, 
1887-89;  F.  D.  George,  1890-92;  C.  G.  Mosher,  1893-95;  John  Malvern, 
1896-97;  Essek  W.  Kenyon,  1897-98;  A.  C.  Thompson,  1898-1903;  R. 
S.  W.  Roberts,  1904-07;  E.  R.  Coswell,  1907-10;  George  L.  Hibbard, 
1911 — . 

South  Baptist  Church. — This  church  was  organized  Oct.  28,  1886, 
in  the  Canterbury  street  chapel,  by  a  colony  from  the  Main  street  church, 
from  which  57  persons  were  dismissed  for  that  purpose.  Rev.  Henry  A. 
Rogers  was  the  first  pastor.  The  oflfer  of  the  Pilgrim  Congregational 
Church  of  the  use  of  their  meeting  house  was  accepted  vuitil  the  new 
church  had  a  home  of  its  own.  A  lot  was  bought  at  the  corner  of  Main 
and  Gates  streets,  of  Calvin  Hartshorn.  Deacons  Richardsons,  Stevens, 
Moulton  and  Ellis  were  elected  trustees. 

The  City  Mission  Board  offered  the  new  church  a  chapel  that  was  to 
be  moved  from  the  Dewey  street  lot.  Dean  &  Son  contracted  to  move 
the  building,  and  the  work  was  finally  accomplished.  The  route  was 
through  Park  avenue,  Shirley  street,  through  vacant  lots  along  Wood- 
land street,  across  Clark  University  land  to  Main  street,  a  distance  of  a 
mile  and  a  quarter.  It  was  soon  repaired  and  occupied.  It  was  decided 
to  erect  a  new  building,  May  2,  1896.  Fuller,  Delano  &  Fuller  prepared 
the  plans.  The  final  service  in  the  old  church  was  held  July  5,  1896,  and 
it  was  immedately  taken  down.  J.  G.  Vaudreuil  was  the  contractor  at 
about  $15,000.  William  Wattie  was  chairman  of  the  building  committee. 
Reed  of  West  Boylston  built  the  new  organ.  The  building  was  partly 
occupied  the  first  Sunday  in  February,  1897.  John  R.  Back,  Rufus 
Colby,  W.  J.  Eddy,  Dr.  M.  B.  Flinn  and  James  McNeill  served  on  commit- 
tees on  organ,  pews,  heating,  etc.  The  ladies  of  the  church  worked  hard 
to  raise  funds.  A  memorial  window  was  given  by  Miss  Carrie  Pickford ; 
another  by  Mr.  Back;  a  third  by  the  Young  People's  Society;  a  fourth 
by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  Howard ;  and  others  by  Sunday  school  classes. 
Mr.  Rogers  was  pastor  until  1889.  Since  then  the  pastors  have 
been:  Rev.  E.  B.  Haskell,  1890-92;  Rev.  T.  Richard  Peede,  1893-1901; 
Rev.  Arthur  S.  Burrows,  1902-12;    Rev.  Manford  D.  Wolfe,  1913 — . 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  835 

Adams  Square  Baptist  Church. — This  church  was  organized  in  1889. 
Its  place  of  worship  is  at  190  Lincohi  street,  corner  of  Oilman.  Rev. 
Daniel  W.  Hoyt,  the  first  pastor,  from  1889  to  1897,  and  now,  pastor 
emeritus,  is  living  in  this  city.  Rev.  John  S.  Holmes,  1898-1902,  was 
succeeded  by  Rev.  Francis  L.  Church,  1903-05 ;  Rev.  Frank  Hare  was 
pastor  1906-08;  Rev.  C.  Percy  Christopher,  1908-12;  Rev.  Mahlon  S. 
Tuneson,  1912-13.     Since  1916,  Rev.  John  S.  Blair  has  been  pastor. 

Greendale  Baptist  Church. — This  church  grew  out  of  a  Baptist  Sun- 
day school  established  in  1884  and  maintained  until  the  church  was 
organized  in  1897.  Rev.  Joseph  Ellison  was  pastor  in  1893.  The  meet- 
ing house  is  on  West  Boylston  street,  Greendale. 

The  pastors  have  been :  Rev.  Guy  F.  Wheeler,  1897-1901 ;  Rev. 
Darius  H.  Stoddard  (acting),  1902-03;  Rev.  WiUiam  D.  Mackinnon,  1904- 
06;  Rev.  Charles  T.  Reekie,  1907-09;  Rev.  Walter  L.  Stone,  the  present 
pastor,  since  1910. 

Quinsigamond  Baptist  Church. — This  church,  organized  in  1901,  has 
its  place  of  worship  at  Stebbins  street.  It  grew  out  of  a  mission  of  the 
First  Baptist  Church,  organized  in  1885  at  Quinsigamond  Village.  Rev. 
Guy  F.  Wheeler  was  pastor,  1892-96;  Rev.  Howard  H.  Roach,  1896-97; 
Rev.  John  H.  Bourne,  1898-1900;  Rev.  C.  W.  Turner,  1901-02;  Rev. 
Herbert  J.  Lane,  1903-05;  Rev.  Charles  A.  Nutting,  1905-1908;  Rev. 
Hamilton  E.  Chapman,  since  1908. 

Rev.  Hamilton  Edgar  Chapman  was  born  at  North  Stonington,  Conn.,  August  14, 
1865,  son  of  Edgar  and  Mary  H.  (Smith)  Chapman.  He  graduated  from  Brown 
University  (A.  B.  1890)  and  Newton  Seminary  (1893)  ;  was  pastor  of  churches  at 
New  Hartford,  Conn.,  1893-95;  Haverhill,  1895-1905;  Millbury,  1905-09.  He  has  been 
clerk  of  the  Worcester  Baptist  Association  since  1908.  He  is  a  member  of  Phi  Delta 
Theta.  He  married  in  this  city,  June  18,  1890,  S.  Belle  Coffin,  born  here  December  15, 
1869,  daughter  of  George  W.  and  Isabel  (Carr)  Coffin.  Her  father  was  born  in 
Lowell,  1832,  was  a  wholesale  confectioner  in  this  city  for  thirty-five  years,  died  here 
in  1905;  her  mother  was  a  native  of  Newmarket,  N.  H.  Rev.  Mr.  Chapman  has  four 
children:  George  H.,  graduate  of  Middlebury  College  (1916),  now  in  the  Coast  Artil- 
lery; Mabelle  S.,  graduate  of  Wheelock  School  (1916)  ;  Eugene,  married,  1915,  Velma 
Wood,  and  has  a  son,  Carl  W.,  born  1916;  C.  Barnard,  born  1900. 

Oak  Hill  Baptist  Church.— The  Oak  Hill  branch  of  the  Lincoln 
Square  Baptist  Church  was  started  as  a  French  mission  by  the  Pleasant 
Street  Church  in  1893,  and  became  an  independent  church  since  Nov.  21, 
1916,  with  61  members.  The  place  of  worship  is  on  Orient  street.  The 
pastors  have  been :  Rev.  Arthur  St.  James,  1893-1903 ;  Rev.  William 
D.  MacKinnon,  1905-06 ;  Rev.  John  H.  Lingley,  1907-11 ;  Rev.  Fred.  D. 
Johnson,  1912-15;  and  Rev.  Frank  L.  Hopkins,  since  1916.  Harry  A. 
Merson  was  clerk,  1917. 

First  Freewill  Baptist  Church. — The  first  meeting  of  the  Freewell 
Baptists  was  held  at  the  home  of  Newell  Tyler,  September  14,  1880,  and 
from  that  time  meetings  at  various  houses  were  held  until  the  church  was 
organized  April  7,  1881,  with  thirty  members.     The  church  was  incor- 


836  HISTORY  O'F  WORCESTER 

porated  September  1,  188T.  Rev.  A.  J.  Eastman,  the  founder,  was  first 
pastor,  installed  April  7,  1881.  Rev.  H.  Lockhart,  second  pastor,  served 
from  May  1,  1883,  to  March  1,  1887;  Rev.  D.  D.  Mitchell,  1887-90;  F. 
D.  George,  1890-93;  Rev.  C.  G.  Mosher,  1894-5;  John  Malvern,  1896-7; 
Rev.  Essek  W.  Kenyon,  1897-98;  Rev.  Albert  C.  Thompson,  1898-1903; 
Rev.  Richard  W.  Roberts,  1904-07;  Rev.  Ernest  R.  Caswell,  1904-10. 
George  A.  Whittemore  was  superintendent  of  the  Sunday  school  for 
many  years. 

The  place  of  worship  was  in  Free  Baptist  Hall,  in  the  Clark  Build- 
ing, 492  Main  street,  until  the  building  of  the  meeting  house  at  63  Well- 
ington street,  in  1892.     The  church  was  disbanded  in  1910. 

Jamesville  Baptist  Mission. — In  1885  a  mission  was  established  on 
Clover  street  under  the  leadership  of  the  old  Main  Street  Baptist  Church. 
This  mission  has  since  grown  to  the  proportions  of  a  church  in  member- 
ship and  usefulness  to  the  community.  Among  its  ministers  were : 
Rev.  S.  T.  Livermore,  1892-93;  Rev.  Arthur  St.  James,  1894-95;  Rev. 
Guy  F.  Wheeler,  1896-98;  Rev.  Charles  R.  Simmons,  1902;  Rev.  John 
H.  Lingley,  1905-06;  Rev.  Albert  S.  Woodworth,  1907-10.  During  the 
years  when  there  was  no  regular  minister,  the  church  was  supplied  by 
pastors  of  the  different  churches.  Rev.  Leo  Boone  Thomas  of  the  Main 
Street  Church,  Rev.  Simeon  Spidle  of  the  Pleasant  Street  Church,  and 
Rev.  William  D.  MacKennon  of  the  Greendale  Church  were  among 
these. 

Since  1910,  under  the  present  leader,  Curtis  H.  Morrow,  the  mis- 
sion has  doubled  its  membership,  which  is  now  56,  and  trebled  its  Sun- 
day school  which  now  numbers  100. 

Baptist  City  Mission  Board. — This  was  organized  in  the  Main  Street 
Baptist  Church,  November  6,  1880.  Rev.  G.  E.  Horr  of  the  Main  St. 
Church,  was  chairman,  and  Rev.  D.  F.  Lamson  of  the  Dewey  St.  Church 
was  clerk.  Four  members  of  the  First  Baptist,  Pleasant  St.,  Main  St. 
and  Dewey  St.  churches  constituted  the  original  board. 

The  immediate  object  of  the  Board  was  to  have  oversight  of  Bap- 
tist missionary  work  already  begun  among  the  French  of  the  city,  and 
to  engage  a  resident  missionary.  Since  its  organization,  its  work  has 
been  to  aid  churches,  and  to  establish  missions  in  the  city  wherever  it 
was  thought  advisable.  Several  of  these  missions  have  since  become 
self  supporting  churches. 

The  Beacon  St.  Chapel  was  the  first  built  by  the  board ;  then  the 
colored  Baptists  were  aided  in  building  a  chapel  on  John  St.  The  Swed- 
ish brethren,  after  holding  meetings  in  a  hall,  were  aided  to  build  a 
church,  and  now  there  are  two  strong  Swedish  Baptist  churches.  Finan- 
cial aid  has  been  given  in  the  building  of  Lincoln  Square  church,  Dewey 
street,  Jamesville,  South  Baptist,  Adams  Square,  Quinsigamond,  Green- 
dale  and  Oak  Hill.     Resident  missionaries  among  the  French  Swedes, 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  837 

Finns,  and  Italians  have  been  supported  wholly  or  in  part,  and  have  done 
faithful  work.  The  Board  have  expended  upon  the  work  more  than  $65,000 
in  the  thirty-seven  years. 

Baptist  Missions. — The  French  Baptist  Mission  founded  in  1873 ; 
The  Harlem  Street  Baptist  Church;  The  First  Swedish  Baptist  Church; 
the  First  Swedish-Finnish  Baptist  Church  ;  the  French  Baptist  Mission- 
ary Church,  and  the  Italian  Mission  of  the  Lincoln  Square  Baptist 
Church,  are  given  under  the  heads  of  the  nationalities  to  which  they 
belong. 

The  First  Baptist  Church  supported  a  mission  at  170  Beacon  street 
for  many  years  ;  it  was  founded  in  1890.  Rev.  Arthur  St.  James  was  pas- 
tor, 1892-1903,  and  Rev.  S.  C.  Delagneau,  1903-1914. 

A  mission  at  Lakeview  was  flourishing  in  the  early  nineties,  and  had 
as  pastor  Rev.  J.  H.  Elison  in  1893. 

Baptist  Social  Union. — This  was  a  loosely  formed  organization 
founded  in  1893  for  holding  dinners  and  social  occasions  at  which  mem- 
bers of  the  denomination  could  be  addressed  by  celebrated  speakers  from 
outside.  Franklin  A.  Caswell  has  been  president  in  recent  years ;  John 
R.  Back,  vice-president. 

The  Conference  of  Baptist  ministers  of  Worcester  and  vicinity 
includes  in  its  membership  the  various  clergymen  of  this  denomination. 
Rev.  E.  J.  Nordlander  was  president  in  1917. 


CHAPTER  LIV 

Methodist   Episcopal   Church — Trinity   Church — Grace   Church — Trow- 
bridge Memorial — Park  Avenue — Church  of  the  Covenant — Coral 
Street — Laural  Street — Various  Societies 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church. — The  foundation  of  the  present  Trinity 
Church,  formerly  the  First  Methodist,  was  laid  when  a  parish  known  as 
the  "Methodist  Episcopal  Religious  Society  in  the  town  of  Worcester," 
was  formed  by  thirteen  persons.  Rev.  Freeborn  Garrettson  visited  the 
town  in  1790,  and  Bishop  Asbury  in  1798,  1805,  1807,  1813  and  1815.  But 
Rev.  John  E.  Risley  preached  the  first  Methodist  sermon,  in  1823,  in  the 
school  house  in  New  Worcester.  Rev.  Dexter  S.  King  was  appointed 
here  in  1830,  organized  a  class  at  New  Worcester  and  preached  once  in 
two  weeks.  Solomon  Parsons  and  wife  became  Methodists  and  joined 
in  1833 ;  Jonathan  L.  Estey,  who  came  in  1833,  was  the  leader  in  the  vil- 
lage, hiring  a  room  at  the  corner  of  Mechanic  and  Union  streets  early  in 
1833  for  the  use  of  a  class.  Rev.  William  Routledge  preached  here  from 
time  to  time;  also  in  the  vestry  of  Central  Church  and  in  the  Baptist 
Church.  In  the  fall  of  1833  the  Town  Hall  was  secured  for  meeting. 
Early  in  1834  Joseph  A.  Merrill,  who  was  Conference  Agt.,  occupied 
the  pulpit  in  Town  Hall  and  it  was  this  year  that  a  legal  organization 
was  formed,  July  8.  Under  the  advice  of  Bro.  Merrill  the  people  met 
in  Town  Hall  and  a  legal  organization  known  as  The  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Religious  Society  in  Town  of  Worcester  was  formed. 

In  June,  1834,  Rev.  George  Pickering  was  appointed  preacher  and 
had  charge  of  classes  in  adjacent  towns.  In  the  first  year  the  member- 
ship grew  to  107.  In  1835  Rev.  John  T.  Burrill  was  appointed.  An 
historical  incident  occurred  Aug.  10,  1835,  during  the  delivery  of  an 
anti-slavery  sermon  by  Presiding  Elder  Rev.  Orange  Scott,  who  was 
assaulted  by  Levi  Lincoln  Jr.  and  another,  who  tore  his  sermon  into 
pieces.  The  selectmen  then  notified  the  church  that  no  more  anti-sla- 
very sermons  would  be  permitted  in  the  town  hall,  which  was  the  place  of 
worship  at  that  time. 

In  1836  the  building  of  a  meeting  house  was  begun  at  the  southeast 
corner  of  Exchange  and  Union  streets,  completed  March,  1837,  and  ded- 
icated. The  Spy  advertised  the  dedication  but  gave  no  account  of  it 
afterward.  Rev.  James  Porter  was  pastor  in  1837,  and  175  were  added 
to  the  membership  that  year.  Rev.  Johan  Horton  was  pastor  next 
year  (1838). 

Following  have  been  pastors  since  then :  Moses  L.  Scudder,  1839- 
40;  Miner  Raymond,  1841-3;  Charles  K.  True,  D.  D.,  1843;  Amos  Bin- 
ney,  1844-5;    Jona.  D.  Bridge,  1846-7;    Loranus  Crowell,  1848;    Nelson 


840  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

E.  Cobleigh,  1849-50;  Zacheus  A.  Mudge,  1851-2;  Daniel  E.  Chapin, 
1853-4;  Fales  H.  Newhall,  1855-56;  Chester  Field,  1857-58;  John  H. 
Twombly,  1859-60;  John  Wm.  Dadmun,  1861-3;  Daniel  E.  Chapin,  1863- 
4;  John  H.  Mansfield,  1865-6-7;  Chas.  N.  Smith,  1868-9-70;  Willard 
Francis  Mallalieu,  afterward  bishop,  1871;  Ira  G.  Bidwell,  1872-3;  V. 
A.  Cooper,  1874-5-6,  (who  reduced  the  debt  by  $35,000)  ;  Amos  A.  B. 
Kendig,  1877-78;  J.  A.  Cass,  1879-80-81;  Chas.  S.  Rogers,  D.  D.,  1882- 
83-84;    Willard  T.  Perrin,  1885-7;    Wm.  H.  Thomas,  1888-89-90;    John 

D.  Pickles,  1891-4;  Raymond  F.  Holway,  1895-7;  George  W.  King, 
1898-1902;  Samuel  M.  Dick,  1903-06;  Harvey  W.  Ewing,  1907-14;  Leo- 
pold A.  Nies,  since  1914. 

While  the  new  church  was  building  services  were  held  in  the  town 
hall. 

The  original  church  was  burned  in  1844  during  the  pastorate  of  Mr. 
True.  The  new  church  on  Park  street  on  the  present  site  of  the  Ban- 
croft Hotel  was  dedicated  August  16,  1845.  The  next  building,  corner 
of  Main  and  Chandler  streets,  was  dedicated  April  25,  1871;  cost  $100,- 
000.     This  is  the  present  edifice. 

Grace  Church. — This  was  organized  in  1867  as  Main  Street  Metho- 
dist Episcopal  Church,  and  Rev.  J.  Oramel  Peck  was  its  first  pastor, 
1867-69.  Meetings  were  held  in  Washburn  Hall  and  the  Lincoln  House. 
The  Sunday  school  became  one  of  the  largest  in  the  city.  In  the  first 
two  years  the  society  raised  about  $20,000.  The  meeting  house  on  Wal- 
nut street  was  completed  in  1872,  and  the  name  changed  to  Grace  M. 

E.  Church.  The  vestry  was  occupied  in  July,  1871 ;  the  church  was  ded- 
icated in  January,  1872.  The  second  pastor  was  Rev.  Andrew  McKeon, 
1870-71,  and  the  third  Rev.  J.  O.  Knowles,  1872.  He  w^as  also  twice 
pastor  of  the  Webster  Square  Church.  Pastors  since  then :  C.  D.  Hills, 
1873-5;  Geo.  S.  Chadbourne,  afterward  presiding  elder,  1876-8;  J.  W. 
Johnston,  1879-81;  D.  H.  Ela,  D.  D.,  1882-4;  Geo.  Whitaker,  prominent 
in  no-license  work  here,  afterward  president  of  Wiley  University,  1885- 
87;  John  Galbraith,  1888-90;  Wm.  T.  Worth,  1891-93;  Wm.  J.  Thomp- 
son, 1894-8;  James  B.  Brady,  1899-1903;  Edmund  B.  Patterson,  1904- 
06;  Frederic  A.  Gould,  1907-8;  John  S.  Charlton,  1909-11;  Berton  L.  Jen- 
nings, since  1912. 

Trowbridge  Memorial  Church. — The  Third  Methodist  Church  was 
formed  by  a  colony  from  Trinity  in  1860,  and  its  first  pastor  was  Rev. 
Daniel  Dorchester,  a  prime  mover  in  its  organization.  He  had  previously 
been  a  State  senator  in  Connecticut  and  was  afterward  in  the  General 
Court  of  this  State ;  became  very  prominent  as  historian  and  statistician, 
temperance  advocate ;    was  presiding  elder,  etc. 

At  first  the  new  church  worshipped  in  Union  Hall.  The  pastors 
have  been  since  the  first:  Rev.  Wm.  Gordon,  1863;  Wm.  A.  Braman, 
1864;  Wm.  Pentecost,  1866;  Edward  Virgin,  1867;  Benj.  F.  Chase, 
1869;  Chas.  H.  Hanaford,  1870-1;  Pliny  Wood,  1872;  Mr.  Parsons,  1873; 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  841 

E.  A.  Titus,  1875;  V.  M.  Simmons,  1878;  Daniel  Richardson,  1879;  J. 
W.  Finn,  1880;  N.  Fellows,  1882;  J.  O.  Knowles,  1883;  L.  W.  Staples, 
1886 ;  some  serving  for  several  yearly  terms,  the  date  being  given  only 
of  their  first  year.  Since  then:  Rev.  Henry  Duer,  1888-91;  W.  N. 
Richardson,  1891-6;  Geo.  W.  Mansfield,  1896-9;  Benj.  F.  Kingsley, 
1899-03;  J.  O.  Knowles,  1903-05  (second  pastorate);  W.  H.  Dockham, 
1905-13;  Frank  T.  Pomeroy,  1913-14;  Carl  G.  Bader,  since  1914.  In 
1917,  Rev.  Tobias  Foss  (April  to  Dec.)  resigned  on  account  of  ill  health. 
Rev.  Arthur  G.  Wright  succeeded  him. 

The  meeting  house  was  erected  at  Webster  Square  in  1871,  the 
largest  contributors  to  the  building  fund  being  Albert  Curtis  and  the 
Goes  family.  It  was  dedicated  April  37,  1871.  It  cost  about  $30,000. 
The  name  was  changed  in  1901:  from  Webster  Square  Church  to  the 
present  name,  Trowbridge  Memorial  Church. 

Park  Avenue  Church. — This  church  was  established  in  1891,  its 
meeting  house  on  Park  avenue  near  May  street.  Rev.  Alonzo  Sander- 
son was  pastor  from  1893-1901;  Lauress  J.  Birney,  1901;  Alfred  C. 
Skinner,  1903-05;  James  W.  Higgins,  1905-06 ;  Isaac  H.  Parkhurst,  1907- 
10;  Howard  F.  Legg,  1910-11;  Herbert  G.  Buckingham,  1911-14;  George 
E.  Folk,  1915-17;  Charles  E.  Spaulding,  1917;  Mr.  Folk  is  in  France 
(1918)  in  Y.  M.  C.  A.  work.  He  was  pastor  of  Upham  Church,  Dor- 
chester, in  1917. 

Bethel  Church. — This  was  founded  in  1867.  Its  place  of  worship  is 
at  369  Park  avenue.     Rev.  William  B.  Perry  has  been  pastor  since  1903. 

For  First  and  Second  Swedish  Churches,  see  chapter  on  Swedish 
people. 

Church  of  the  Covenant. — The  following  narrative  is  by  Mr.  Jerome 
M.  Stone: 

A  Sunday  school  was  organized  Oct.  19,  1884,  in  the  house  of  John  Streeter,  corner 
of  Grafton  street  and  Grafton  Place,  by  the  young  people  of  Union  Church,  with  W. 
W.  Green  as  superintendent.  The  young  people  did  not  feel  confident  to  take  a  class 
of  eight  grown-up  people,  so  the  class  was  asked  to  select  a  teacher  and  J.  M.  Stone 
was  chosen.  There  was  an  attendance  of  about  60.  Then  they  began  to  talk  of  a 
church.  The  people  in  this  section  said  that  if  that  was  done  it  would  be  necessary  to 
have  prayer  meetings,  but  the  Union  Church  people  objected. 

Rev.  Albert  Bryant,  superintendent  of  Worcester  Missionary  Society,  was  con- 
sulted, and  it  was  decided  to  have  cottage  prayer  meetings  and  J.  M.  Stone  was  asked 
to  take  charge.  Once  a  month  pastors  from  other  churches  preached,  and  meetings 
were  held  weekly  on  Thursday  evenings,  with  an  attendance  of  from  thirty  to  sixty. 
Many  homes  were  opened   for  the  meetings. 

June  15,  1885,  it  was  decided  that  a  chapel  on  Houghton  street  was  needed  to 
relieve  Mrs.  Streeter  and  also  to  give  us  more  room.  A  building  committee  was 
chosen  to  solicit  funds  and  find  a  suitable  lot :  P.  W.  Moen,  W.  W.  Green,  L.  Stowe 
and  J.  M.  Stone.  J.  M.  Stone  was  elected  treasurer,  and  put  in  charge  of  the  build- 
ing. The  contract  was  awarded  to  Frank  Holland  for  $1150.  The  chapel  had  but  one 
room,  which  is  the  present  auditorium.  This  was  dedicated  Oct.  15,  1885.  Rev.  Albert 
Bryant,  pastor,  preached  mornings  at  Houghton  street. 


842  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

A  council  was  called  to  organize  the  church  with  three  branches :  viz :  Houghton 
street,  South  Worcester,  and  Lake  View,  Dec.  lo,  1885.  The  council  desiring  more 
time,  council  adjourned  to  Dec.  22,  to  meet  in  the  vestry  at  Plymouth  Church.  The 
council  organized  with  Rev.  Geo.  W.  Phillips,  D.  D.,  moderator,  and  Rev.  H.  A. 
Stimson,  D.  D.,  scribe.  Exercises  of  recognition;  reception  of  members,  Rev.  H.  A. 
Stimson,  D.  D. ;  right  hand  of  fellowship,  Rev.  W.  T.  Sleeper;  charge  to  church,  Rev. 
C.  M.  Southgate;    prayer  of  consecration.  Rev.  Albert  Bryant. 

Officers  of  Houghton  Street  Church:  Pastor,  Rev.  Albert  Bryant.  Members  of 
Advisory  Board:  from  City  Missionary  Society:  P.  W.  Moen,  Solon  Bryant.  Su- 
perintendent of  Sunday  school,  W.  W.  Greene.  Deacons,  Jerome  M.  Stone,  Benjamin 
F.  Scribner.     Treasurer,  Romeo  D.  Learned.     Secretary,  Henry  L.  Scribner. 

There  were  23  charter  members  at  Houghton  street,  Oct.  14,  1889,  Rev.  M.  H. 
Hitchcock  then  acting  pastor.  It  was  decided  that  each  section  of  the  Church  of  the 
Covenant  be  made  a  separate  church,  and  that,  if  the  other  sections  approved,  they 
adopt  a  name.  Lake  View  adopted  that  name  and  South  Worcester  chose  the  name 
of  Hope  Church,  Houghton  street  to  retain  the  present  name.  A  committee  from 
each  section  was  chosen  to  call  a  council.  Nov.  6,  the  City  Missionary  Society  approved 
(records  missing)  ;  but  the  council  was  called  and  approved,  and  the  new  Church 
of  the  Covenant  was  received  into  fellowship  in  the  Worcester  Central  Conference, 
and  later  incorporated  according  to  the  laws  of  Massachusetts. 

In  the  fall  of  1892  it  was  decided  to  raise  the  church  up  and  put  a  vestry  under 
it  and  to  put  on  the  front  vestibule.  It  was  dedicated  March  17,  1893.  The  order  of 
services  was  as  follows :  Scripture  Reading,  Rev.  W.  T.  Sleeper ;  Statement  by  Pas- 
tor, Rev.  J.  E.  Hurlbut;  Addresses  by  Rev.  Daniel  Merriman,  D.  D. ;  Rev.  David 
O.  Mears,  D.  D. ;  Rev.  Archibald  McCuUough,  D.  D. ;  Presentation  of  keys,  L.  P. 
Forbush;   Acceptance,  William  Allison. 

Pastors:  Revs.  Albert  Bryant,  Milan  H.  Hitchcock,  John  E.  Hurlbut  (10  years), 
Lyman  Mevis,  Eugene  B.  Hughes,  Baptist,  J.  H.  Alathews,  Geo.  D.  Bivin,  Rufus  M. 
Taft  (taken  ill  after  six  months'  service,  and  died  in  September,  1912). 

In  December,  1912,  on  advice  of  the  Worcester  City  Missionary  Society  and  the 
superintendent  of  the  Massachusetts  Home  Missionary  Societies,  it  was  unanimously 
voted  to  extend  an  invitation  to  Coral  Street  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  to  bring 
their  pastor  and  to  worship  with  us.  The  invitation  was  accepted;  after  due  delibera- 
tion, it  was  decided  to  call  a  council  of  Congregational  Churches  to  advise  with  the 
Church  of  the  Covenant.  A  plan  was  formed  to  unite  with  Coral  Street.  On  March 
9,  1913,  at  the  communion  service,  91  members  of  the  Church  of  the  Covenant  joined 
Coral  Street  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  by  letter  and  9  on  confession,  making  100 
at  the  service.  Addresses  were  given  by  Rev.  W.  G.  Colgrove,  Rev.  Geo.  D.  Bivin, 
and  J.  M.  Stone.  The  fellowship  and  brotherly  love  with  which  all  have  worked 
together  since  has   been  wonderful. 

The  finances  of  the  Church  of  the  Covenant  were  a  matter  of  difficulty  at  first. 
The  City  Mission  Society  gave  $400  a  year;  and  for  the  past  few  years,  $300,  the 
Massachusetts  Home  Mission  Society  giving  the  same  amount.  The  Church  of  the 
Covenant  has  taken  in  209  members ;   many  have  moved  away,  and  18  have  died. 

Coral  Street  Church. — The  following  is  condensed  from  an  histor- 
ical narrative  by  Mrs.  C.  E.  L.  Merrill : 

Coral  Street  Church  stood  upon  historic  ground.  History  tells  us  that  the  Indian 
name  of  Sagatabscot  was  given  to  designate  the  beautiful  hill  southeast  of  the  little 
village  of  Worcester.  But  before  the  onward  march  of  civilization  the  Indian  must 
recede,  his  name  be  forgotten,  so  Sagatabscot  gave  place  to  Union,  which  is  now,  as  it 
has  been  since,  the  name  of  the  hill  where  the  church  was  located.  In  1869  the  first 
prayer  meeting  was  held  in  the  home  of  Jerusha  Adams,  on  Branch  street. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  843 

The  Ladies'  Aid  Society  started  its  work  early  in  1871  before  the  land  was  pur- 
chased, and  was  called  the  Union  Hill  Circle,  with  Mrs.  Hannah  Lincoln,  a  Congre- 
gational lady,  as  first  president.  Rev.  Andrew  McKeon,  the  most  prominent  Metho- 
dist pastor  in  the  city,  was  the  father  of  the  church;  and  with  a  voluntary  com- 
mittee from  the  different  M.  E.  churches  on  Sept.  15,  1871,  a  lot  was  purchased  on  the 
corner  of  Waverly  and  Coral  streets  at  a  cost  of  40  cents  a  foot.  Open-air  services 
were  held  in  September,  and  when  the  weather  became  too  cold  the  meetings  were 
held  in  what  was  then  known  as  Schofield's  Block,  at  the  corner  of  Coral  and  Grafton 
streets. 

Through  the  earnest  efforts  of  Bro.  McKeon,  $1800  was  accumulated  for  a  build- 
ing fund,  and  the  following  committee  was  formed  to  carry  on  a  mission :  Rev.  A. 
McKeon,  Fred  A.  Clapp,  P.  F.  White,  Grace  Church;  Rev.  C.  N.  Smith,  Alpheus 
Walker,  Geo.  F.  Buttrick,  Trinity'  Church ;  Rev.  Wm.  Pentecost,  L.  W.  Pond,  Geo. 
W.  Paul,  Laurel  Street  Church;  and  Rev.  John  Toulmin,  of  Webster  Square  Church. 
Jan.  14,  1872,  a  Sunday  school  was  organized,  with  John  L.  Parker  as  superintendent. 
March  27,  1872,  Rev.  E.  S.  Chase  was  appointed  pastor,  and  regular  preaching  ser- 
vices were  held  in  the  same  block.  May  8,  1872,  the  church  was  organized  with  17 
members :  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wm.  H.  Van  Ornum,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lyman  Bowers,  Han- 
nah M.  Keyser,  Jerusha  Adams,  Waldo  Adams,  Alpheus  Walker,  Jos.  Dyer,  Fred 
E.  Grover,  Caroline  Grover,  Geo.  H.  Mills,  Alary  J.  Mills,  Elisha  Perry,  Mary  J. 
Perry,  Kate  M.  Thurston,  Geo.  H.  Whittemore. 

Adeline  Gordon  broke  the  ground,  throwing  the  first  shovel  of  earth.  Soon  after 
the  building  was  begun,  N.  H.  Clark  became  one  of  the  trustees  and  proved  a  liberal 
helper  and  friend  for  many  years.  April  16,  1873,  the  church  was  dedicated  as  the 
Union  Hill  M.  E.  Church.  Bishop  A.  Wiley  was  present,  and  Rev.  B.  L  Ives  of 
New  York  gave  the  dedicatory  address.  Bro.  Chase  was  a  hard-working,  earnest 
Christian,  and  under  his  administration,  50  were  baptized,  98  received  into  membership, 
and  175  in  the  Sunday  school.  In  the  spring  of  1875,  Rev.  H.  D.  Weston  became  pas- 
tor. 

In  the  fall  of  1875  the  society  bought  a  new  camp-meeting  tent  at  Sterling  Junc- 
tion. Jan.  29th  it  was  resolved  to  build  a  vestry  under  the  audience  room,  and  Dec. 
12,  1875,  the  vestry  was  dedicated;  $1500  was  raised  that  day,  and  the  vestry  paid  for. 
In  1877-78  it  was  voted  to  build  a  parsonage  on  the  lot  adjoining  the  church,  and  this 
was  dedicated  and  occupied  by  the  pastor  Feb.  21,  1878. 

In  1876  the  name  of  the  church  was  changed  to  Coral  Street  M.  E.  Church.  The 
church  property  was  much  improved  but  its  members  faced  an  enormous  debt.  Rev. 
Jesse  Wagner  was  sent  to  the  church  in  1878,  and  the  debt  at  that  time  was  $19,550.00, 
which  was  not  reduced  during  Bro.  Wagner's  ministry  as  no  satisfactory  settlement 
could  be  arranged,  but  many  were  added  to  the  church.  During  December  a  fair  net- 
ted $1000.  A  Little  Old  Folks'  Concert  was  held  in  Coral  street,  later  in  Horticul- 
tural Hall,  and  finally  in  Mechanics  Hall,— the  first  of  its  kind  ever  held  in  Wor- 
cester. It  was  under  the  leadership  of  Mrs.  J.  Wagner  and  Mrs.  H.  W.  Hastings; 
seventy  children  were  in  costume  of  "ye  olden  tyme,"  with  George  W.  Hastings,  aged 
12,  as  Father  Time. 

In  the  spring  of  1880  the  alteration  in  the  location  of  organ  and  choir  was  made, 
and  the  church  carpeted.  In  April,  1881,  came  Rev.  A.  F.  Herrick.  Early  in  his 
pastorate  there  was  a  marked  religious  interest,  with  the  help  of  Mrs.  Maggie  Van 
Cott;  41  were  baptized,  50  received  into  full  membership.  A  dark  cloud  arose  in  the 
form  of  financial  difficulty,  but  Mr.  H.  C.  Graton  saved  the  church  from  financial 
bankruptcy,  and  in  1882  all  claims  were  settled. 

During  April,  1883,  Rev.  Charles  Young  was  appointed  pastor ;  26  were  taken 
into  the  church  and  16  baptized;  the  first  wedding  was  held  in  the  church  December 
10,  1885,  C.  E.  Linnie  Johnson  and  Ernest  R.  Merrill  being  the  contracting  parties. 
Rev.  William  P.  Ray  came  in  1886;    owing  to  much  sickness  in  his  family,  he  did  his 


844  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


work  under  trying  circumstances ;  31  were  baptized,  59  received  into  full  member- 
ship. In  1889,  Rev.  J.  O.  Knowles  became  pastor.  In  November  of  1890  a  chapter 
of  the  Epworth  League  was  organized,  with  Geo.  W.  Hastings  as  president;  51  mem- 
bers were  registered.  The  church  was  painted,  beside  other  minor  repairs;  39  were 
received  into  membership,  13  baptized.  On  May  8,  1890,  was  observed  the  twentieth 
anniversary.  The  grounds  were  graded,  and  the  fence  built  to  enclose  the  church 
property. 

Rev.  J.  H.  Emerson  followed  Bro.  Knowles  in  July,  1893.  November  6,  1893,  Mrs. 
Grace  Weiser  Davis  conducted  revival  services  for  twelve  days;  32  persons  were 
received  into  the  church  as  the  fruit  of  these  meetings.  In  April,  1895,  the  conference 
sent  Rev.  H.  P.  Rankin.  A  revival  conducted  by  Bro.  Webber  was  held,  and  24  were 
received  into  full  membership  and  many  on  probation.  In  1896,  Rev.  Geo.  E.  Sander- 
son was  appointed  pastor.  His  executive  ability  is  undisputed  and  the  financial  stand- 
ing of  the  church  was  greatly  improved.  In  a  report  Bro.  Sanderson  states  that  "up 
to  this  time  there  have  been  235  persons  baptized,  356  received  on  probation,  505  taken 
into  full  membership.  Raised  for  benevolent  purposes,  $6500,  current  expenses, 
$14,700,  and  for  salaries,  $41,231.     At  the  present  time  the  membership  is  120." 

Sunday,  December  5,  1898,  was  celebrated  the  twenty-fifth  anniversary,  with  a 
powerful  sermon  by  Rev.  M.  B.  Chapman  of  Boston  University;  Dec.  8th,  an  anniver- 
sary banquet  was  held,  with  former  pastors  and  members  present.  October  30th,  revival 
services  were  held  by  Bro.  William  Park  and  wife.  During  1899  the  vestry  was  reno- 
vated.    In  1901  the  auditorium  was  frescoed  and  painted,  at  an  expense  of  $300. 

Rev.  J.  W.  Fulton  was  sent  in  April,  1901.  He  came  with  a  full  determination 
to  pay  off  the  church  debt,  and  with  the  aid" of  the  City  Missionary  Society,  and  the 
estate  of  one  of  our  most  faithful  members,  Jared  Allen,  he  was  successful.  Mr. 
Allen  was  a  generous  giver  to  the  church  he  loved  in  life,  and  at  his  death  gave  his 
home  on  Mendon  street  to  help  pay  the  debt.  Bro.  Graton  once  more  proved  a  friend 
in  need,  and  in  January,  1906,  at  a  gathering  of  presiding  elders,  former  pastors  and 
members,  a  jubilee  was  held  to  celebrate  the  cancelling  of  the  mortgage. 

In  April,  1906,  Rev.  Geo.  H.  Cheney  became  pastor.  He  remained  two  years,  and 
was  followed  by  Rev.  Arthur  Wright  in  1908.  This  was  the  first  young  man  we  had 
had,  and  he  came  full  of  life  and  enthusiasm.  The  Baracca  Class  was  used  by  Bro. 
Wright  in  spiritual  work,  and  a  kindergarten  organized  under  the  Philatheas  to  care 
for  the  children  during  morning  service  proved  a  great  success.  In  1909,  Mr.  Geo.  C. 
Bryant  of  Trinity  Church  gave  an  altar  for  the  vestry. 

January  25th,  191 1,  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Whitney  entered  into  rest.  She  left  to  Coral 
Street  Church  the  sum  of  $500  to  be  known  as  the  A.  T.  Whitney  Fund,  the  income 
to  be  used  in  general  work.  The  membership  increased  from  115  to  144  during  Bro. 
Wright's  three  years'  pastorate.  The  last  wedding  held  in  the  church  was  that  of 
George  W.  Green  and  Luna  Belle  Stanley. 

The  last  pastor  sent  to  the  Coral  Ctreet  Church  was  Rev.  Gladstone  Colgrove, 
who  came  in  April,  1912.  After  being  here  a  few  months  he  was  convinced  that  it 
was  advisable  to  sell  the  Coral  street  property  and  buy  the  Houghton  street,  uniting 
the  two  churches.  On  Jan.  13,  1913,  the  trustees  were  authorized  to  purchase  the 
Houghton  street  property,  and  to  sell  the  Coral  street  property.  The  last  service  held 
in  the  church  was  the  funeral  of  Hannah  M.  Johnson,  who  had  been  a  member  since 
September,  1873.  After  taking  up  the  work  of  the  Covenant  M.  E.  Church,  the  lot  on 
Hamilton  street  was  bought,  the  price  being  $9000.  A  parsonage  was  built  costing 
$4700  completed,  exclusive  of  land.  The  uniting  of  the  two  churches  proved  to  be  a 
success  and  union  and  harmony  prevailed. 

Rev.  E.  C.  Bridgham  succeeded  Bro.  Colgrove  in  April,  191 5.  In  the  spring  of 
1917  ground  was  broken  for  the  new  church  on  Hamilton  street,  the  cost  to  be  $25,000; 
$17,000  was  given  by  the  City  Missionary  Society,  the  balance  of  $8000  to  be  cared  for 
by  the  church.     Edwin  T.  Chapin  was  the  architect,  and  L.  O.  Irish  of  Auburn  the 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  845 

contractor  and  builder.     The  laying  of   the  cornerstone  was   May  26,   1917.     To   date 
the  membership  stands  213,  in   full  membership,  and   13  probationers. 

Laurel  Street  Church. — A  colony  from  the  First  Methodist  Church 
left  when  the  Park  street  location  was  fixed.  For  a  time  the  congrega- 
tion had  its  place  of  worship  on  Thomas  street.  The  church  organiza- 
tion dates  from  July  20,  1845.  The  meeting  house  on  Laurel  street  was 
dedicated  Feb.  27,  1849.  The  first  pastor,  Richard  S.  Rust,  remained 
seven  months.  Then  followed  Revs.  J.  W.  Mowry ;  George  Dunbar; 
Francis  A.  Griswold ;  Cyrus  S.  Eastoman,  Wm.  M.  Mann,  1850;  David 
H.  Higgins;  Jos.  W.  Lewis,  1853;  J.  W.  Mowry  (second  pastorate); 
Henry  W.  Warren,  afterward  bishop,  1855  ;  Ichabod  Marcy,  1857 ;  Sam- 
uel Kelly,  1858;  Jos.  C.  Cromack,  1860-61;  Rev.  Jona.  Hascall,  former 
pres.  elder,  1861,  filling  out  the  term  of  Mr.  Cromack  who  became  chap- 
lain of  19th  Mass.;  T.  W.  Lewis,  1862-3;  James  Dean,  1863;  M.  M. 
Parkhurst,  1864 ;  Samuel  Kelly  (second  pastorate)  ;  Angelo  Carroll, 
1867;  Wm.  Pentecost,  1869;  H.  D.  Weston,  1872;  Wm.  Pentecost 
(again),  1875;  Fayette  Nichols,  1878;  Garrett  Beekman,  1880  (under 
whom  the  congregation  doubled);  G.  M.  Smiley,  1883-6;  Ira  G.  Ross, 
1886;  Alonzo  Sanderson,  1887-92;  Joseph  F.  Kennedy,  1892-5;  Geo. 
W.  Mansfield,  1895-6;  Harvey  H.  Paine,  1898-1903;  Albert  Sidney 
Gregg,  1903-05 ;  Wm.  A.  Wood,  1905-08 ;  Herbert  G.  Buckingham,  1908- 
12;  Edward  E.  Small,  1911-15;  A.  Earl  Kernahan,  1915-16. 

In  1916  the  church  became  the  Grace  Church  Branch,  Laurel  street, 
and  the  present  pastor  is  Rev.  Burton  L.  Jennings. 

Various  Societies. — The  Methodist  Episcopal  City  Mission  and 
Church  Extension  Society  is  similar  to  those  of  the  other  denominations. 
The  officers  in  1915  were:  Vice-Pres.,  John  Legg,  E.  Avery  Brewer, 
Lester  V.  Bailey,  Henry  C.  Graton;  Sec,  William  A.  Warden;  Treas., 
H.  Edwin  Green. 

The  Methodist  Ministers  Meeting  of  Worcester  and  vicinity  has 
been  in  existence  for  a  number  of  years  and  is  similar  to  that  of  the  other 
denominations.     Rev.  G.  Edgar  Folk  was  president  in  1917. 

The  Epworth  League  was  organized  May  15,  1889,  in  Cleveland, 
Ohio,  uniting  five  organizations  then  existing  in  the  Methodist  churches. 
Leagues  were  organized  here,  as  follows :  Trinity,  Oct.,  1889 ;  Grace, 
Oct.,  1889;  Laurel  Street;  Coral  Street,  Nov.  17,  1890;  Webster  Square, 
April  21,  1890;  Thomas  Street  (Swedish)  May,  1892;  Bethel  A.  M.  E. 
(colored).  The  work  of  each  is  similar.  Weekly  meetings  are  held; 
certain  charities  supported.  The  various  societies,  one  in  each  of  the 
Methodist  churches,  form  the  Worcester  Circuit,  of  which  Jonathan 
Cartmill  has  been  president  for  several  years. 


CHAPTER   LV 

The    Presbyterian    Church — The    First    Church — Westminster    United 

Presbyterian   Church 

First  Presbyterian  Church. — The  families  of  Scotch  descent  and 
Presbyterian  principles  who  emigrated  to  this  country  from  the  North 
of  Ireland,  came  to  Worcester  and  established  a  church  in  the  old  garrison 
house  near  the  intersection  of  the  Boston  and  Lancaster  roads.  Rev, 
Edward  Fitzgerald,  from  Londonderry,  Ireland,  was  their  first  pastor 
and  preached  to  them  for  some  months.  Soon  they  began  to  erect  a 
church  building,  but  this  did  not  meet  with  approval  of  other  inhabitants, 
who  gathered  and  destroyed  the  building  which  was  well  under  way. 
Discouraged  by  this  opposition,  they  made  no  further  attempt  to  build 
a  sanctuary.  Rev.  Mr.  Fitzgerald  was  compelled  from  want  of  financial 
support  to  leave  and  was  later  succeeded  by  Rev.  Wm.  Johnston.  In 
1736  the  congregation  attempted  to  have  their  taxes  for  the  support  of 
the  Old  South  Minister  (the  town  minister)  abated,  because  they  were 
supporting  another  minister,  but  like  all  other  such  attempts  to  avoid 
the  church  rates  of  the  Puritans,  it  failed.  The  church  soon  afterward 
seems  to  have  disbanded  and  the  members  returned  to  the  Congregational 
fold.  Thus  ended  the  first  attempt  to  establish  a  Presbyterian  church 
here. 

For  nearly  one  hundred  and  fifty  years  there  was  no  Presbyterian 
church  in  Worcester,  no  further  efifort  being  made  until  Feb.  25,  1886, 
when  a  group  of  men  and  women  met  in  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  rooms  on  Elm 
street  to  consider  the  organization  of  a  Presbyterian  church  in  connec- 
tion with  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  the  United 
States  of  America.  Rev.'  Joseph  W.  Sanderson,  superintendent  of  N.  E. 
Mission,  presided.  Elder  Robert  Gilchrist  of  Boston  represented  the 
Presbytery.  No  definite  action  was  taken  at  this  meeting,  which  was 
adjourned  and  met  March  25  in  Mechanics  Hall.  At  this  meeting  fifty 
were  present,  and  the  following  committee  was  elected :  Geo.  Edwards, 
R.  J.  McKay,  Dr.  H.  D.  Kurtz,  Thos.  Hamilton,  Geo.  Weir,  James  Rus- 
sell and  Wm.  Findlay,  this  committee  to  act  until  formal  organization 
was  perfected. 

On  April  1,  1886,  the  first  prayer  meeting  was  held  at  the  home  of 
George  Edward,  114  Beacon  street,  and  was  led  by  Dr.  H.  D.  Kurtz.  On 
April  4,  1886,  the  first  preaching  service  was  held  at  St.  George's  Hall. 
Rev.  J.  H.  Ralston,  from  McPherson,  Kansas,  appointed  by  the  Presby- 
tery to  take  charge,  preached  in  the  afternoon.  A  canvas  of  the  city  by 
Mr.  Ralston  soon  settled  the  question  of  a  church  organization.  A  peti- 
tion signed  by  over  one  hundred  names  was  presented  to  the  Presbytery 


848  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

of  Boston  requesting  the  organization  of  a  church  in  Worcester.  This 
was  granted,  and  May  27,  1886,  Rev.  V.  A.  Lewis  of  Boston  presided 
and  proceeded  to  organize  the  church  in  due  form  with  57  members.  At 
this  meeting  Mr.  Ralston  was  duly  installed  as  pastor;  the  first  elders, 
Geo.  Edwards,  Geo.  Weir  and  Wm.  Findlay,  were  also  installed. 

In  June,  1886,  the  church  began  to  hold  meetings  in  Continental 
Hall,  and  continued  there  until  Sept.  1,  1887,  when  services  were  held 
in  Curtis  Hall,  Y.  M.  C.  A.  building.  Rev.  Thos.  Atkinson  succeeded  Mr. 
Ralston;  he  was  installed  May  1,  1890,  and  resigned  in  January,  1894. 
On  Sept.  28,  1890,  the  meeting  place  changed  to  Horticultural  Hall,  and 
on  April  5,  1891,  to  Washburn  Hall.  The  next  move  was  Sept.  27,  1891, 
to  the  church  building  on  Kilby  street  which  was  bought  from  All  Souls 
Universalist  Church. 

The  next  minister  was  Rev.  Alvah  R.  Scott,  who  came  June  27,  1894, 
and  was  installed  in  October.  He  resigned  Oct.  5,  1898.  During  his 
pastorate  he  studied  at  Clark  University,  and  later  received  his  degree 
of  Ph.D.  from  the  University  of  Wooster,  Ohio.  Rev.  Andrew  J.  Bruck- 
lacher  was  pastor  from  May  1,  1899,  until  April  18,  1900.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Rev.  Francis  W.  Beidler,  who  came  Sept.  1,  1900,  installed 
April  30,  1901,  resigned  June  18,  1902.  During  this  period  it  was  found 
that  the  church  building  on  Kilby  street  was  too  far  from  the  center  of 
the  city,  so  it  was  decided  to  locate  further  down  town.  On  Oct.  2,  1901, 
Malta  Temple  on  Main  street,  now  occupied  by  the  Hadley  Furniture  Co., 
was  the  next  meeting  place.  Rev.  McLeod  Harvey  was  the  next  pastor, 
called  from  Haverhill,  Mass.;  he  was  installed  Dec.  17,  1902,  and 
resigned  in  August,  1913.  During  his  pastorate  the  church  acquired  the 
church  building  formerly  occupied  by  the  Main  street  Baptist  brethren  at 
the  corner  of  Main  and  Hermon  streets.  The  acquisition  of  a  church 
home  meant  much,  even  although  loaded  down  by  a  heavy  burden  of 
debt,  but  through  the  efforts  of  the  pastor  and  Rev.  Chas.  T.  Schaeffer, 
chairman  of  the  board  of  trustees,  the  Board  of  Church  Erection  of  the 
Presbyterian  Church  made  it  possible  to  carry  the  burden. 

Rev.  Chas.  Allen  Fisher,  the  present  pastor,  was  installed  Dec.  17, 
1913.  John  W.  Armour  was  superintendent  of  the  Sabbath  school  from 
Sept.  15,  1890,  to  Feb.  20,  1899,  and  from  March  19,  1903,  to  March  31, 
1911,  and  from  April  il,  1915,  to  the  present  time. 

Westminster  United  Presbyterian  Church. — The  First  United  Pres- 
byterian Church  was  organized  Jan.  29,  1895.  The  congregation  was 
formed  from  colonists  from  Canada,  and  members  from  local  churches, 
principally  the  United  Presbyterians  moving  to  Worcester  from  Whit- 
insville  and  Clinton,  and  from  the  First  Presbyterian  Church.  For  some 
time  previous  to  organization,  services  were  held  in  St.  George's  Hall, 
492  Main  street,  under  the  leadership  of  Rev.  S.  B.  Haslett,  Ph.D.,  pastor 
of  the  United  Presbyterian  church  at  Wilkinsonville,  and  shortly  after  its 
organization.  Rev.  Robert  Hughes,  of  the  Canadian  Presbyterian  Church, 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  849 

began  as  supply.  Mr.  Hughes  was  called  and  installed  as  the  first  pastor, 
April  9,  1896,  and  continued  until  Oct.  20,  1901.  The  succeeding  pastors 
have  been:  Rev.  Newton  J.  Walter,  1902-03  (during  whose  pastorate 
the  present  property  at  63  Wellington  street  was  purchased  and  reded- 
icated)  ;  John  B.  Pollock,  1904-05;  Matthew  S.  McCord,  D.  D.,  1905-12; 
John  A.  Shaw,  1913;  Paul  L.  Reynolds,  1914-17;  F.  Wight  Tingley, 
1917 — .  Rev.  Mr.  Tingley  assumed  charge  in  1917.  The  name  was 
changed  from  the  First  to  the  Westminster  United  Presbyterian  Church 
when  it  was  incorporated  in  1903.  The  United  Presbyterian  denomi- 
nation is  a  psalm-singing  body,  and  its  missionary  and  educational  work 
is  of  note. 


W.~I-54. 


CHAPTER   LVI 

Protestant  Episcopal  Church — All  Saints — St.  John's — St.  Matthew's 

St.  Mark's— St.  Luke's— Episcopal  Church  Club 

All  Saints  Church. — After  one  attempt  that  failed,  Episcopalian  ser- 
vices were  held  here  in  1835,  beginning  Dec.  13  and  attended  by  sixty- 
persons,  Rev.  Thos.  H.  Vaill  being  the  preacher.  A  corporation,  "Pro- 
prietors of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  Worcester,"  was  created 
April  8,  1836,  Thos.  H.  Vaill,  Ira  M.  Barton  and  Edward  F.  Dixie  being 
named  in  the  act.  Mr.  Vaill  went  away  at  the  end  of  six  months,  dis- 
couraged at  the  prospects.     He  was  afterward  bishop  of  Kansas. 


ALL  SAINTS'  CHURCH. 

Services  were  resumed  in  1842,  and  Dec.  35th,  there  was  a  service  in 
the  Central  Church  chapel,  Thomas  street,  in  charge  of  Rev.  Fernando 
C.  Putnam.  He  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Henry  Blackaller.  At  that  time 
Thomas  Bottomly  and  Chas.  S.  Ellis  were  wardens.  Rev.  Geo.  T.  Chap- 
man, D.  D.,  came  at  Easter  in  1844,  and  worked  zealously  for  two  years. 
He  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Geo.  H.  Clark,  the  first  settled  rector.  He 
resigned  in  January,  1849,  on  account  of  ill  health.     His  successor,  Rev. 


852  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Nath.  T.  Bent,  remained  until  the  spring  of  1852.  During  the  next  four 
years  Rev.  Archibald  M.  Morrison  was  rector.  For  three  years  the 
church  was  without  a  rector,  Revs.  William  H.  Brooks  and  Albert  C. 
Patterson  having  charge.  Rev.  E.  W.  Hager  became  rector  in  Decem- 
ber, 1859,  and  resigned  in  August,  1862. 

The  ministry  of  Rev.  William  R.  Huntington,  beginning  Dec.  3, 
1862,  when  he  was  ordained  here,  and  lasting  twenty-one  years,  was  a 
period  of  great  growth  and  development,  Nov.  26,  1883,  Dr.  Hunting- 
ton resigned  to  become  rector  of  Grace  Church,  New  York.  After  a 
period  during  which  Rev.  Lawrence  H.  Schwab  was  in  charge.  Rev.  Alex. 
H.  Vinton  was  chosen  rector,  April  11,  1884,  and  began  his  duties  Sep- 
tember 1st.  He  resigned  Feb.  25,  1902,  and  became  Bishop  of  Western 
Massachustets.  He  was  succeeded  Jan.  1,  1903,  by  Rev.  Thos.  F.  Da- 
vies,  who  resigned  Oct.  15,  1911,  to  succeed  Bishop  Vinton.  Since  Oct. 
16,  1912,  Rev.  Lewis  G.  Morris  has  been  rector.  Revs.  Chas.  L.  Short, 
Frederic  C.  Lauderburn,  and  Donald  K.  Johnston  have  been  assistant 
ministers  or  curates  since  1893,  for  various  periods.  Rev.  Richard  A. 
Kirchhoffer  has  been  curate  since  1916. 

The  first  church  was  on  Pearl  street,  erected  in  1846.  In  1860  it 
was  enlarged,  and  during  twenty-eight  years  three  times  received  altera- 
tions. It  was  destroyed  by  fire,  April  7,  1874.  A  building  committee 
was  appointed  May  15,  and  ground  was  broken  on  a  lot  at  the  corner 
of  Irving  and  Pleasant  streets  Dec.  29,  1874.  The  cornerstone  was  laid 
July  21,  1875,  and  the  building  consecrated  Jan.  4,  1877,  by  Bishop 
Paddock.  This  church  has  held  its  place  among  the  most  beautiful 
and  artistic  structures  of  the  city.  The  material  is  red  sandstone.  Ste- 
phen C.  Earle  was  the  architect.  The  builders  were  Norcross  Bros. 
Embedded  in  the  walls  are  stone  relics  of  mediaeval  period  presented  by 
the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  the  Cathedral  of  Worcester,  England.  The 
church  building  contains  a  chapel  and  a  parish  library. 

In  1916  a  parish  house  was  erected  upon  land  adjoining  the  church 
on  Irving  street.  This  building  is  of  brick,  designed  by  Cram  &  Fergu- 
son. Early  English  in  character,  and  connects  with  the  main  building. 
Offering  as  it  does  every  facility  for  the  activities  of  a  growing  parish 
this  recent  acquisition  realizes  the  cherished  hope  of  a  generation  of 
worshippers  at  All  Saints. 

The  Wednesday  Club  of  All  Saints  Parish  had  its  origin  March  8, 

1876,  at  an  informal  meeting  of  ten  young  women,  and  was  known  at 
first  as  the  L.  B.  Club,  the  name  Wednesday  Club  being  adopted  in 

1877.  The  objects  are  mutual  improvement  and  to  advance  missionary 
and  charitable  work.  At  a  fair  in  1876  the  club  made  $500,  and  the 
money  was  contributed  for  the  middle  window  in  the  chancel.  For 
many  years  the  club  trimmed  the  church  for  various  festivals.  The  tenth 
anniversary  was  observed,  the  club  history  (1876-86)  published,  and  a 
crayon  portrait  of  Dr.  Huntington  given  the  parish  at  that  time. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  853 

In  1890-91  the  club  rented  and  furnished  a  house,  26  Irving  street; 
in  1891  rooms  were  opened  at  15  Irving  street,  and  maintained  there  until 
1896.  The  twentieth  anniversary  was  celebrated  with  elaborate  exer- 
cises, an  account  of  which  is  given  in  a  pamphlet  published  at  that  time. 
A  memorial  window  was  given  to  mark  the  occasion,  known  as  the 
"Ruth"  window.  The  club  in  later  years  has  raised  money  for  the  par- 
ish house  fund ;  $380  for  the  renovation  of  the  library ;  $565  for  the 
repairs  in  the  church  and  parish  building ;  $700  raised  by  honorary  mem- 
bers for  similar  purposes;  contributions  to  various  local  organizations 
such  as  the  Boys  Club,  Associated  Charities,  Day  Nursery  Employment 
Society. 

The  following  have  been  presidents:  Corinne  L.  Nichols,  1876-7; 
Agnes  Clary,  1877-8;  1880-81;  Isabel  F.  Hapgood,  1878-9;  Emily  Chase 
(Mrs.  J.  Russel  Marble),  1879-80;  Annie  M.  Lincoln,  1881-2;  1885-6; 
Sarah  B.  Hopkins,  1882-3;  1895-6;  Grace  Whiting  (Mrs.  G.  F.  Myers), 
1883-4;  L.  Stella  Whitcomb  (Mrs.  J.  F.  Browning),  1884-5;  Camilla  G. 
Whitcomb,  1886-7;  1892-3;  1900-01;  Elizabeth  S.  Howe  (Mrs.  S.  H. 
Colton),  1887-8;  1890-91;  Sarah  J.  Hill  (Mrs.  W.  M.  Lancaster),  1889- 
90;  Elizabeth  P.  Hopkins  (Mrs.  A.  L.  Aiken),  1891-2;  Lilian  A. 
Mathews,  1893-4;  Mary  Louisa  Trumbull  Cogswell  (Mrs,  E.  M.  Rob- 
erts), 1894-5;  Georgiana  L.  Stone  (Mrs.  James  E.  Ives),  1896-7;  Edith 
Almy  Barton  (Mrs.  Edgar  M.  Atkin),  1897-8;  Grace  Bliven,  1898-9; 
Ada  Drenna  (Mrs.  Frederick  G.  Dews),  1899-1900;  Anne  W.  Lovell, 
1901-02;  Florence  L.  Cobb,  1902-03;  Elizabeth  H.  Pratt  (Mrs.  E.  Irving 
Clark),  1903-04;  Helen  C.  Marble,  1904-5;  Rosaline  Brand  (Mrs.  Suth- 
erland), 1905-6;  Georgiana  H.  Boyd,  1906-7;  Margaret  Lovell,  1907-8; 
Mrs.  Kendall  Emerson,  1908-10;  Mary  C.  Kessell,  1910-12;  Mrs.  S.  H. 
Colton,  1912 — . 

St.  John's  Church. — Dr.  Huntington's  idea  of  forming  four  missions 
in  the  city,  naming  them  from  the  first  four  Evangelists  and  developing 
four  churches  has  been  realized.  St.  John's  was  the  second.  A  Sunday 
school  was  established  March  11,  1883,  in  an  upper  room  in  a  building  on 
Lincoln  Square.  The  first  services  there  were  conducted  by  Rev.  Henry 
Hague,  of  St.  Matthew's,  Jan.  6,  1884 ;  and  the  first  regular  Sunday  ser- 
vices were  begun  March  9,  following,  Rev..  John  S.  Bens,  general  mis- 
sionary of  the  diocese.  At  the  same  time  Rev.  Edward  S.  Cross  began 
missionary  work,  and  took  formal  charge  April  13.  Land  on  Lincoln 
street  for  a  church  was  bought  April  21,  and  ground  was  broken  May 
13.  The  cornerstone  was  laid  July  5.  Stephen  C.  Earle  was  the  archi- 
tect. Public  worship  in  the  new  church  was  held  for  the  first  time  on 
Christmas  Day.  For  a  time  the  free  church  system  was  tried,  but  was 
soon  abandoned.  In  1887  it  was  necessary  to  enlarge  the  church,  increas- 
ing the  sittings  to  308.     The  parish  was  organized  Sept.  18,  1884. 

Mr.  Cross  preached  his  farewell  sermon  Oct.  19,  1884,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded as  rector  by  Rev.  Francis  C.  Burgess,  Nov.  30  that  year.     Rev. 


854 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


<^ 


ST.   MATTHEW'S. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE 


855 


Eliot  White  succeeded  Mr.  Burgess  in  1897,  resigning  in  1907.  Since 
then  Rev.  Walton  S.  Danker  has  been  rector. 

St.  Matthew's  Church.— A  mission  chapel  fund  of  $721.21,  raised 
at  a  Christmas  sale  by  the  women  of  All  Saint's  Church  in  1869,  was 
the  beginning  of  the  foundation  of  St.  Matthew's  Church.  Added  con- 
tributions allowed  the  purchase  of  a  lot  at  the  corner  of  Southbridge 
and  Washburn  streets,  in  South  Worcester ;  an  association  was  formed 
by  twelve  prominent  members  of  All  Saints  for  the  management  of  the 
mission  and  to  act  as  trustees.  In  the  summer  of  1871  the  chapel  was 
erected  under  the  supervision  of  Rev.  Dr.  W.  R.  Huntington,  by  Orlando 
W.  Norcross,  and  it  was  dedicated  Sept.  21,  St.  Matthew's  Day.  The 
speakers  were :  Dr.  Huntington,  Revs.  Mr.  Howe  of  Milford,  Jones  of 
Fitchburg,  and  John  Gregson,  who  took  charge  of  the  chapel  as  assistant 
to  the  rector  of  All  Saints.  Rev.  Thos.  A.  Robertson  succeeded  Mr.  Greg- 
son,  Oct.  1,  1872,  after  an  interim  during  which  Mr.  Thomas  Mackay, 
a  student,  conducted  services.  Mr.  Robertson  resigned  July  1,  1873,  and 
Mr.  Mackay  again  had  temporary  charge  until  Jan.  1,  1874,  when  his 
father.  Rev.  Henry  Mackay,  of  Pittsburg,  Penn.,  became  rector's  assistant 
in  charge  of  the  mission. 

The  parish  was  organized  May  5,  1874;  William  Lancaster  was 
elected  clerk.  The  charter  members  were:  Henry  Mackay,  Henry  L. 
Parker,  William  Lancaster,  Matthew  J.  Whittall,  James  Ballantyne,  Sum- 
ner Cummings,  Sampson  Austin,  William  R.  Hamilton,  Thomas  Parker, 
.Francis  Boston,  Joseph  Crawford,  George  Lancaster.  The  following 
officers  were  elected :  Senior  Warden,  Henry  L.  Parker.  Junior  War- 
den, Matthew  J.  Whittall.  Vestrymen,  Sampson  Austin,  James  L. 
Ballantyne,  William  Lancaster,  William  R.  Hamilton,  Sumner  Cum- 
mings. Treasurer  and  Collector,  M.  J.  Whittall.  Clerk,  William  Lan- 
caster. 

Rev.  Henry  Mackay,  the  first  rector,  resigned  July  1,  1875.  Rev. 
Amos  Skeele  succeeded  him  April  24,  1876,  resigning  in  1877.  Albert 
Schmidt  became  clerk,  Oct.  29,  1877.  Rev.  George  S.  Paine  had  charge 
of  services  six  months.  He  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Alex.  Mackey  Smith, 
later  rector  of  St.  John's  Church,  Washington,  D.  C.  Rev.  George  E. 
Osgood,  assistant  at  All  Saints,  became  the  rector  here  June  1,  1878.  In 
the  same  month  James  L.  Ballantyne  succeeded  Henry  L.  Parker  as  war- 
den, and  in  turn  was  succeeded  April  14  by  Charles  Booth. 

In  1880,  through  the  generosity  of  the  late  Sumner  Pratt,  the  debt 
was  removed  and  the  property  deeded  to  the  parish.  The  church  was 
consecrated  Feb.  8,  1880,  by  Rt.  Rev.  B.  H.  Paddock,  Bishop  of  Massa- 
chusetts, assisted  by  Revs.  George  E.  Osgood,  the  rector,  George  S. 
Paine  and  Thos.  F.  Fales  of  Waltham.  At  that  time  the  church  had  fifty 
communicants ;  the  Sunday  school  an  attendance  of  125  persons.  Henry 
Gaunt  was  elected  clerk  and  treasurer  April  6,  1880,   to  succeed   Mr. 


856  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Schmidt.  The  people  of  Cherry  Valley  joined  the  new  church  Nov.  1, 
1880,  and  the  rector  ceased  to  be  assistant  minister  of  All  Saints. 

Mr.  Osgood  resigned  Jan.  16,  1881,  to  become  rector  of  Grace 
Church,  North  Attleborough,  and  during  the  vacancy  Henry  L.  Parker 
served  as  lay  reader.  Rev.  Julius  H.  Waterbury,  called  April  26,  1881, 
was  the  next  rector.  He  resigned  in  November  and  died  on  Good  Fri- 
day, 1882.  In  April,  1881,  Alfred  H.  Booth  succeeded  Mr.  Gaunt  as 
clerk  and  treasurer.  Again  Mr.  Parker  officiated  as  lay  reader.  Rev. 
Henry  Hague  began  his  duties  as  rector  Aug.  1,  1882.  In  the  meantime 
plans  for  an  addition  to  the  church  had  been  made,  land  purchased  at 
the  corner  of  Southbridge  and  Cambridge  streets,  and  funds  raised. 
The  building  committee  consisted  of  M.  J.  Whittall,  James  Cunningham, 
J.  W.  Young  and  Alfred  Thomas ;  Edward  Snyder  was  the  contractor. 
The  hall,  designed  for  the  Sunday  school  and  parish  work,  was  dedi- 
cated in  December,  1882,  the  speakers  being  Dr.  Huntington,  Hon.  Ed- 
ward L.  Davis,  James  Cunningham  and  the  rector.  The  building  cost 
nearly  $6,000.  The  parish  was  admitted  to  the  diocesan  convention  in 
1883,  and  the  delegates  were  Messrs.  Whittall,  Cunningham  and  Parker. 
James  Cunningham  succeeded  Charles  Booth  as  junior  warden,  July 
26,  1882. 

Through  the  generosity  of  Mr.  Whittall,  the  rector  was  given  an 
assistant,  Rev.  George  E.  Allen,  who  came  to  his  duties  Good  Friday, 

1889,  and  remained  thirteen  months.  He  was  ordained  to  the  priest- 
hood while  here.     He  died  in  Fall  River,  Feb.  19,  1896. 

It  was  decided  to  buy  land  for  a  new  church  in  April,  1890,  and  a 
building  committee  was  appointed:  Mr.  Whittall,  Mr.  Cuningham  and 
Mr.  Thomas.  The  site  of  the  present  church  was  acquired ;  the  ground 
was  broken  July  5,  1890,  for  the  rectory,  which  was  completed  Nov.  22, 

1890,  at  a  cost  of  nearly  $5,000.  The  old  church  was  burned  on  the 
night  of  Jan.  6,  1893 ;  the  hall  was  removed  to  make  way  for  the  new 
church  ;  the  old  building  was  sold  and  services  held  in  the  parish  hall 
temporarily.  Work  began  on  the  new  church  in  December,  1893 ;  the 
cornerstone  was  laid  May  26,  1894,  by  Bishop  Lawrence.  The  dedica- 
tion had  been  set  for  May  23,  1896,  but  on  May  8th  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mat- 
thew J.  Wliittall  assumed  the  balance  of  indebtedness,  $30,000,  in  order 
that  the  building  might  be  consecrated.  The  consecration  services  were 
held  May  22d  by  Bishop  Lawrence,  assisted  by  a  large  number  of 
clergymen.     Mr.  Hague  was  rector  until  1914. 

The  present  rector  Rev.  George  S.  Southworth,  has  served  since 
1914.  The  first  superintendent  of  the  Sunday  school  was  Henry  C. 
Wadsworth.  His  successors  have  been  Henry  L.  Parker,  J.  Brown  Al- 
den,  E.  J.  Ryan,  James  Cunningham,  and  various  rectors  of  the  church. 
The  school  has  grown  from  a  membership  of  a  hundred  to  about  400. 
A  history  of  the  church  and  its  various  organizations  was  prepared  by 
James  Cunningham  and  published  in  1896. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  857 

The  Ladies'  Parish  Aid  Society  has  been  an  active  and  useful  adjunct 
of  the  church  ahnost  from  the  beginning.  St.  Andrew's  Brotherhood 
for  more  than  twenty-five  years  has  held  regular  meetings  and  per- 
formed useful  service  in  the  parish.  In  another  field  the  Young  People's 
Social  Society  has  been  also  helpful.  The  Altar  Society  organized  in 
1893,  has  performed  its  duties  faithfully  since  then.  St.  Margaret's 
Guild  was  organized  in  April,  1895. 

St.  Mark's  Church. — St.  Mark's  probably  began  in  the  mind  of  the 
Rev.  Dr.  William  R.  Huntington,  who  for  many  years  had  been  rector  of 
All  Saints.  For  Dr.  Huntington,  with  characteristic  mental  precision  and 
spiritual  prevision,  saw  All  Saints  Church,  Worcester,  surrounded  by  four 
Episcopal  churches  in  the  four  corners  of  the  city  each  named  for  one  of  the 
four  Evangelists.  And  nearly  three  years  before  the  first  steps  were  taken 
to  organize  St.  Mark's,  Dr.  Huntington  sent  a  money  offering  which  had 
been  put  in  his  care,  to  Mrs.  Abbie  A.  Bigelow,  asking  her  to  keep  it 
"against  the  right  moment  for  the  spade  to  be  struck  into  the  ground 
for  the  Mission  of  St.  Mark."  This  money  Mrs.  Bigelow  did  not  keep 
"in  a  napkin."  It  soon  went  far  to  purchase  the  land  on  which  St. 
Mark's  now  stands. 

On  September  5,  1887,  in  the  office  of  Attorney  Henry  L.  Parker,  an 
informal  meeting  was  held  to  consider  starting  a  new  Episcopal  church, 
and  nine  days  later,  at  the  residence  of  Orlando  W.  Norcross,  the  fol- 
lowing committee  was  appointed :  Henry  L.  Parker,  James  Cunning- 
ham, Mrs.  O.  W.  Norcross,  Mrs.  Abbie  A.  Bigelow,  Chas.  A.  Allen, 
Jos.  Jackson,  Chas.  H.  Devoe,  and  Reuben  Colton.  To  this  committee 
Mrs.  Arnold  Kabley,  S.  Hamilton  Coe  and  J.  A.  Norcross  were  soon 
added. 

The  first  service  was  held  October  16,  1887,  in  the  South  Baptist 
Church ;  and,  thanks  to  the  courtesy  of  that  society,  the  services  of  St. 
Mark's  Mission  were  held  in  the  South  Baptist  Church  for  nearly  a  year. 
They  were  led  by  the  Rev.  Thomas  Nickerson  until  Feb.  3,  1888,  when 
Rev.  Langdon  C.  Stewardson,  the  first  rector  of  St.  Mark's,  was  elected. 
The  Mission  was  organized  as  a  parish,  September  13,  1888.  The  first 
parochial  officers  were:  Senior  warden,  Henry  L.  Parker;  junior  war- 
den, Lemuel  A.  Bishop;  vestrymen:  Orlando  W.  Norcross,  S.  Hamil- 
ton Coe,  Louis  N.  Wilson,  A.  M,  Powell,  Thos.  B.  Cowan,  James  W. 
Allen,  Edgar  E.  Fay,  Herbert  Moulton ;  treasurer,  Joseph  Jackson ; 
clerk,  Charles  A.  Allen. 

Meanwhile  the  present  church  building,  designed  by  Stephen  C. 
Earle  and  constructed  by  O.  W.  Norcross,  was  approaching  completion. 
The  first  service  in  that  building  was  held  February  7,  1889.  The  next 
day  it  was  resolved  at  a  parish  meeting  that  all  seats  should  be  free.  Mr, 
Stewardson,  the  first  rector,  was  ever  a  vigorous  advocate  of  freedom : 
"A  free  pulpit,  encouraged  by  the  congregation  to  speak  its  mind  with- 
out fear  or  favour ;  free  pews,  in  which  there  shall  be  no  distinction 
between  rich  and  poor;    and  free-will  offerings."     He  preached  a  virile 


858  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


Christianity,  and  had  a  loyal  following.  Later  he  became  president  of 
Hobart  College,  Geneva,  New  York. 

From  Jan.  26  to  Aug.  1,  1898,  Rev.  Willis  H.  Hazard  was  rector, 
but  Mr.  Hazard  soon  found  himself  obliged  to  give  up  work  on  account 
of  an  unsuspected  impediment  in  his  speech.  The  Rev.  Henry  B.  Wash- 
burn, of  a  family  conspicuous  in  the  annals  of  Worcester,  was  elected 
rector  on  October  11,  1898.  Under  his  able  leadership  the  parish  soon 
became  free  from  all  indebtedness,  and  looked  to  larger  fields  by  start- 
ing a  parochial  mission  in  Stoneville.  After  nearly  ten  years  of  devoted 
service  Mr.  Washburn  resigned  to  accept  the  office  which  he  now  holds. 
Professor  of  Ecclesiastical  History  in  the  Episcopal  Theological  School 
at  Cambridge. 

The  present  rector,  the  Rev.  Kinsley  Blodgett,  was  elected  Nov. 
25,  1908.  The  parochial  officers  at  present  are:  Senior  warden.  Prof. 
Zelotes  W.  Coombs;  junior  warden,  Hon.  John  A.  Thayer;  vestrymen: 
S.  Hamilton  Coe,  Wm.  F.  Cole,  Edward  L.  Dunn,  Harry  Hodgkinson, 
Lafayette  B.  Holt,  Wm.  H.  Larrabee,  Reginald  D.  Lidstone,  Chas.  E. 
Lyon,  O.  W.  Norcross,  James  H.  Shattuck,  Marvin  M.  Taylor,  Geo. 
W.  Warren;  treasurer,  Joseph  Jackson  (who  has  held  that  office  ever 
since  the  mission  was  organized)  ;    clerk,  Merrill  D.  Brigham. 

St.  Luke's  Church. — The  fourth  of  the  Episcopalian  churches  that 
Rev.  Dr.  Huntington  planned  for  the  four  quarters  of  the  city  was  estab- 
lished in  1908.  The  church  was  built  soon  afterward,  and  remained  in 
charge  of  the  rector  of  All  Saints  Church  until  1913.  Since  that  time. 
Rev.  Frederick  H.  Danker,  whose  brother  is  rector  of  St.  John's,  has 
been  the  rector.  The  church  is  growing  rapidly.  St.  Luke's  Church  on 
Pleasant  street,  near  Flagg  street,  is  a  gem  of  architecture. 

Episcopal  Church  Club. — The  origin  of  the  club  dates  from  a  dinner, 
January  17,  1888,  given  by  vestrymen  of  various  parishes  in  St.  Mat- 
thew's Hall,  South  Worcester.  The  formal  organization  came  a  year 
later,  when,  by  invitation  of  the  rector,  wardens  and  vestrymen  of  St. 
John's  Church,  forty-six  members  of  the  various  parishes  of  the  city  met 
in  St.  John's  Parish  Hall,  January  15,  1889.  After  supper.  Rev.  Francis 
G.  Burgess  presided  at  the  business  meeting,  at  which  by-laws  were 
adopted  and  officers  elected.  The  membership  soon  increased  to  more 
than  a  hundred.  Dinners  have  been  held  since  then  in  the  spring,  fall 
and  winter.  From  1889  to  1899  these  gatherings  were  in  the  Bay  State 
House.  Distinguished  speakers  were  guests  of  the  club.  The  later 
dinners  have  been  in  the  Bancroft  Hotel. 

Some  of  the  principal  speakers  have  been :  Rev.  P.  M.  Washburn, 
of  Northampton,  May  21,  1889;  A.  J.  C.  Sowden,  Oct.  15,  1889;  Bishop 
Dudley,  Jan.  20,  1890;  Rev.  L.  Shapardson,  May  20,  1890;  Gen.  Schaflf 
and  Rev.  Wilberforce  Newton,  Oct.  21,  1890 ;  Rt.  Rev.  Thos.  M.  Clark, 
Bishop  of  Rhode  Island,  Jan.  17,  1891 ;  Rev.  W.  R.  Huntington,  May  19, 
1891 ;  Prof.  L.  L.  Conant  and  Rev.  Percy  S.  Grant,  Oct.  20,  1891 ;  Rev. 
Sidney  Partridge  of  China,  Jan.  19,  1892;   Rt.  Rev.  Phillips  Brooks  and 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  859 

Hon.  Robt.  Treat  Paine,  May  24,  1893;  Hon.  Stephen  Salisbury,  Hon. 
S.  C.  Darling,  and  Rev.  Mr.  Vrooman,  Oct.  11,  1892;  Hon.  E.  L.  Davis 
and  Rev.  Dr.  Lemon,  Jan.  10,  1893;  Rev.  F.  B.  Allen  and  Hon.  John  D. 
Washburn,  May  9,  1893;  Dr.  Chas.  L.  Nichols  and  Rev.  John  C.  Brooks, 
Oct.  4,  1893 ;  Rt.  Rev.  Wm.  Lawrence,  Hon.  Edward  L.  Davis  and 
Winthrop  C.  Durfee,  Jan.  9,  1894;  Rathbone  Gardner,  of  Providence, 
and  Dean  Hodges,  of  Cambridge,  May  8,  1894 ;  Dr.  G.  Stanley  Hall, 
Hon.  Geo.  F.  Hoar,  Oct.  9,  1894;  Rev.  L.  C.  Stewardson,  Dr.  T.  C. 
Mendenhall  and  Hon.  Chas.  L.  Denney,  of  Leicester,  Jan.  7,  1895;  Rev. 
J.  Harris  Knowles,  Stephen  C.  Earle  and  Clarence  F.  Carroll,  superin- 
tendent of  schools,  June  11,  1895;  T.  Clemson,  Oct.  29,  1895;  Rev.  Wm. 
Sheafe,  of  Woonsocket,  R.  L,  and  Jno.  H.  Stiness,  of  Providence,  Jan, 

14,  1896 ;  Rev.  Chas.  M.  Addison,  archdeacon  of  Worcester,  and  Rev. 
Edmund  Sweet  Rousmaniere,  archdeacon  of  New  Bedford,  June  9,  1896 ; 
Hon.  Robt.  Treat  Paine  and  Rev.  Fred.  B.  Allen,  of  Boston,  Nov.  10, 
1896 ;  Rev.  Jno.  P.  Peters,  of  New  York,  Feb.  9,  1897 ;  Rev.  Eliot  White, 
Rev.  Mr.  Haughton,  of  Clinton,  and  Rev.  Dr.  Vinton,  and  Hon.  Henry 
L.  Parker,  Oct.  12,  1897;  Rt.  Rev.  Percy  T.  Rowe,  Bishop  of  Alaska, 
and  Hon.  E.  L.  Davis,  Nov.  8,  1898;  Rt.  Rev.  Wm.  H.  McVicar,  Bishop 
coadjutor  of  Rhode  Island,  Very  Rev.  Wilford  L.  Robbins,  Dean  of  All 
Saints,  Albany,  Feb.  6,  1899;  Rt.  Rev.  T.  F.  Davis,  Reginald  Wash- 
burn and  Dr.  Langdon  C.  Stewardson,  Dec.  14,  1914;  S.  Hamilton  Coe, 
March  24,  1915;  Hon.  W.  T.  Forbes,  Nov.  17,  1915;  Rt.  Rev.  T.  F. 
Davies,  Rev.  E.  S.  Rousmaniere,  Harry  G.  Stoddard  and  Robert  K.  Shaw, 
Feb.  9,  1916;   Rev.  Walton  S.  Danker,  chaplain  of  2d  Mass.  Regt.,  Oct. 

15,  1916 ;  Dr.  Martin  Prince,  Bishop  Davies  and  Rt.  Rev.  James  DeW. 
Perry,  Jr.,  Bishop  of  Rhode  Island,  Feb.  8,  1917;  J.  W.  Mawbey,  J. 
Burford  Parry  of  Springfield;   Lt.  Col.  E.  K.  Massee,  April  17,  1918. 

From  1899  to  1914  the  club  was  dormant.  Largely  through  the 
efforts  of  Alfred  T.  Howarth,  the  organization  again  became  active.  Its 
present  membership  is  about  one  hundred.  The  presidents  of  the  club : 
Matthew  J.  Whittall,  1889;  Chas.  M.  Bent,  1890;  Stephen  C.  Earle, 
1891;  Henry  L.  Parker,  1892;  Dr.  Chas.  L.  Nichols,  1893;  Jas.  Cunning- 
ham, 1894;  Jos.  Jackson,  1895;  Edward  L.  Davis,  1896;  Chas.  G.  Wash- 
burn, 1897-1914;  D.  W.  Carter,  1914;  Edward  T.  Esty,  1916;  Z.  W. 
Coombs,  1914-15;  Rev.  Mr.  Roots,  1914-15;  R.  D.  Lidstone,  1916 — ; 
M.  Bent,  1889;  Stephen  C.  Earle,  1890;  Henry  L.  Parker,  1891;  Chas. 
L.  Nichols,  1892;  Jas.  Cunningham,  1893;  Jos.  Jackson,  1894;  Alfred 
Thomas  1895-97  and  1914-15;  Jos.  Alden  Shaw,  1898-1914;  Z.  W. 
Coombs,  1914-15;  Rev.  Mr.  Roots,  1914-15;  Al.  R.  D.  Lidstone,  1916 — ; 
Edmund  C.  Mayo,  1916 — ;  A.  A.  Burbank,  1918 — .  Clerks:  Stephen 
C.  Earle,  1889;  Alfred  Thomas,  1890-93  and  1898-1914;  Edmund  L. 
Parker,  1894;  Francis  W.  Blacker,  1895;  Jos.  Jackson,  1896;  Jno.  A. 
Thayer,  1897;  Frank  E.  Dodge,  1914 — .  Treasurers:  Jos.  Jackson, 
1889-94;  Chas.  A.  Allen,  1895-97;  Jos.  Jackson,  1898-1914;  Alfred 
T.  Howarth,  1914 — . 


86o 


HISTORY  OF  J  V  ORG  ESTER 


ST.   ANNE'S. 


ST.   JOHN'S. 


ST.    PETER'S. 


IM.MACULA  1  E  CUXCEPTIOX. 


CHAPTER  LVII 

The    Catholic    Church — Its    Establishment    in    Worcester — St.    John's 
Church — St.   Anne's — Sacred   Heart — St.   Paul's — Immaculate   Con- 
ception— St.    Peter's — St.    Stephen's — Ascension — Blessed    Sac- 
rament— St.  Bernard's — Our  Lady  of  the  Angels — Home  for 
the  Aged — The  Gray  Nuns — Ladies'  Benevolent 
Association 

The  Roman  Catholic  Church. — The  first  body  of  Catholics  came  to 
Worcester  in  1826.  They  were  Irish  laborers,  young  men  brought  here 
by  contractors  engaged  in  constructing  the  Blackstone  canal.  This 
work  kept  them  employed  two  years,  and  some  of  them  became  per- 
manent residents.  It  is  not  known  that  any  earlier  settlers  of  this  faith 
became  permanent  settlers.  The  construction  of  the  railroad  from  Bos- 
ton to  Worcester  brought  more  Catholic  Irish  laborers  here,  and  some 
of  them  also  remained  after  the  work  was  done. 

A  search  of  the  town  records  shows  that  few  births  were  recorded 
before  1840.  All  that  have  been  found  were  George,  son  of  Patrick  and 
Catherine  McKenna,  b.  Dec.  2,  1828,   (also  James,  b.  1837,  Julia  Ann, 

b.  1838)  ;  George  Goulding,  son  of and  Catherine  Tighe,  b.  Dec.  3, 

1828 ;  Robey  Ellen,  daughter  of  John  and  Mehitable  McGrath,  b.  June 
18,  1829,  (these  parents  also  had  Edward  and  Mary  Jane  before  1840)  ; 
Carlos,  son  of  Patrick  and  Bridget  Murray,  b.  July  12,  1835;  William, 
son  of  Wm.  and  Margaret  Underwood,  b.  Feb.  23,  1835,  (also  John 
Underwood,  b.  April  11,  1837,  and  Sarah  Ann,  b.  June  23,  1839)  ;  James, 
son  of  Francis  and  Ann  Flanigan,  b.  June  15,  1836,  (Carlos,  b.  March 
11,  1839,  son  of  Francis  and  Ann  Flanigan)  ;  Edward,  son  of  Patrick  and 
Margaret  Conway,  born  June  13,  1837,  and  Nicholas,  by  same  parents, 
born  March  6,  1840 ;  Andrew  Laverty,  born  Oct.  14,  1836,  and  Catherine, 
born  Feb.  14,  1838,  children  of  Robert  and  Mary  Laverty. 

After  1840  the  vital  records  contain  numerous  records  of  births  in 
Irish  families,  and  the  baptizmal  records  of  St.  John's  furnish  many 
more.  It  may  be  assumed  from  the  careless  way  records  were  kept 
that  at  least  a  dozen  perhaps  a  score  of  Irish  Catholic  children  were  born 
here  before  1840.  But  the  larger  part  of  the  population  of  this  faith 
before  that  date  were  young  men  without  families. 

Bishop  Fenwick  in  1834  appointed  Rev.  James  Fitton,  then  pastor  at 
Hartford,  Conn.,  to  visit  this  town  once  a  month.  When  he  came  he 
found  eighty  persons  of  his  faith  in  this  section.  April  4,  1834,  Chris- 
topher Columbus  Baldwin,  librarian  of  the  American  Antiquarian  So- 
ciety, wrote  in  his  diary  (p.  288)  : 


862  HISTORY  OP  WORCESTER 


I  had  a  visit  today  from  the  Rev.  James  Fitton,  a  CathoHc  Priest  from  Hartford, 
Conn.  He  told  me  he  was  the  first  native  of  Boston  who  had  ever  preached  the 
Catholic  faith  in  New  England.  He  was  born  in  Boston,  April  lo,  1805,  and  is  going 
to  spend  his  birthday  with  his  mother  at  Boston  on  Thursday  next,  when,  he  says,  he 
shall  be  twenty-nine  years  old.  He  was  the  editor  of  the  Catholic  Press,  a  newspaper 
published  at  Hartford,  which,  he  says,  run  him  in  debt  a  thousand  dollars.  Before 
he  went  to  Hartford  he  was  among  the  Passymaquoddy  Indians.  His  father's  name 
was  Abraham  Fitton,  who  came  from  the  county  of  Lancaster,  England,  to  Boston, 
about  1790.  His  mother's  name  was  Welch  (should  read  Williams),  a  native  of  Wales, 
and  is  still  living.     His  father  is  dead. 

April  7,  1834.  Mr.  Fitton  yesterday  assembled  the  Catholics  now  in  this  town,  and 
with  those  who  came  from  the  factories  at  Clappville  and  Millbury,  he  had  about  sixty, 
besides  women  and  children.  He  was  subjected  to  some  difficulty  in  finding  a  con- 
venient place  to  hold  a  meeting,  but  at  length  obtained  consent  to  hold  it  in  the  new 
store  erected  by  Mr.  Bailey,  which  is  constructed  of  stone  and  stands  on  the  north  side 
of  Front  street  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Blackstone  Canal. 

I  believe  this  to  be  the  first  Catholic  sermon  ever  preached  in  this  town.  After 
service  was  over,  a  subscription  was  taken,  with  the  view  of  raising  money  to  erect  a 
chapel  or  church,  and,  what  is  very  surprising,  five  hundred  dollars  were  soon  sub- 
scribed. And  in  addition  to  this,  another  hundred  dollars  were  procured  to  defray 
Mr.  Fitton's  expenses  from  Hartford  here  and  to  enable  him  to  visit  the  Catholics  in 
different  places  in  Alassachusetts  and  Connecticut. 

The  Boston  vital  records  show  that  Abraham  Fitton  and  Sarah  Wil- 
liams were  married  by  Rev.  Francis  A.  Matignon,  Aug.  1,  1801.  The 
census  of  1790  has  no  record  of  Abraham  Fitton. 

It  must  have  been  on  his  fourth  visit  that  Father  Fitton  bought  a 
lot  on  Temple  street  for  a  church,  July  7,  1834.  His  first  attempt  to  buy 
was  frustrated  by  the  prejudice  of  the  owner  against  Catholics.  He 
bargained  for  land  at  the  corner  of  Salein  and  Park  streets,  and  the  deed 
was  made  out  before  the  owner  discovered  the  purpose  for  which  the 
land  was  to  be  used,  whereupon  he  destroyed  the  deed.  Father  Fitton 
was  aided  in  securing  the  lot  on  which  St.  John's  Church  was  stibse- 
quently  erected  by  William  Lincoln,  Francis  P.  Blake  and  Harvey 
Pierce.  The  two  last  named  afterward  became  Catholics.  At  the  time 
the  deed  was  received  by  these  three  men,  the  lot  was  part  of  an  old 
pasture.  An  old  wagon  track  ran  from  Green  street  toward  the  Canal, 
and  along  this  track  Temple  street  was  laid  out. 

Williain  Lincoln  assisted  Father  Fitton  more  than  once  in  purchas- 
ing land.  He  deeded  to  James  Fitton,  clergyman,  Dec.  14,  1835,  a  lot 
130  by  180  on  the  east  side  of  Green  street  and  the  north  side  of  a  new 
street  leading  from  Green  street  to  the  Blackstone  canal  (described  in  a 
deed  dated  May  1,  1834,  from  Joel  Putnam  to  William  Lincoln,  Wor. 
Deeds,  298-517).  Joel  Putnam  bought  this  land  of  George  Denny, 
Timothy  W.  Bancroft  and  Lewis  Bigelow,  June  20,  1832  (Wor.  Deeds 
299-108;  312-130).  William  Lincoln  sold  to  James  Fitton,  clergyman, 
for  one  dollar  Nov.  4,  1835,  land  deeded  to  Lincoln,  Oct  20,  1833,  by  Har- 
rison D.  Goodnow,  in  the  east  part  of  Boylston.  This  land  had  a  mort- 
gage to  secure  payment  by  Thomas  Dunlavy.     (Wor.  Deeds  311,  62-64). 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  863 

Father  Fitton  laid  the  foundation  of  Holy  Cross  (q.  v.).  Even 
among  Protestants  he  was  beloved.  James  Schofield  of  North  Grafton, 
a  former  mill  superintendent,  now  an  aged  man,  tells  of  Father  Fitton's 
kindly  ministrations  in  his  family,  which  was  Episcopalian.  Father 
Fitton  went  to  Newport,  R.  I.,  and  built  there  the  first  splendid  Catholic 
church.  Interesting  in  this  connection  is  the  fact  that  Lieuts.  Rose- 
crans  and  Sherman,  afterward  great  generals  in  the  Civil  War,  acted 
as  engineers  for  him  and  laid  out  the  lines  of  the  church  foundations. 
He  died  full  of  years  and  honors,  pastor  of  the  Catholic  church  in  East 
Boston,  Mass. 

St.  John's  Church, — The  foundation  for  the  first  church  in  the  town 
and  the  first  in  the  present  Springfield  diocese  was  laid  July  7,  1834,  and 
a  frame  building  32  by  62  feet  was  subsequently  erected.  During  the  first 
year  services  were  held  in  the  basement,  and  McKillup's  building  on 
Front  street,  near  the  viaduct,  where  the  first  masses  were  said,  was 
vacated.  Masses  had  also  been  said  in  various  sections  of  the  town. 
During  the  railroad  construction  mass  was  said  every  Sunday  when  the 
priest  could  be  present,  on  the  large  rocks  on  the  little  knoll  near  the 
deep  cut  between  the  city  and  the  lake.  A  rude  altar  was  sheltered 
with  evergreen  boughs  and  decorated  with  wild  flowers.  Rev.  Dr. 
McCoy  says  that  even  before  these  services  by  Father  Fitton,  there  was 
a  service  and  sermon  preached  in  the  dining  room  of  the  "Old  Elephant," 
a  tavern  near  C.  G.  Houghton's  shoe  factory.  Some  say  Bishop  Fen- 
wick  was  the  preacher,  others  Father  Fitton. 

In  1835  the  superstructure  of  the  church  was  erected  and  in  1836 
it  was  completed  and  free  of  debt.  "It  was  erected  by  the  Irish  laborers 
employed  on  the  railroad,"  according  to  the  old  records.  In  May,  1836, 
Father  Fitton,  who  had  been  making  monthly  visits,  came  here  as  resi- 
dent pastor,  living  first  with  Henry  Murray's  family.  Afterward  he 
lived  at  Mt.  St.  James,  and  finally  in  a  small  house  between  the  church 
and  the  house  of  Patrick  McKenna.  At  first  the  church  was  known 
as  Christ's  Church.  The  services  were  attended  by  Catholics  from  all 
surrounding  towns.  When  the  priest  was  not  present,  prayers  were 
read  and  the  litanies  recited.  Richard  Roche,  Henry  Murray  and  John 
O'Sullivan  were  the  lay  readers,  at  what  the  people  humorously  called 
"dry  masses." 

The  Sunday  school  was  organized  by  Eliza  Whitney,  a  convert, 
whose  sister  married  Francis  McKenna,  United  States  marshal.  She 
was  assisted  by  John  and  Robert  Laverty,  young  lads,  and  there  were 
seven  children  present  the  first  Sunday,  including  James  Underwood  and 
his  brothers,  and  William  and  Charles  Rourke,  sons  of  Patrick.  Fifteen 
attended  the  second  Sunday.  Miss  Whitney  was  succeeded  by  Henry 
Murray,  Joseph  Fitton  and  Catherine  Reilly.  The  first  choir  was  com- 
posed of  Mary  Fitton,  Patrick  Sheridan  and  Henry  Murray ;  the  orches- 
tra, Patrick  Sheridan,  John  Laverty,  Robert  Laverty,  Anthony  Carpen- 


864  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

ter  and  Henry  Murray.  The  first  altar  boy  was  James  Underwood, 
and  the  first  altar  society  consisted  of  Mrs.  Henry  Murray  and  Mrs. 
Richard  Rourke. 

In  the  early  days  came  every  summer  a  pilgrimage  of  Penobscot  In- 
dians of  the  Catholic  faith,  old  friends  of  Father  Fitton.  After  mass 
they  gathered  outside  the  church  door,  kneeling  in  a  circle  until  Father 
Fitton  came  out  and  placed  his  hand  on  each  of  the  bowed  heads  in  bene- 
diction. When  the  United  States  soldiers  were  stationed  here  in  the 
old  storehouse  of  the  canal,  training  for  the  war  against  the  Florida  In- 
dians, the  Catholic  recruits  attended  mass. 

Father  Fitton  left  Worcester  in  18-i3  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  A. 
Williamson.  The  Catholic  church  owes  much  to  the  energy  and  execu- 
tive ability  of  Father  Fitton.  He  not  only  founded  the  church,  but  in  nearly 
every  town  of  the  county  held  the  first  services  of  his  denomination. 
In  183-1  he  began  his  mission  in  Northbridge,  Westborough,  Webster, 
Millbury,  Grafton,  Blackstone,  and  as  far  as  Woonsocket  in  the  Black- 
stone  Valley.  Before  and  after  he  came  here  he  was  at  Northampton 
holding  services ;  in  1839  he  said  masses  at  North  Brookfield,  Warren, 
and  soon  afterward  in  Barre,  Southbridge,  Northborough.  His  succes- 
sors in  Worcester  continued  the  work  he  began  until  pastors  were 
appointed. 

Father  Williamson  was  ill  when  he  came,  and  his  stay  was  brief. 
He  left  early  in  1845  and  died  of  apoplexy  at  Baltimore,  Md.,  April  29, 
1845,  bequeathing  to  the  bishop  for  the  benefit  of  this  church  various 
church  and  household  articles.  Rev.  M.  W.  Gibson  came  as  resident 
pastor,  April  5,  1845.  He  was  born  in  Hexham,  Northumberland  county, 
England,  May  15,  1817,  and  entered  Ushaw  College  at  the  age  of  eleven; 
came  with  his  parents  to  America;  studied  at  St.  Mary's  College,  Em- 
mittsburg,  until  May,  1834,  completing  his  education  for  the  priesthood 
at  the  College  of  the  Propaganda.  Returning  to  America  in  1841,  he 
was  ordained  by  Bishop  Kenrick  of  Philadelphia  and  assigned  to  Loretta, 
in  the  Alleghany  mountains.  In  1844  he  withdrew  from  the  priesthood 
and  spent  some  time  in  the  Jesuit  novitiate  at  Frederick.  He  was  sent 
to  Holy  Cross  College,  where  he  was  laboring  when  appointed  pastor 
here. 

The  great  increase  in  the  Irish  population  in  the  early  forties  made 
it  necessary  to  provide  a  larger  edifice.  In  1845  the  old  church  was 
moved  away.  About  two  hundred  men  of  the  church  congregation  dug 
the  cellar  for  the  new  church,  Sunday  May  11,  1845;  the  cornerstone 
was  laid  May  27  by  Rt.  Rev.  John  B.  Fitzpatrick,  Coadjutor  Bishop  of 
Boston,  and  the  sermon  preached  in  English  and  French  by  Rev.  Nicho- 
las O'Brien.  The  church  was  dedicated  June  24,  1846,  thirty-two  clergy- 
men taking  part,  Bishop  Fitzpatrick  presiding.  Rev.  Dr.  Ryder  preached 
the  sermon.  The  old  church  building  was  transformed  into  a  parish 
house.  The  Catholic  Institute,  and  opened  for  meetings  April  21,  1847. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  865 

The  church  suffered  from  the  outbreaks  of  the  Molly  Maguires  and 
the  Shamrocks  at  this  time,  but  the  firmness  of  the  pastor,  sustained  by 
the  bishop,  finally  brought  the  disorderly  members  of  the  parish  to 
their  senses  with  an  apology,  April  30,  184T.  In  ]847  the  people  were 
called  upon  to  aid  famine-stricken  Ireland  and  responded  generously. 
Hundreds  of  emigrants  came,  bringing  the  fever,  and  many  died  on  the 
way  or  soon  after  reaching  America. 

Father  Boyce  came  as  associate  pastor  Nov.  14,  1847.  In  the  year 
1848  there  were  407  baptisms,  and  there  were  twelve  missions  attended 
from  Worcester — Fitchburg,  Webster,  Millbury,  Clinton,  Milford,  South- 
bridge,  Uxbridge,  Templeton,  Barre,  Winchendon,  West  Boylston  and 
Hopkinton, 

During  the  fanatical  Know-nothing  period  the  Catholics  bore  their 
share  of  persecution.  '"'So  high  did  the  feeling  run,"  writes  Dr.  McCoy, 
"that  the  church  property  w^as  in  danger  of  destruction."  Father  Boyce 
at  this  juncture  took  the  keys  of  the  church  to  the  mayor  of  the  city, 
saying,  "On  your  head,  sir,  I  place  the  responsibility  for  the  protection 
of  the  church.  If  you  do  not  protect  it,  we  will ;  but  at  the  city's  door 
will  lie  the  blame."  The  Civil  War  soon  afterward  effectually  wiped 
out  prejudice  and  antagonism  against  the  Catholics. 

Father  Boyce  became  pastor  when  Father  Gibson  left  in  1856,  and 
remained  sole  pastor  until  his  death,  Jan.  2,  1864.  He  was  succeeded 
by  Rev.  P.  T.  O'Reilly,  who  was  pastor  until  Sept.  25,  1870,  when  he 
became  Bishop  of  Springfield.  Then  Rev.  Thomas  Griffin,  assistant 
since  July,  1867,  was  appointed  chancellor  of  the  new  diocese  and  admin- 
istrator of  the  parish  of  St.  John's.     He  was  made  rector  May  30,  1885. 

The  curates  of  St.  John's  have  been  Rev.  Fathers  T.  A.  McAvoy, 
Reardon,  Williamson,  L'Eveque,  Quaille,  Noiseux,  Dolan,  D.  O'Keefe, 
Kenny,  P.  J.  Garrigan,  Robert  Walsh,  T.  J.  Conaty,  McCourt,  J.  J. 
O'Keefe,  M.  J.  Murphy,  J.  L.  Torpey,  D.  H.  O'Neil,  Chas.  Grace,  Jas. 
Donahoe,  J.  J.  McCoy,  D.  Higgins,  P.  H.  Gallen,  W.  T.  Finneran,  Jas. 
M.  Cruse,  W.  C.  McCaughan,  T.  P.  McDonnell,  W.  H.  Adrain,  J.  A. 
O'Malley,  C.  M.  Foley,  M.  S.  O'Brien,  O.  A.  Sullivan,  J.  A.  Hurley, 
Jno.  F.  Boland,  Geo.  H.  McDermott,  Jno.  F.  Boyle,  Cor.  F.  Donoghue, 
Austin  D.  O'Malley,  Jas.  W.  Burke,  Geo.  W.  (Welch?),  Jas.  B.  Dona- 
hue, Florence  A.  Lane,  Mich.  J.  McKenna,  Jas.  P.  Lynes,  Wm.  F.  Davitt, 
Chas.  H.  Duffy  and  Wm.  E.  O'Gorman. 

The  parish  now  controls  the  Catholic  Institute,  a  brick  presbytery, 
the  Brothers'  monastery  in  brick,  the  Sisters'  chapel,  a  fine  brick  school 
for  boys  between  Temple  and  Winter  streets,  and  the  brick  school  for 
girls  on  Vernon  street;  also  considerable  land  with  dwelling  house 
fronting  on  Temple  street,  and  a  large  cemetery  in  South  Worcester. 
The  parish  school  for  girls  opened  in  1872  with  an  attendance  of  300  chil- 
dren. The  Christian  Brothers  opened  the  Bovs'  School  on  Temple  street 
W.-I-ss. 


866  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


with  240  pupils.  The  present  attendance  is  about  500.  The  Xaverian 
Fathers  have  had  charge  since  189-1.  In  the  same  building  the  Sisters  of 
Notre  Dame  have  162  pupils  in  the  primary  grades. 

On  July  16,  1911,  St.  John's  parish  .was  divided  and  a  new  parish 
formed  in  the  Vernon  Hill  section,  with  Rev.  James  J.  Farrell  as  pastor, 
and  the  church  to  be  called  Church  of  the  Ascension.  Revs.  John  J. 
O'Malley  and  John  E.  Welch,  assistants. 

The  present  rector,  Rev.  Thomas  S.  Donoghue,  was  appointed  per- 
manent rector  June  21,  1911,  and  took  office  June  24th.  His  asssitants  are 
Rev.  James  P.  Curran,  appointed  in  1912  ;  Rev.  John  F.  McDonnell,  1913, 
and  Rev.  John  P.  Sullivan,  1916. 

Right  Rev.  Thomas  Griffin,  D.  D.,  pastor  of  St.  John's  Roman  Catholic  Church, 
was  born  in  Cork,  Ireland,  Jan.  7,  1836,  died  in  St.  Vincent's  Hospital,  Worcester,  Dec. 
14,  1910.  He  was  educated  in  the  best  of  schools  in  his  native  land.  From  the  age  of 
five  to  fourteen  he  was  under  the  instruction  of  the  Christian  Brothers.  In  1852  he 
came  with  his  parents  to  Salem,  where  his  father  established  himself  in  business  as  a 
tanner  and  became  highly  prosperous.  He  left  a  large  business  which  his  sons  have 
continued. 

Thomas  was  sent  to  St.  Charles  College  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  on  the  advice  of  Rev. 
Thomas  Shahan ;  afterward  pursuing  his  theological  course  in  St.  Mary's  Seminary, 
Baltimore,  where  he  was  ordained  June  29,  1867.  In  July  following  he  was  appointed 
by  Bishop  Williams  curate  in  St.  John's  parish  in  this  city,  under  Rev.  Patrick  T. 
O'Reilly,  afterward  Bishop.  He  began  his  duties  July  12,  1867,  taking  charge  of  the 
missions  at  Holden,  Shrewsbury  and  Stoneville.  In  a  few  years  he  had  established 
churches  in  place  of,  these  missions— St.  Joseph's  of  Stoneville,  St.  Theresa  of  Shrews- 
bury, and  St.  Mary's  of  Jefiferson. 

When  the  diocese  was  created  in  1870  and  Father  O'Reilly  made  Bishop,  Father 
Griffin  was  appointed  pastor  of  St.  John's,  and  also  made  Chancellor  of  the  Diocese. 
In  1872  he  bought  the  Bigelow  estate  on  Vernon  street,  now  the  site  of  Notre  Dame 
School  and  Convent,  turning  the  mansion  into  a  home  for  the  Sisters  of  the  Order  of 
Notre  Dame,  whom  he  called  from  Cincinnati  to  the  work  in  this  city.  Later  he  built 
the  house  for  a  parochial  school  for  girls,  and  also  made  use  of  the  Catholic  Institute 
on  Temple  street  for  school  purposes.  In  1891  he  built  for  boys  a  school  house  ac- 
commodating 600  pupils,  the  finest  in  the  diocese  at  that  time.  In  1871  he  bought  land 
on  Prescott  street  and  built  the  Church  of  the  Immaculate  Conception,  of  which 
Rev.  Robert  Walsh  became  pastor.  In  1880  he  bought  the  lot  and  supervised  the  build- 
ing of  the  Church  of  the  Sacred  Heart,  of  which  his  curate.  Rev.  T.  J.  Conaty,  became 
rector.  Next  he  erected  St.  Peter's  Church  at  the  corner  of  Main  and  Grand  streets, 
and  Father  D.  H.  O'Neill  was  made  its  rector.  His  last  work  in  building  new  churches 
and  forming  new  parishes  was  the  selection  of  a  site  for  St.  Stephen's  Church,  in  1888. 
He  founded  seven  churches. 

While  he  was  in  Europe  in  1889  with  Bishop  O'Reilly,  he  was  invested  with  the 
title  of  Monsignor  by  Pope  Leo  XIII,  June  30,  making  him  a  domestic  prelate  of  the 
Vatican.  In  the  same  year  his  o/;na  ;;;a?cr  conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  D.  D.  He 
was  made  a  permanent  rector  of  St.  John's  Alay  30,  1885,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death 
was  the  oldest  permanent  rector  of  the  diocese. 

His  school  for  boys  was  started  in  a  block  of  houses  and  the  old  Father  Mathew 
Temperance  Society  building  on  Temple  street,  opposite  his  church.  In  1890  he 
brought  the  Christian  Brothers  from  Ireland  as  teachers  for  his  boys  school.  When 
the  new  school  house  was  opened  in  1894  it  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  Xaverian 
Brothers.     It  has  a  large  assembly  hall  for  parish  gatherings. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  867 

He  purchased  eight  acres  on  Vernon  and  Winthrop  streets  in  1893,  and  at  first 
used  the  mansion  for  offices  and  dormitory  for  the  Brothers  who  were  teaching  in 
the  parochial  school.  After  a  home  for  them  had  been  built  at  the  corner  of  Temple 
and  Harding  streets,  he  made  plans  for  St.  Vincent's  Hospital.  The  first  building  was 
at  the  corner  of  Vernon  and  Winthrop  streets,  now  used  for  a  Home  for  Aged  People, 
in  charge  of  the  Sisters  of  Providence.  Subsequently  the  present  hospital  building 
was  erected.  He  also  founded  Mt.  St.  Joseph  Industrial  School  at  Millbury  for  way- 
ward boys.  He  acquired  the  site  for  Notre  Dame  Normal  Institute  on  Plantation 
street,  now  used  for  the  care  of  sick  and  aged  members  of  the  Sisters  of  Notre  Dame. 
He  erected  in  1892  the  convent  buildings  for  the  Sisters  of  Notre  Dame  on  Vernon 
street,  one  of  the  largest  and  best  buildings  owned  by  that  order  in  New  England. 
From  time  to  time  he  purchased  for  the  parish  of  St.  John's  real  estate  intended  for 
parish  purposes,  but  for  the  present  held  as  income-producing  property  rising  in  value. 
He  was  shrewd  and  far-sighted  in  business.  Two  great  events  of  his  pastorate  were 
the  celebrations  of  the  golden  jubilee  of  the  original  Christ  Church  in  1884,  and  of  the 
founding  of  St.  John's,  June  24,  1896. 

An  indication  of  the  love  and  respect  in  which  he  was  held  by  his  parishioners  and 
the  other  people  of  the  city  was  afforded  by  the  greeting  of  30,000  people,  who  wel- 
comed him  on  his  return  from  a  visit  to  Ireland  in  1909.  In  later  years  he  was  widely 
known  as  the  "Grand  Old  Man  of  the  Springfield  Diocese."  For  many  years  he  pre- 
sided over  the  most  notable  church  gatherings,  and  everywhere  he  was  honored  and 
esteemed.  He  loved  his  city,  his  country,  and  his  native  land,  and  helped  every  worthy 
movement  to  forward  the  cause  of  Ireland.  He  was  proud  of  his  parochial  schools, 
and  was  honored  as  a  pioneer  in  the  Catholic  world,  as  the  pioneer  of  the  parochial 
school  movement.  He  took  pride  also  in  his  St.  John's  Cadets  and  St.  John's  Guild. 
He  was  the  first  Catholic  priest  invited  to  open  a  session  of  the  General  Court.  He 
was  active  to  the  time  of  his  death.  He  celebrated  mass  the  day  before  he  died.  He 
was  old  but  rugged.  Few  men  of  his  age  were  as  strong  and  active.  He  loved  his 
work.  He  preferred  to  walk  rather  than  ride,  and  throughout  his  parish  he  made  his 
way  on  foot  on  his  daily  errands  of  mercy. 

He  left  five  nephews:  J.  J.  Griffin,  of  Boston,  James  and  Martin  Griffin,  of  Salem; 
John  Ryan,  of  Peabody;  James  Ryan,  of  Maiden;  and  two  nieces:  Mary  Ryan,  of  this 
city;  and  Mrs.  David  Kingsley,  of  Chelsea. 

St.  Anne's  Church. — After  the  French-Canadians  failed  in  an  attempt 
to  erect  a  church  for  French-Catholics,  1852-5-4,  the  funds  were  passed 
over  to  the  pastor  of  St.  John's,  Father  Gibson,  who  decided  that  another 
church  was  needed,  though  his  associate  disagreed.  In  1855  Father 
Gibson  began  to  build  St.  Anne's  Church,  on  Shrewsbury  street,  at  an 
estimated  cost  of  $6,500.  In  about  a  year  he  collected  $1,383.81,  not 
including  about  $200  that  he  advanced.  In  1856  he  left  the  city  and  the 
mortgagee  foreclosed,  buying  the  property  for  $725. 

Rev.  John  J.  Boyce  succeeded  Father  Gibson,  but  he  could  not 
give  his  personal  attention  to  the  parish,  and  besides  he  was  no  financier 
or  business  man.  He  urged  upon  the  bishop  the  urgent  necessity  of 
appointing  some  priest  who  would  be  equal  to  the  task  of  extricating  the 
parish  from  its  difficulties  and  he  appointed  Rev.  J.  J.  Power  pastor, 
Aug.  7,  1856. 

Rev.  John  J.  Power  was  appointed  rector  Aug.,  1856,  but  he  had  no 
church.  For  $1,000  he  redeemed  the  property;  paid  other  debts;  com- 
])leted  the  building,  and  it  was  dedicated   Christmas   Day,   1856 ;    Rev. 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


James  A.  Healy  preached  the  sermon.  This  humble  structure  was  used 
until  October,  1885,  with  frequent  repairs  and  renovations.  Father 
Power  built  a  small  rectory  on  Shrewsbury  street  in  1863;  and  next  year 
gave  it  for  a  convent  home  for  the  Sisters  of  Mercy,  whom  he  called  from 
New  York,  Oct.  2-1,  1865,  and  for  whom  he  also  provided  a  small  hos-^ 
pital.     It  was  the  first  public  hospital  in  the  city.      (See  Hospitals). 

In  1866  Father  Power  began  to  erect  St.  Paul's  Church  (q.  v.).  Rev. 
Denis  Scannell,  his  assistant,  became  pastor  of  St.  Anne's,  Oct.  1,  18T2, 
and  two  years  later  built  a  parochial  residence  on  Shrewsbury  street. 
On  Sept.  5,  1882,  this  site  of  new  St.  Anne's  was  bought  of  trustees  of 
Worcester  Lunatic  Asylum  for  $10,685.08.  The  cornerstone  was  laid 
June  15,  1884,  by  Right  Rev.  Bishop  O'Reilly.  The  first  mass  was  said  in 
the  basement,  Oct.  11,  1885,  by  Rev.  J.  J.  Power,  V.  G.,  and  Rt.  Rev.  S. 
J.  Burke  preached  the  sermon.  At  the  dedication,  Oct.  21,  1891,  by 
Bishop  O'Reilly,  the  sermon  was  preached  by  Rev.  J.  J.  Power,  and  Rev. 
Thomas  D.  Beaven  preached  at  the  vesper  service.  The  church  is  located 
at  the  corner  of  Eastern  avenue  and.  Gage  street.  Its  dimensions  are  143 
by  69  feet;  the  material  is  brick,  except  the  basement  walls,  which  are  of 
granite.  The  style  is  Gothic ;  the  site  is  unsurpassed ;  the  building 
imposing.  It  seats  1,150.  In  1891  a  spacious  rectory  was  built  at  the 
rear  of  the   church. 

Rev.  Father  Scannell  died  Aug.  20,  1899.  Rev.  Fr.  James  P.  Tuite 
was  appointed  his  successor,  in  1899.  He  built  the  Academy  of  the 
Sacred  Heart  in  1903,  and  died  Sept.  6,  1905.  Rev.  John  J.  McCoy, 
LL.D.,  has  been  rector  since  1905. 

The  curates  have  been :  Revs.  Jno.  Conway,  Feb.  8,  1874,  to  Sept. 
10,  1876;  J.  E.  Garrity,  Nov.  8,  1876,  to  death,  Nov.  2,  1877;  J.  P.  Tuite, 
Jan.  13,  1878,  to  May  4,  1880;  J.  B.  Drennan,  May  30,  1880,  to  Nov.  10, 
1887;  E.  D.  Casey,  Jan.  14,  1883,  to  Jan.  4,  1886;  Rev.  E.  F.  Brosnihan, 
July  19,  1887,  to  Aug.,  1899;  Thos.  Fitzgerald,  July  11,  1887,  to  Feb. 
1890;  Wm.  F.  Hartigan,  Jan.  5,  1890,  to  1900;  Jas.  M.  Cruse,  1899-1902; 
Jno.  J.  O'Malley,  1900-1902;  M.J.  Slattery,  1902-1905;  Thos.  Donaghue, 
1902-1905;  Oliver  M.  McGee,  1905-1909;  Thos.  P.  McDonnell,  1905- 
1910;  J.  A.  Riordan,  1910-1912;  Patrick  A.  Manion  since  1910;  Jno.  B. 
Farrell  since  1912. 

The  parish  school  of  St.  Anne's  is  known  as  the  Academy  of  the 
Sacred  Heart.  The  school  building  was  erected  and  the  school  founded 
in  1904  by  Rev.  James  P.  Tuite,  then  pastor  of  St.  Anne's.  It  was  dedi- 
cated on  the  Feast  of  St.  Anne,  July  26,  1904.  At  the  opening,  the  enrol- 
ment was  740,  with  seventeen  teachers,  Sisters  of  St.  Joseph.  The  school 
has  the  full  academic  course,  and  prepares  for  college.  The  highest 
average  number  of  pupils  since  opening  was  833 ;  the  present  number  is 
720.  There  were  twelve  graduates  in  the  first  class,  June  22,  1908.  Ten 
classes  have  graduated  to  the  present  time  with  a  total  of  190,  of  whom 
fifty-five   have  entered   colleges;    thirty-nine   various   Normal    Schools; 


REV.  JOHN  J.  McCOY,  LL.  D. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  869 


five  schools  for  training  nurses ;  three  have  entered  the  priesthood,  and 
three  others  now  in  the  Seminary  are  preparing  for  the  priesthood.  The 
school  building  is  of  brick,  well  designed,  and  located  at  the  corner 
of  Eastern  avenue  and  Gage  street.  John  William  Donohue  of  Spring- 
field, was  the  architect. 

Rev.  Denis  Scannell,  Pastor  of  St.  Anne's  Church,  was  born  in  County  Kerry, 
Ireland,  July,  1846.  His  grand-uncle,  a  distinguished  priest  and  teacher  of  classics, 
prepared  him  for  college.  At  the  age  of  eighteen  he  came  to  this  country,  studied  for 
a  time  in  St.  Charles  College,  Maryland,  and  then  entered  the  Theological  Seminary  at 
Alleghany,  where  he  was  ordained  June  20,  1870.  For  a  time  he  was  locum  tcncns  at 
Blackstone ;  succeeding  Rev.  William  Power  as  assistant  to  Father  Power  at  St.  Anne's 
in  this  city  in  October,  1870.  Two  years  later  he  succeeded  Father  Power  as  pastor  of 
St.  Anne's. 

"Father  Scannell,"  writes  Dr.  McCoy,  "was  an  unaffected,  kind-hearted  man,  honest 
in  every  thought  and  act.  It  might  be  said  that  no  priest  in  New  England  was  more 
beloved  by  his  fellow  priests  than  he.  In  times  of  grief  or  joy,  Father  Scannell  fre- 
quently was  appointed  deacon  of  the  ceremonies,  and,  because  of  this,  he  was  pleasantly 
called  the  'diocesan  deacon.'  That  he  was  capable  of  great  work,  severe  and  long 
continued,  the  excellent  condition  of  the  parish  property  at  the  time  of  his  death  am- 
ply proves.  He  found  in  St.  Anne's  a  small  wooden  church  at  his  coming,  but  he  left 
it  with  a  magnificent  temple  of  brick  and  stone,  with  a  splendid  presbytery  and  grounds 
adjoining.  No  man  ever  had  an  unkind  thought  or  word  to  say  against  Father  Scan- 
nell ;  and  so  innocent  was  his  life  that  the  priests  believed  the  alb  he  put  on  his  shoul- 
ders the  day  of  ordination  was  still  white  when  they  laid  him  away  for  his  eternal  rest." 
He  died  August  20,  1899. 

Rev.  John  Joseph  McCoy,  present  rector  of  St.  Anne's  Church,  was  born  at  Tariff- 
ville,  Conn.,  Nov.  29,  1853.  When  a  year  old  he  was  taken  by  his  parents  to  Holyoke. 
He  made  his  classics  at  Holy  Cross  College,  where  he  graduated  (A.  B.)  in  June, 
1876.  He  studied  theology  in  the  Grand  Seminary  of  Montreal,  and  was  there  or- 
dained by  Bishop  Fabre  in  December,  1879.  He  was  assigned  as  curate  at  St.  John's 
Church,  Worcester,  where  he  labored  near  to  eight  years,  when  he  was  made  pastor 
at  Westboro,  Feb.  3,  1887.  Westboro  knew  his  labors  till  called  to  succeed  Dr.  Rob- 
inson as  rector  of  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Name,  Chicopee,  Mass.  He  was  eleven 
years  the  permanent  rector  of  Chicopee,  when  appointed  by  Bishop  Bevan  to  St.  Anne's 
Church,  Worcester,  Sept.  2;^,  1905. 

Dr.  McCoy  is  one  of  the  advisory  board  of  this  history.  He  wrote  a  "History  of 
the  Catholic  Church,  Springfield  Diocese"  (1900),  and  other  historical  works.  He  is 
a  member  of  the  American  Irish  Historical  Society. 

He  has  been  prominent  in  various  movements  for  public  welfare  in  the  city,  serv- 
ing on  the  plajgrounds  commission  and  on  the  Parks  and  Recreation  Commission.  He 
is  chaplain  of  Alhambra  Council,  Knights  of  Columbus.  He  received  the  honorary  de- 
gree of  LL.  D.  from  the  College  of  the  Holy  Cross  in  1904.  The  foregoing  is  in  the 
handwriting  of  Mr.  North,  author  of  this  work. 

Church  of  the  Sacred  Heart. — The  parish  known  as  Sacred  Heart 
was  taken  from  St.  John's  Jan.  24.  1880,  and  Rev.  Thos.  J.  Conaty,  who 
from  the  time  of  his  ordination  had  been  a  curate  there,  was  appointed 
rector.  As  early  as  1867,  Rev.  P.  T.  O'Reilly,  pastor  of  St.  John's,  had 
bought  a  lot  on  Cambridge  street,  and  Father  Griffin  broke  ground  there 
for  a  church  July  2,  1879,  laid  the  cornerstone  Sept.  21,  and  soon  after- 
ward services  were  held  in  the  basement.     Father  Conatv  first  lived  in 


870 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


a  rented  house  at  the  corner  of  Cambridge  and  Sheridan  streets.  He 
said  his  first  mass  in  the  completed  church  on  Easter  Sunday,  1881.  In 
March  he  was  given  charge  of  the  mission  at  Stoneville,  and  continued 
until  it  was  transferred  to  the  Oxford  parish  in  1885.  In  April,  1881, 
Father  Conaty  bought  for  the  parish  the  Gilchrist  estate  on  which  he 
was  then  living,  removed  the  old  house,  and  erected  the  parochial  resi- 
dence, which  was  completed  in  January,  1883. 


CHURCH  OF  THE  SACRED  HEART. 

The  church  was  dedicated  Sept.  21,  1884,  by  Bishop  O'Reilly.  Rev. 
Charles  E.  Burke  preached  the  sermon,  and  Rev.  P.  J.  Garrigan  preached 
at  vespers.  Father  Conaty  erected  a  parish  hall  next  year;  it  was  ded- 
icated June  25th.  It  faces  Sheridan  street,  at  the  rear  of  the  rectory; 
has  a  gymnasium,  lecture  hall,  and  rooms  for  other  parish  purposes.  A 
four-tenement  house  on  Sheridan  street  was  bought  May  9,  1882,  and 
remodeled  for  a  parish  lyceum  club  house.  Father  Conaty  was  made 
president  of  the  Catholic  University  in  Washington,  Jan.  10,  1897,  and 
was  succeeded  Jan.  24th  by  his  brother,  Rev.  Bernard  S.  Conaty,  who  was 
rector  until  1913.  Rev.  Wm.  E.  Foley  has  been  rector  since  1913.  The 
curates  have  been:  Revs.  Jno.  J.  O'Keefe,  E.  D.  Casey,  Jas.  F.  Galvin, 
M.  W.  Mulhane,  J.  A.  Hurley,  P.  F.  Hafey,  J.  J.  Tirrell,  W.  E.  Foley, 
Jno.  F.  Griffin,  Francis  A.  O'Malley,  Jno.  J.  Broderick. 

MoNsiGNOR  Thomas  J.  Conaty,  Bishop  of  Los  Angeles,  first  pastor  of  the  Church 
of  the  Sacred  Heart,  was  born  in  County  Cavan,  Ireland,  Aug.  i,  1847,  son  of  Patrick 
and  Alice  (Lynch)  Conaty.  His  father  came  with  his  parents  to  Taunton,  Mass.,  in 
1830,  when  he  was  seven  years  old,  but  at  the  age  of  fourteen  returned  to  Ireland 


i 


i 


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ST.  PAUL'S  CHURCH 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  871 


with  the  family,  and  remained  there  until  alter  his  marriage  in  1846,  making  his  home 
in  Taunton  again  in  1849.  Patrick  Conaty  lived  during  his  active  life  in  Taunton,  but 
died  here  while  visiting,  Dec.  4,  1904,  at  the  Presbytery  on  Cambridge  street.  The 
mother  died  in  March,  1872.  Of  the  eight  children  born  to  Patrick  and  Alice  Conaty, 
one  died  in  infancy  in  Ireland ;  the  following  were  born  in  Taunton  :  Frances  P.,  Cath- 
erine C,  Rev.  Bernard  S.,  John  S.,  Peter  F.,  and  Joseph  A. 

Dr.  Conaty  attended  the  Taunton  public  schools  until  1863,  when  he  entered  Mon- 
treal College;  in  1867  he  became  a  student  in  Holy  Cross,  graduating  in  1869  with  the 
B.  A.  degree.  His  theological  training  was  received  in  the  Seminary  at  Montreal, 
where  he  was  ordained  December  21,  1872.  He  was  appointed  in  January,  1873,  curate 
of  St.  John's  Church  in  this  city,  continuing  in  this  office  until  he  was  made  rector 
of  the  Church  of  the  Sacred  Heart  in  1880.  His  work  in  this  pastorate  has  been  de- 
scribed. In  1893  his  fellow  priests  made  him  one  of  three  to  represent  them  on  the 
Bishop's  Council.  He  received  the  D.  D.  degree  from  Georgetown  College  at  the  time 
of  the  Centennial  Jubilee.  In  July,  1892,  he  was  made  president  of  the  Catholic  Summer 
School.  When  Bishop  Keane  was  called  to  Rome,  Dr.  Conaty  was  appointed  head  of 
the  University,  and  in  October,  1897,  he  was  made  a  Monsignor.  He  was  consecrated 
Nov.  24th,  1901,  titular  bishop  of  Samos,  and  March  27th,  1903,  he  was  appointed  Bishop 
of  Monterey  and  Los  Angeles.    He  died  at  Coronado,  Cal.,  Sept.  i8th,  1915. 

Dr.  Conaty's  fame  as  a  public  speaker  became  national.  Dr.  McCoy  wrote  of  him : 
"By  nature  he  is  an  agitator  and  loves  the  work  of  multitudes.  We  can  easily  imagine 
him  a  Peter  waking  up  Europe  to  the  Crusades,  but  would  find  it  hard  to  see  in  him 
the  same  Peter  in  a  hermit's  cell.  Dr.  Conaty  is  a  masterful  man  and  brings  with  him 
wherever  he  goes  the  hum  of  assemblies.  God  made  him  an  active  man  and  in  every 
agitation  for  the  people's  health  he  is  the  angel  who,  stronger  than  the  rest,  can  best 
stir  the  waters.  Every  great  movement  in  church  and  state  toward  public  reform, 
popular  education,  or  charity,  now  for  nearly  three  decades  has  found  his  name  in 
places  of  honor,  and  had  heard  his  strong  voice  lifted  up  for  the  true,  the  beautiful 
and  the  good." 

St.  Paul's  Church. — With  a  view  of  estabhshing  another  parish, 
Father  Power,  then  pastor  of  St.  Anne's  Church,  bought  the  lot  at  the 
corner  of  Main  and  Chatham  streets,  of  George  T.  Rice  and  John  Milton 
Earle,  for  $15,000  in  August,  1866.  At  a  meeting  of  Catholics  in  Jan- 
uary, 1867,  $7,100  was  subscribed  to  the  building  fund,  and  ground  was 
broken  in  the  spring  of  1868.  The  granite  basement  was  completed, 
covered  with  a  temporary  roof,  and  building  suspended  to  await  the 
necessary  funds.  The  first  mass  was  said  in  the  basement  by  Rt.  Rev. 
John  J.  Williams,  Bishop  of  Boston,  and  Rev.  James  Fitton  preached  the 
first  sermon,  July  4,  1869,  on  the  occasion  of  laying  the  cornerstone. 
Thereafter  services  were  held  regularly.  Father  Power  assumed  charge 
of  the  new  parish,  giving  up  his  charges  in  Grafton  and  Millbury  to  oth- 
ers. He  became  administrator  of  the  diocese  during  the  absence  of  the 
bishop,  and  while  in  authority,  October  1,  1872,  took  charge  of  St.  Paul's, 
appointing  his  curate.  Rev.  Denis  Scannell,  to  the  pastorate  of  St. 
Anne's. 

Five  years  after  the  laying  of  the  cornerstone,  the  church,  excepting 
the  tower,  was  completed.  It  was  dedicated  in  1874  by  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop 
O'Reilly.  Rt.  Rev.  James  A.  Healy,  Bishop  of  Portland,  Me.,  preached 
the   sermon   at   the   dedication.     The    tower   was    added    in    1889.     The 


872  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


building  is  of  dark  granite,  91  by  168  feet,  and  96  feet  in  height.  It  is 
cruciform,  occupies  a  convenient  and  commanding  site,  and  is  one  of 
the  finest  churches  in  the  city. 

It  was  no  small  task  to  raise  the  funds  for  this  costly  building  and 
the  purses  of  the  parishioners  and  the  resourcefulness  of  the  pastor  were 
taxed  to  their  utmost  for  many  years.  They  had  reason  to  take  pride  in 
the  achievement.  The  church  was  out  of  debt,  January  1,  1895,  and 
since  then  it  has  been  in  excellent  financial  condition.  In  thirty-two 
years  Father  Power  raised  for  parish  purposes  a  quarter  of  a  million 
dollars,  and  when  he  died  he  left  nineteen  thousand  dollars  in  the  treas- 
ury of  the  church.  Father  Power  at  first  made  his  home  on  the  parish 
lot  on  the  corner  of  High  and  Main  streets,  after  coming  to  St.  Paul's. 
In  the  same  year  he  bought  the  land  now  occupied  by  the  Orphan  Asy- 
lum and  the  rectory  on  High  street.  A  house  was  standing  on  the  lot, 
and  he  gave  it  to  the  Sisters  of  Mercy  from  St.  Anne's,  the  first  religious 
order  established  in  the  city,  for  their  home.  The  orphans  of  the  parish 
were  sheltered  in  a  house  at  the  rear  of  the  convent  house.  The  orphan- 
age was  soon  afterward  destroyed  by  fire,  and  Father  Power  erected  the 
present  edifice  which  was  hardly  completed  when  his  own  house  on 
Main  street  was  burned.  After  living  in  the  new  orphanage  for  a  short 
time,  he  moved  to  the  present  parochial  residence  at  High  and  Chatham 
streets. 

St.  Paul's  Parish  School  was  erected  in  1912,  on  Chatham  street. 
The  building  was  opened  in  September  that  year,  in  charge  of  the  Sis- 
ters of  Mercy,  who  have  been  located  in  this  city  for  fifty-two  years 
(1917).  In  design,  construction  and  architecture  the  school  house  has 
no  superior  in  the  city.  It  conforms  to  the  regulations  of  the  Boston 
School  House  Commission  and  is  as  sanitary  and  hygienic  as  a  hospital. 
The  material  is  Pennsylvania  Harvard  brick.  The  architect  was  John 
William  Donahue  of  Springfield.  The  cost  of  the  school  building  and 
equipment  was  about  $100,000,  and  the  debt  was  extinguished  October 

19,  i9ir. 

There  are  nine  grades  in  the  school,  and  nine  teachers,  with  nearly 
400  pupils. 

Rev.  Dr.  Goggin,  through  whose  efforts  the  school  was  founded  and 
the  building  erected,  has  good  reason  to  feel  pride  in  his  achievement. 
(See  Worcester  Gazette,  April  20,  1912,  for  the  architect's  description 
of  the  building). 

Very  Rkverend  John  J.  Power,  D.  D.,  Vicar  General  of  the  Diocese  of  Springfield, 
wa.s  born  in  Charlestown,  Aug.  2^,  1828,  died  Jan.  27,  1902.  He  attended  the  public 
schools  of  Charlestown,  and  at  the  age  of  fifteen  began  the  study  of  the  classics  under 
the  instruction  of  his  pastor,  Rev.  Geo.  Goodwin.  He  entered  Holy  Cross  College 
July  7,  1847,  and  was  graduated  July  24,  1851.  He  then  became  a  student  in  the  Grand 
Seminary  at  Montreal,  but  the  climate  there  taxed  his  frail  constitution  severely  and 
he  completed  his  theological  training  in  the  Seminary  at  Aix,  in  the  South  of  France, 
where  he  was  ordained  a  priest.  May  17,  1856. 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  873 

He  was  appointed  curate  to  Father  Boyce  in  this  city,  and  his  health  at  that  time 
warranted  the  message  sent  by  the  Bishop:  "Take  good  care  of  this  young  man;  he 
will  not  trouble  you  more  than  a  few  months."  Three  months  later,  Aug.  6,  1856,  he 
was  appointed  pastor  of  the  new  parish  of  St.  Anne's  here.  "He  gathered  his  flock 
about  him,"  writes  Dr.  McAleer,  "and  soon  his  winning  personality,  ascetic  life,  earn- 
estness, self-denial,  lucid  instructions,  fatherly  exhortations  and  devoted  ministrations, 
added  to  its  numbers,  and  extended  his  rapidly  growing  fame  and  influence  for  good 
throughout  the  city  and  surrounding  country."  (Hist,  of  St.  Anne's,  Wor.  Mag.,  April, 
1902).  When  his  church  had  outgrown  the  accommodations  of  St.  Anne's,  he  under- 
took the  building  of  St.  Paul's  Church,  and  established  another  parish.  He  was  ap- 
pointed Vicar  General,  Jan.  29,  1874,  and  on  June  25,  1874,  received  the  honorary  de- 
gree of  Doctor  of  Divinity  from  Holy  Cross. 

During  the  Civil  War  his  rousing  words  of  patriotism  sent  many  a  stalwart  sol- 
dier to  the  front.  He  gave  the  city  for  many  years  valuable  service  in  the  school  com- 
mittee, and  was  one  of  the  committee  that  decided  on  the  plan  for  the  original  Classical 
High  School  building.  He  always  took  a  keen  interest  in  the  public  schools.  He  was 
also  a  director  of  the  Free  Public  Library,  and  a  charter  member  of  the  St.  Wulstan 
Society. 

"In  his  sermons,"  says  Dr.  McAleer,  "he  never  followed  a  beaten  path  nor  the 
stereotyped  method  of  introduction,  development,  climax  and  conclusion  ;  but  no  man 
could  choose  more  fitting  words  to  express  his  thoughts  nor  lodge  them  with  more 
directness  and  force  into  the  minds  and  hearts  of  his  hearers.  He  was  blessed  with 
brilliant  talents  which  he  rendered  more  brilliant  by  constant  study,  meditation  and  use 
^and  to  these  he  united  a  keen  and  practical  judgment.  He  lived  in  an  atmosphere 
above  and  beyond  the  humdrum  of  everyday  life,  and  continually  strove  for  some- 
thing higher — but  had  but  scant  courtesy  for  those  content  to  remain  at  low  levels. 
While  childlike  in  his  simplicity,  a  characteristic  of  the  truly  great,  he  gave  added 
honor  and  dignity  to  the  priest  and  citizen.  He  was  too  great  to  lower  himself  to  the 
ways  of  the  politician,  the  tricks  of  the  stage,  or  to  burn  red  fire  to  capture  the  applause 
of  the  unthinking  multitude.  He  read  not,  he  studied  not,  he  appealed  not  for  mere 
intellection — but  that  he  might  give  color  and  form  and  life  and  inspiration  that  would 
stimulate  to  greater  endeavors  and  lead  up  even  to  heroic  achievement  all  who  were 
given  in  charge  to  him — so  that  the  service  of  the  creature  might  be  more  worthy  of 
the  Creator.  Justice,  stern,  rigid  and  exacting,  was  a  very  prominent  and  positive  con- 
viction, and  his  sterling  manhood  could  not  tolerate  temporizing  vacillation,  time-serving- 
insincerity — yet  with  such  thoughtful  consideration,  gentleness  and  kindness  of  heart 
which  he  had  in  over-abundance  for  all,  he  never  transgressed  the  bounds  of  charity, 
nor  found  bitterness  in  his  heart  for  those  who  opposed,  ofifended  or  were  not  of  his 
faith.  He  ever  waged  ceaseless  warfare  against  intemperance  and  especially  the  curse 
of  drunkenness.  For  the  tempter  he  had  less  charity  than  for  the  tempted  and  his 
scathing  denunciations  of  the  saloon  bore  wholesome  fruit  and  will  long  be  remembered. 
He  left  the  impress  of  his  personality  upon  his  day  and  generation;  and  he  will  long 
be  remembered  as  the  beloved  pastor,  the  sympathetic  friend  and  the  ideal  citizen." 

On  the  forty-eighth  anniversary  of  laying  the  cornerstone  of  St.  Paul's  Church,  a 
bronze  tablet  was  unveiled  in  the  main  vestibule  July  4,  1917,  in  memory  of  Father 
Power.  It  was  the  gift  of  Dr.  and  Mrs.  George  McAleer.  The  tablet  was  blessed  by 
Rev.  Father  Goggin,  the  pastor,  who  also  preached  the  sermon.  Reynolds  McAleer, 
brother  of  Dr.  McAleeic,  unveiled  the  memorial.  Andrew  O'Connor  was  the  sculptor; 
the  Gorham  Manufacturing  Company  designed  and  made  the  memorial.  The  inscrip- 
tion reads  :  "In  loving  and  prayerful  memory  of  Very  Rev.  John  Joseph  Power,  D.  D., 
V.  G.,  born  in  Charlestown,  Mass.,  August  23,  1828.  Graduated  from  the  College  of  the 
Holy  Cross,  July  24,  1851.  Ordained  to  the  Priesthood  at  Aix,  France,  May  17,  1856. 
Appointed  pastor  of  St.  Anne's  Church.  Worcester,  August  6,  1856.  Founder  and  pas- 
tor of  St.  Paul's  Church,  Worcester,  July  4,  1864.     Vicar  General  of  the  Diocese  of 


874  HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 

Springfield,  January  24,  1874.  Honored  by  his  Alma  Mater  with  the  degree 
of  Doctor  of  Divinity,  June  25,  1874.  Died  at  the  Parochial  residence,  January  27, 
1902.  Buried  in  Saint  Anne's  Cemetery,  Shrewsbury.  Esteemed  when  living— hon- 
ored when  dead.     Rcquiescat  in  Pace." 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  McAleer  enjoyed  the  friendship  of  "Father  John,"  as  he  was  affec- 
tionately called,  for  thirty-seven  years.     He  officiated  at  their  marriage. 

Church  of  the  Immaculate  Conception. — Rev.  Robert  Walsh,  form- 
erly curate  under  Father  Griffin  at  St.  John's,  then  pastor  at  Otter 
River,  was  first  pastor  of  the  Church  of  Immaculate  Conception, 
appointed  in  November,  1873.  At  that  time  there  was  no  church;  the 
parish  had  just  been  outlined,  but  Father  Griffin  had  two  years  prior 
to  that  time  bought  a  lot  on  Prescott  street.  He  held  services  first 
in  a  cottage  on  this  lot,  Nov.  7,  1873,  and  made  his  home  there  and  con- 
tinued for  a  year  to  say  masses  there.  It  was  then  moved  to  another  lot 
on  the  same  street,  and  he  continued  to  live  in  it,  renting  from  the  new 
owners.  Fifty  men  in  the  parish  contributed  their  labor  to  remove  the 
orchard  and  excavate  for  the  foundations,  but  when  it  was  found  that 
the  city  desired  the  gravel  for  use  in  road-building  the  work  was  com- 
pleted without  cost  to  the  parish  or  further  free  labor. 

The  corner-stone  of  -the  church  was  laid  in  June,  1874,  by  Bishop 
O'Reilly.  Father  Joseph  O'Hagan,  then  president  of  Holy  Cross  College, 
preached  the  sermon.  In  the  meantime  services  continued  in  the  rec- 
tory. Rev.  Thomas  Griffin  preached  at  the  Mass;  Rev.  Thomas  D. 
Beaven  at  vespers.  The  church  was  dedicated  Dec.  8,  1878.  The  church 
is  64  by  140  feet,  of  Gothic  style.  In  1876  the  adjoining  lot  was  bought 
by  the  pastor  and  he  made  his  home  in  the  house  on  that  lot;  afterward 
he  bought  a  house  and  lot  north  of  the  church  property  and  another  on 
Lexington  street.  In  1891  the  house  on  the  corner  lot  was  demolished 
and  a  handsome  residence  erected  and  first  occupied  in  March,  1892.  In 
about  ten  years  the  parish  was  free  of  debt. 

Father  Walsh  had  charge  of  missions  in  Holden  and  Rutland.  In 
1882  these  towns  became  a  parish  with  a  church  of  their  own.  Rev. 
James  Donahue  was  rector  from  1908  to  1913.  He  died  Nov.  23,  1913, 
age  64  years,  5  mos.,  23  days.  Rev.  Michael  J.  Coyne  has  been  pastor 
since  1913. 

The  curates  have  been :  Revs.  Richard  Walsh,  who  came  Aug.  22, 
1874 ;  Rev.  Jas.  McCloskey,  Jan.  6,  1877 ;  Rev.  Thos.  F.  Joyce,  Jan.  5,  1879 
Rev.  Chas.  J.  Boylan,  Oct.  1,  1881;  Rev.  Jno.  S.  NelHgan,  Sept.  10,  1881 
Rev.  Denis  MulUns,  Jan.,  1888;  Rev.  Jas.  Kechnie,  March  25,  1893 
Jas.  F.  Teahan,  1904;  Jno.  J.  Lunney,  1904;  Stephen  C.  Hallisey,  1909 
Richard  J.  Murphy,  1909;  John  S.  Speelman,  1912;  Wm.  J.  Foran,  1913 
Harry  J.  Hackctt,  1914. 

Rev.  Robert  Walsh,  pastor  of  the  Church  of  the  Immaculate  Conception,  was 
born  in  Kilkenny,  Ireland,  April,  1841,  died  in  this  city,  March  6,  1908.  He  studied  at 
the  college  at  Waterford,  and  make  his  theological  and  philosophical  studies  at  St. 


ST.   PETER'S   CHURCH 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  875 


John's  College,  Waterford.  He  had  as  professors  during  his  course,  Rev.  Dr.  Cleary, 
afterward  Archbishop  of  Kingston,  and  Rev.  Dr.  Power,  afterward  Bishop  of  Water- 
ford.  He  was  made  a  priest  on  Sexagesima  Sunday,  1866;  ordained  for  the  diocese  of 
St.  John,  N.  B.,  by  Rt.  Rev.  Dominick  O'Brien,  then  Bishop  of  Waterford.  He  was 
received '  into  the  Diocese  of  Springfield  by  Bishop  O'Reilly,  just  six  weeks  after 
the  formation  of  the  new  diocese,  and  made  assistant  at  Northampton,  where  he  re- 
mained three  months.  Father  Walsh  came  to  Worcester,  Jan.  22,  1871,  as  assistant 
to  Father  Griffin,  in  St.  John's  Parish.  Dr.  Power,  then  administrator  of  the  diocese, 
appointed  him  pastor  of  Otter  River,  Nov.  11,  1872,  and  he  did  excellent  work  there, 
but  was  recalled  by  Bishop  O'Reilly  to  this  city  in  1873,  and  remained  pastor  of 
the  Church  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  to  the  end  of  his  life.  Dr.  McCoy  describes 
Father  Walsh  as  "a  large,  strong  man,  very  soft-spoken,  pleasant-faced  and  kindly. 
How  wisely  he  has  worked,  his  parish  shows." 

St.  Peter's  Church.— This  parish,  in  the  west  part  of  the  city,  was 
organized  May  15,  188-i,  by  Rev.  D.  H.  O'Neill  appointed  by  the  bishop 
for  that  purpose.  The  first  Mass  was  said  by  the  pastor  May  25,  1884, 
in  the  house  in  which  he  was  then  living,  162  Canterbury  street,  and 
was  attended  by  a  congregation  of  twenty-five.  He  organized  a  Sunday 
school  which  met  in  the  school  house.  The  first  business  meeting  was 
held  in  the  old  Catholic  Institute,  June  1,  1884.  Ground  was  broken  for 
the  church  June  6,  and  the  corner-stone  laid  by  Bishop  O'Reilly,  Sept. 
7;  Rev.  R.  S.  V.  Burke  preached  the  sermon.  In  the  meantime  Mass 
was  said  in  the  Canterbury  street  school  house.  The  first  Mass  in  the 
church  was  said  in  the  basement  on  Christmas  Day.  The  church  was 
dedicated  June  18,  1893,  by  Bishop  Beaven.  Bishop  Bradley  of  Man- 
chester, N.  H.,  preached  the  sermon,  and  Rev.  J.  J.  McCoy  preached  at 
the  vesper  service.  The  building  is  62  by  125  feet.  It  is  located  at  935 
Main  street,  opposite  Clark  University,  and  with  the  presbytery  and 
lawns  occupies  a  whole  square.  Father  O'Neill  began  the  parochial 
residence  in  1881.     It  is  located  on  the  corner  of  the  church  lot. 

In  1897  Father  O'Neill  introduced  a  community  of  five  Sisters  of  St. 
Joseph,  and  this  organization  has  worked  in  the  Sunday  school,  cared 
for  the  altars,  and  attended  the  sick  of  the  parish  since  then.  He  bought 
for  them  a  convent  home  on  Wyman  street.  Rev.  D.  H.  O'Neill  died 
Sept.  3,  1916.  Rev.  J.  J.  Howard  was  appointed  pastor  in  October,  1916. 
The  curates  of  St.  Peter's  have  been:  Revs.  Wm.  F.  Grace,  May 
21,  1890,  to  Mar.  1,  1894;  Jas.  J.  Howard,  from  Oct.  6,  1893;  PhiHp  J. 
Lee  from  Mar.  1,  1894;  Joseph  Martin,  since  1913;  John  F.  Reilly  since 
1915;    J.  P.  Dalton  since  1917. 

The  estate  of  the  late  Hon.  Joseph  H.  Walker,  Main  and  Ripley 
streets,  was  bought,  Dec.  16,  1916,  for  parochial  school  purposes.  The 
mansion  will  be  used  for  a  school  building.     The  lot  is  207  by  352  feet. 

Rev.  Daniel  H.  O'Neill,  pastor  of  St.  Peter's  Church,  was  born  in  St.  Albans, 
Vermont.  He  studied  theology  at  Troy  (N.  Y.)  Seminary,  and  was  ordained  there  May 
25,  1872.  For  two  years  he  was  assistant  at  St.  John's  Church  in  this  city,  and  then 
at  St.  Paul's  under  Father  Power,  until  he  was  made  pastor  of  the  church  at  Green- 
field.   Thence  he  came  to  this  city  again  as  pastor  of  St.  Peter's  Church,  was  honored 


876 


HISTORY  OF  WORCESTER 


by  Holy  Cross  College  with  the  degree  of  LL.D.  He  built  and  completed  the  splendid 
church  and  presbytery  in  St.  Peter's  parish.  He  died  full  of  years  and  merits,  Sept. 
3,  1916.  His  business  training  in  early  life  had  been  put  to  good  use,  and  when 
he  died  he  left  a  respectable  sum  of  money,  nearly  the  whole  of  which  by  will  was 
given  to  the  Bishop  of  the  Diocese  for  educational,  religious  and  charitable  purposes. 
"Father  O'Neill,"  writes  Dr.  McCoy,  "is  acknowledged  one  of  the  keenest  and  most 
competent  of  our  business  men.  This  quality  in  him  was  recognized  by  the  bishop 
when  the  Building  Committee  was  formed,  consisting  of  Fathers  Harkins,  O'Xeill  and 
Boyle.  He  has  been  eminently  successful  through  his  life  and  as  pastor  has  built  up 
a  parish  which  may  be  counted  among  the  very  best  in  the  Diocese  in  appointments, 
completion  of  buildings  and  in  reputation  for  wise  management  of  afifairs." 

St.  Stephen's  Church. — This  parish  was  taken  from  St.  Jolin's  in 
January,  1887,  and  Rev.  R.  S.  J.  Burke  appointed  its  pastor  Jan.  27, 
1887.  Ten  days  later  he  said  Mass  in  the  unfinished  attic  of  a  school 
house  at  the  corner  of  Wall  and  Grafton  streets,  and  the  parish  wor- 
shiped there  until  the  basement  of  the  church  was  occupied,  Jime  19, 
1887.  The  lot  was  bought  in  1886  by  Rev.  Thomas  Grififin,  in  anticipa- 
tion of  the  needs  of  the  new  parish.  It  was  located  at  the  corner  of 
Grafton  and  Hamilton  streets,  near  Elm  Square,  and  cost  $15,517.30. 


ST.  STEPHEN'S. 

Father  Burke  pushed  the  work  energetically.  He  formed  a  choir 
and  April  10th  sang  High  Mass  in  the  school  house.  A  fair  netted  $5,000. 
The  church  was  built  by  Urgel  Jacques,  contractor,  and  was  dedicated 
Sept.  4,  1887,  by  the  Vicar  General,  Very  Rev,  John  J.  Power;  the  ser- 
mon preached  by  Rev.  Dr.  Thomas  D.  Beaven,  then  pastor  of  Spencer, 
Two  years  later  F'ather  Burke  built  the  rectory.     In  1895  Father  Burke 


SAINT   STEPHEN'S  CHURCH,   WORCESTER,   MASSACHUSETTS 


AND  ITS  PEOPLE  877 


was  transferred  to  South  Deerfield,  and  Rev.  Daniel  McGillicuddy,  of 
Warren,  succeeded  him.  Besides  the  1200  Irish  there  is  a  percentage  of 
Italian  Catholics  in  this  parish.     The  parish  now  has  over  4,000  souls. 

The  curates  have  been:  Revs.  Jno.  C.  Ivers,  Mich.  P.  Kavanaugh, 
Jas.  J.  McGillicuddy,  Patrick  J.  O'Malley,  Jno.  B.  Farrell,  Matthew  M. 
Boyne,  Jno.  J.  Kenney,  1913-1916;  Rev.  Jas.  A.  Noonan  since  1916; 
Rev.  Andrew  J.  Daley. 

The  following  is  condensed  from  an  historical  pamphlet: 

Rev.  Daniel  McGillicuddy  was  born  in  Worcester,  in  the  neighborhood  of  the 
old  St.  John's  Church,  May  13,  i860.  He  passed  through  the  city  schools,  received  the 
degree  of  A.  B.  from  Holy  Cross  College,  and  was  ordained  to  the  priesthood  by 
Archbishop  Fabre,  Dec.  20,  1884.  He  was  sent  as  a  curate  to  Fr.  Cudahy  at  Milford, 
and  here  he  remained  during  the  first  seven  years  of  his  priesthood ;  he  afterwards  was 
with  Fr.  Shiels  at  Leominster  for  a  year,  and  then  for  one  and  one-half  years  at  West- 
field,  when  he  became  pastor,  in  December,  1893,  of  the  Church  of  St.  Athanasius  at 
Warren.  He  became  pastor  of  St.  Stephen's  Church  in  1895,  and  endeared  himself  to 
the  people  from  the  time  he  assumed  charge  until  his  premature  death  in  1908.  He 
was  mourned  by  the  members  of  his  flock  and  the  people  of  his  native  city. 

The  present  rector.  Rev.  Thos.  H.  "McLaughlin,  who  has  been  here  since  1908, 
was  born  in  Clinton,  Mass.,  Jan.  i,  1861.  He  graduated  from  the  public  schools  of  his 
native  town  and  went  to  Ottawa  College,  afterwards  to  Boston  College,  where  he 
graduated  in  1882.  He  studied  theology  at  the  Grand  Seminary  at  Montreal,  and  was 
ordained  by  Rt.  Rev.  Patrick  T.  O'Reilly,  Bishop  of  Springfield,  Dec.  19,  1885,  in  the 
Springfield  Cathedral.  He  was  assigned  as  curate  to  Father  Purcell  at  Pittsfield,  and 
there  filled  out  the  whole  term  of  his  curacy,  during  a  period  of  eleven  years. 

Dr.  McCoy  writes:  "Father  McLaughlin  is  a  man  of  good  parts,  is  active,  capable 
in  business  affairs,  and  of  pleasant  and  amiable  disposition.  He  has  always  been  liked 
by  the  people  he  has  served  and  enjoys  today  the  complete  good-will  of  the  people  of 
his  parish." 

Since  coming  to  St.  Stephen's,  Fr.  McLaughlin  has  been  anxious  to  erect  a  new 
and  more  commodious  structure;  and  ground  was  broken  for  the  new  church,  June 
I,  1916.  The  contract  was  awarded  to  McDermott  Brothers  of  Worcester,  and  when 
completed  will  cost  in  the  neighborhood  of  $140,000. 

In  1897  Fr.  McLaughlin  went  to  Huntington  as  rector  of  St.  Thomas'  Church, 
where  he  remained  un